Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Sophia C. Alih

9 A Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of Built-Up Battened Columns

Authors: Sophia C. Alih, Mohammadreza Vafaei, Farnoud Rahimi Mansour, Nur Hajarul Falahi Abdul Halim

Abstract:

Built-up columns have been widely employed by practice engineers in the design and construction of buildings and bridges. However, failures have been observed in this type of columns in previous seismic events. This study analyses the performance of built-up columns with different configurations of battens when it is subjected to seismic loads. Four columns with different size of battens were simulated and subjected to three different intensities of axial load along with a lateral cyclic load. Results indicate that the size of battens influences significantly the seismic behavior of columns. Lower shear capacity of battens results in higher ultimate strength and ductility for built-up columns. It is observed that intensity of axial load has a significant effect on the ultimate strength of columns, but it is less influential on the yield strength. For a given drift value, the stress level in the centroid of smaller size battens is significantly more than that of larger size battens signifying damage concentration in battens rather than chords. It is concluded that design of battens for shear demand lower than code specified values only slightly reduces initial stiffness of columns; however, it improves seismic performance of battened columns.

Keywords: Battened column, built-up column, cyclic behavior, seismic design, steel column.

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8 Seismic Vulnerability of Structures Designed in Accordance with the Allowable Stress Design and Load Resistant Factor Design Methods

Authors: Mohammadreza Vafaei, Amirali Moradi, Sophia C. Alih

Abstract:

The method selected for the design of structures not only can affect their seismic vulnerability but also can affect their construction cost. For the design of steel structures, two distinct methods have been introduced by existing codes, namely allowable stress design (ASD) and load resistant factor design (LRFD). This study investigates the effect of using the aforementioned design methods on the seismic vulnerability and construction cost of steel structures. Specifically, a 20-story building equipped with special moment resisting frame and an eccentrically braced system was selected for this study. The building was designed for three different intensities of peak ground acceleration including 0.2 g, 0.25 g, and 0.3 g using the ASD and LRFD methods. The required sizes of beams, columns, and braces were obtained using response spectrum analysis. Then, the designed frames were subjected to nine natural earthquake records which were scaled to the designed response spectrum. For each frame, the base shear, story shears, and inter-story drifts were calculated and then were compared. Results indicated that the LRFD method led to a more economical design for the frames. In addition, the LRFD method resulted in lower base shears and larger inter-story drifts when compared with the ASD method. It was concluded that the application of the LRFD method not only reduced the weights of structural elements but also provided a higher safety margin against seismic actions when compared with the ASD method.

Keywords: Allowable stress design, load resistant factor design, nonlinear time history analysis, seismic vulnerability, steel structures.

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7 Allelopathic Effects of Sisymbrium irio L. and Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur on the Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, A. Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted under controlled conditions to study the effect of water extract of leaves, shoots and roots of either Sisymbrium irio L. =SISIR and/or Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur =DESSO on the germination and primary growth of wheat. A split-split plot experiment in CRD with three replications was used. The main plots were the type of weed: i.e. SISIR and DESSO and the sub-plots were type of organ: i.e. leaf, stem and root and, the sub-sub plots were concentration of the water extract of each organ of the weeds: i.e. 0, 2, 4 and 8 % w/v. The plant materials were cut in 2-3 cm pieces and then were ground in a blender. The crushed materials were weighed according to experimental protocol and the final volume was reached to 100 ml in distilled water in dark bottles. All bottles were put on a shaker for 24 hours. The solutions were filtered by muslin cloth. Whatman paper, 9 cm in diameter, were put in petri dishes and twenty seeds of wheat were put on it and 5 ml distilled water or water extract of weeds were added to each petri dish. All petri dishes were put in constant temperature of 15 0C incubator. The results showed that the SISIR water extract had a greater inhibitory effects on germination and primary growth of wheat than those of DESSO water extract. The water extracts of the leaves of both weeds had the greatest inhibitory effects on germination and primary growth of wheat, compared to those of stems and roots. Increasing the concentration of water extract of leaves, stems and roots of both weeds up to 8 % caused the greatest inhibitory effects to wheat and reduced the germination rate and primary growth of it linearly.

Keywords: Allelopathy, DESSO, SISIR, wheat

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6 Tension Stiffening Parameter in Composite Concrete Reinforced with Inoxydable Steel: Laboratory and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: S. Alih, A. Khelil

Abstract:

In the present work, behavior of inoxydable steel as reinforcement bar in composite concrete is being investigated. The bar-concrete adherence in reinforced concrete (RC) beam is studied and focus is made on the tension stiffening parameter. This study highlighted an approach to observe this interaction behavior in bending test instead of direct tension as per reported in many references. The approach resembles actual loading condition of the structural RC beam. The tension stiffening properties are then applied to numerical finite element analysis (FEA) to verify their correlation with laboratory results. Comparison with laboratory shows a good correlation between the two. The experimental settings is able to determine tension stiffening parameters in RC beam and the modeling strategies made in ABAQUS can closely represent the actual condition. Tension stiffening model used can represent the interaction properties between inoxydable steel and concrete.

Keywords: Inoxydable steel, Finite element modeling, Reinforced concrete beam, Tension-stiffening.

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5 Negative Temperature Dependence of a Gravity - A Reality

Authors: Alexander L. Dmitriev, Sophia A. Bulgakova

Abstract:

Temperature dependence of force of gravitation is one of the fundamental problems of physics. This problem has got special value in connection with that the general theory of relativity, supposing the weakest positive influence of a body temperature on its weight, actually rejects an opportunity of measurement of negative influence of temperature on gravity in laboratory conditions. Really, the recognition of negative temperature dependence of gravitation, for example, means basic impossibility of achievement of a singularity («a black hole») at a gravitational collapse. Laboratory experiments with exact weighing the heated up metal samples, indicating negative influence temperatures of bodies on their physical weight are described. Influence of mistakes of measurements is analyzed. Calculations of distribution of temperature in volume of the bar, agreed with experimental data of time dependence of weight of samples are executed. The physical substantiation of negative temperature dependence of weight of the bodies, based on correlation of acceleration at thermal movement of micro-particles of a body and its absolute temperature, are given.

Keywords: Gravitation, temperature, weight.

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4 Germination of Barley as Affected by the Allelopathy of Sisymbrium irio L. and Descurainiasophia (L.) Schur

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, A. Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted under controlled conditions to study the effect of water extract of leaves, shoots and roots of either Sisymbrium irio L. =SISIR and or Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur =DESSO on the germination and primary growth of barley. A split-split plot experiment in CRD with three replications was used. The main plots were the type of weed: i.e. SISIR and DESSO and the sub-plots were type of organ: i.e. leaf, stem and root and, the sub-sub plots were concentration of the water extract of each organ of the weeds: i.e. 0, 2, 4 and 8 % w/v. The results showed that the SISIR water extracts had a greater inhibitory effects on the germination and primary growth of barley than those of DESSO water extracts. The water extracts of the leaves of both weeds had the greatest inhibitory effects on the germination and primary growth of barley, compared to those of stems and roots. Increasing the concentration of water extracts of leaves, stems and roots of both weeds up to 8 % caused the greatest inhibitory effects to barley and reduced the germination rate and primary growth of it linearly.

Keywords: Allelopathy, barley, DESSO, SISIR

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3 A Framework for Improving Trade Contractors’ Productivity Tracking Methods

Authors: Sophia Hayes, Kenny L. Liang, Sahil Sharma, Austin Shema, Mahmoud Bader, Mohamed Elbarkouky

Abstract:

Despite being one of the most significant economic contributors of the country, Canada’s construction industry is lagging behind other sectors when it comes to labor productivity improvements. The construction industry is very collaborative as a general contractor, will hire trade contractors to perform most of a project’s work; meaning low productivity from one contractor can have a domino effect on the shared success of a project. To address this issue and encourage trade contractors to improve their productivity tracking methods, an investigative study was done on the productivity views and tracking methods of various trade contractors. Additionally, an in-depth review was done on four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry: cost codes, benchmarking, the job productivity measurement (JPM) standard, and WorkFace Planning (WFP). The four tracking methods were used as a baseline in comparing the trade contractors’ responses, determining gaps within their current tracking methods, and for making improvement recommendations. 15 interviews were conducted with different trades to analyze how contractors value productivity. The results of these analyses indicated that there seem to be gaps within the construction industry when it comes to an understanding of the purpose and value in productivity tracking. The trade contractors also shared their current productivity tracking systems; which were then compared to the four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry. Gaps were identified in their various tracking methods and using a framework; recommendations were made based on the type of trade on how to improve how they track productivity.

Keywords: Trade contractors’ productivity, productivity tracking, cost codes, benchmarking, job productivity measurement, JPM, workface planning WFP.

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2 The Dialectic between Effectiveness and Humanity in the Era of Open Knowledge from the Perspective of Pedagogy

Authors: Sophia Ming Lee Wen, Chao-Ching Kuo, Yu-Line Hu, Yu-Lung Ho, Chih-Cheng Huang, Yi-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

Teaching and learning should involve social issues by which effectiveness and humanity is due consideration as a guideline for sharing and co-creating knowledge. A qualitative method was used after a pioneer study to confirm pre-service teachers’ awareness of open knowledge. There are 17 in-service teacher candidates sampling from 181 schools in Taiwan. Two questions are to resolve: a) How did teachers change their educational ideas, in particular, their attitudes to meet the needs of knowledge sharing and co-creativity; and b) How did they acknowledge the necessity of working out an appropriate way between the educational efficiency and the nature of education for high performance management. This interview investigated teachers’ attitude of sharing and co-creating knowledge. The results show two facts in Taiwan: A) Individuals who must be able to express themselves will be capable of taking part in an open learning environment; and B) Teachers must lead the direction to inspire high performance and improve students’ capacity via knowledge sharing and co-creating knowledge, according to the student-centered philosophy. Collected data from interviewing showed that the teachers were well aware of changing their teaching methods and make some improvements to balance the educational efficiency and the nature of education. Almost all teachers acknowledge that ICT is helpful to motivate learning enthusiasm. Further, teaching integrated with ICT saves teachers’ time and energy on teaching preparation and promoting effectiveness. Teachers are willing to co-create knowledge with students, though using information is not easy due to the lack of operating skills of the website and ICT. Some teachers are against to co-create knowledge in the informational background since they hold that is not feasible for there being a knowledge gap between teachers and students. Technology would easily mislead teachers and students to the goal of instrumental rationality, which makes pedagogy dysfunctional and inhumane; however, any high quality of teaching should take a dialectical balance between effectiveness and humanity.

Keywords: Open knowledge, dialect between effectiveness and humanity, pedagogy, critical thinking.

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1 Juxtaposition of the Past and the Present: A Pragmatic Stylistic Analysis of the Short Story “Too Much Happiness” by Alice Munro

Authors: Inas Hussein

Abstract:

Alice Munro is a Canadian short-story writer who has been regarded as one of the greatest writers of fiction. Owing to her great contribution to fiction, she was the first Canadian woman and the only short-story writer ever to be rewarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2013. Her literary works include collections of short stories and one book published as a novel. Her stories concentrate on the human condition and the human relationships as seen through the lens of daily life. The setting in most of her stories is her native Canada- small towns much similar to the one where she grew up. Her writing style is not only realistic but is also characterized by autobiographical, historical and regional features. The aim of this research is to analyze one of the key stylistic devices often adopted by Munro in her fictions: the juxtaposition of the past and the present, with reference to the title story in Munro's short story collection Too Much Happiness. The story under exploration is a brief biography of the Russian Mathematician and novelist Sophia Kovalevsky (1850 – 1891), the first woman to be appointed as a professor of Mathematics at a European University in Stockholm. Thus, the story has a historical protagonist and is set on the European continent. Munro dramatizes the severe historical and cultural constraints that hindered the career of the protagonist. A pragmatic stylistic framework is being adopted and the qualitative analysis is supported by textual reference. The stylistic analysis reveals that the juxtaposition of the past and the present is one of the distinctive features that characterize the author; in a typical Munrovian manner, the protagonist often moves between the units of time: the past, the present and, sometimes, the future. Munro's style is simple and direct but cleverly constructed and densely complicated by the presence of deeper layers and stories within the story. Findings of the research reveal that the story under investigation merits reading and analyzing. It is recommended that this story and other stories by Munro are analyzed to further explore the features of her art and style.

Keywords: Alice Munro, Too Much Happiness, juxtaposition of past and present, pragmatic stylistics.

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