Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30169
Prediction of Seismic Damage Using Scalar Intensity Measures Based On Integration of Spectral Values

Authors: Konstantinos G. Kostinakis, Asimina M. Athanatopoulou


A key issue in seismic risk analysis within the context of Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering is the evaluation of the expected seismic damage of structures under a specific earthquake ground motion. The assessment of the seismic performance strongly depends on the choice of the seismic Intensity Measure (IM), which quantifies the characteristics of a ground motion that are important to the nonlinear structural response. Several conventional IMs of ground motion have been used to estimate their damage potential to structures. Yet, none of them has been proved to be able to predict adequately the seismic damage. Therefore, alternative, scalar intensity measures, which take into account not only ground motion characteristics but also structural information have been proposed. Some of these IMs are based on integration of spectral values over a range of periods, in an attempt to account for the information that the shape of the acceleration, velocity or displacement spectrum provides. The adequacy of a number of these IMs in predicting the structural damage of 3D R/C buildings is investigated in the present paper. The investigated IMs, some of which are structure specific and some are non structure-specific, are defined via integration of spectral values. To achieve this purpose three symmetric in plan R/C buildings are studied. The buildings are subjected to 59 bidirectional earthquake ground motions. The two horizontal accelerograms of each ground motion are applied along the structural axes. The response is determined by nonlinear time history analysis. The structural damage is expressed in terms of the maximum interstory drift as well as the overall structural damage index. The values of the aforementioned seismic damage measures are correlated with seven scalar ground motion IMs. The comparative assessment of the results revealed that the structure-specific IMs present higher correlation with the seismic damage of the three buildings. However, the adequacy of the IMs for estimation of the structural damage depends on the response parameter adopted. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the widely used spectral acceleration at the fundamental period of the structure is a good indicator of the expected earthquake damage level.

Keywords: Damage measures, Bidirectional excitation, Spectral based IMs, R/C buildings.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1895


[1] CA. Cornell and H. Krawinkler, "Progress and challenges in seismic performance assessment", PEER Center News, vol. 3, no. 2, 2000
[2] N. Shome, "Probabilistic seismic demand analysis of nonlinear structures", Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 1999
[3] FEMA-355, State of the Art Report on Systems Performance of Steel Moment Frames Subject to Earthquake Ground Shaking, SAC Joint Venture, Sacramento, CA, 2000
[4] A. Elenas, and K. Meskouris, "Correlation study between seismic acceleration parameters and damage indices of structure", Engineering Structures, vol. 23, pp. 698-704, 2001.
[5] A. Yakut, and H. Yilmaz. "Correlation of deformation demands with ground motion intensity", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, vol. 134, no. 12, pp. 1818-1828, 2008.
[6] A.J. Kappos, "Sensitivity of calculated inelastic seismic response to input motion characteristics", in Proc. 4th U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Palm Springs, California. 1990, vol. 2, pp. 25- 34, 1990.
[7] K. Matsumura, "On the intensity measure of strong motion related to structural failures" in Proc. 10th WCEE, Rotterdam, vol. I, pp. 375-80, 1992
[8] I.-K. Fontara, A. Athanatopoulou, and I. Avramidis, "Correlation between advanced, structure-specific ground motion intensity measures and damage indices", inProc. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, September 24-28, 2012, Paper No: 3718.
[9] ASCE/SEI 41-06, Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2008.
[10] Eurocode 8, Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures, European Committee for Standardization, 2003.
[11] UBC Vol. 2: Structural Engineering Design Provisions. International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), Whittier, CA, 1997.
[12] FEMA 356, Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, 2000.
[13] NEHRP, Recommended provisions for seismic regulations for new buildings and other Structures, FEMA450, Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, DC, 2003.
[14] K. Kostinakis, M. Papadopoulos and A. Athanatopoulou, "Adequacy of advanced earthquake intensity measures for estimation of damage under seismic excitation with arbitrary orientation", in Proc. International Conference on Civil, Structural and Earthquake Engineering, Paris, France, April 28-29, 2014, Paper No:214
[15] Eurocode 2, "Design of concrete structures. 1: General rule and rules for buildings", Brussels, 1991.
[16] RA.F.-Structural Analysis and Design Software v.3.3.2, TOL (Engineering Software House) Iraklion, Crete, Greece, 2012
[17] A. Otani, "Inelastic Analysis of RC frame structures", J Struct Div (ASCE), vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 1433–1449, 1974.
[18] A. Carr, "Ruaumoko – a program for inelastic time-history analysis, Program manual", Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 2004.
[19] Imbsen Software Systems, XTRACT: Version 3.0.5. Cross-sectional structural analysis of components, Sacramento, CA, 2006.
[20] Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Centre (PEER), Strong Motion Database., 2003
[21] European Strong-Motion Database, Local/frameset.htm, 2003
[22] J. Penzien, and M. Watabe, "Characteristics of 3-D Earthquake Ground Motions", Earthquake Eng Struct Dyn, vol. 3, pp. 365-373, 1975.
[23] GW. Housner, "Spectrum intensity of strong-motion earthquakes", in Proc. Symposium on Earthquakes and Blast Effects on Structures, EERI, 1952
[24] GW. Housner, "Behavior of structures during earthquakes", Journal of the engineering mechanics division, (ASCE), vol. 85, no. EM14, pp. 109-129, 1959
[25] JL. Von Thun, LH. Rochim, GA. Scott and JA. Wilson, "Earthquake ground motions for design and analysis of dams", in Proc. Earthquake Eng. Soil Dyn. II - Recent Advances in Ground-Motion Evaluation (Geotechnical Special Publication 20), ASCE, New York, pp. 463–481, 1988.
[26] TC. Hutchinson, YH. Chai, RW. Boulanger and IM. Idriss, "Estimating Inelastic Displacements for Design: Extended Pile-Shaft-Supported Bridge Structures", Earthquake Spectra, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1081–1094, 2004
[27] K. Kadas, A. Yakut and I. Kazaz, "Spectral ground motion intensity based on capacity and period elongation", Journal of Structural Engineering, (ASCE), vol.137, no. 3, pp.401-409, 2011
[28] K. Beyer, and J. Bommer," Relationships between median values and between aleatory variabilities for different definitions of the horizontal component of motion", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 96, no. 4A, pp. 1512–22, 2006.
[29] S.L. Dimova, and P. Negro, "Seismic assessment of an industrial frame structure designed according to Eurocodes. Part 2: Capacity and vulnerability", Engineering Structures, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 724-735, 2005.
[30] F. Naeim, "The seismic design handbook", Kluwer Academic, Boston. 2nd Ed., 2001.
[31] Y.J. Park, and A.H-S. Ang, and Y.K. Wen, "Damage-limiting aseismic design of buildings", Earthq Spectra, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-26, 1987.
[32] Y. J. Park, and A.H.-S. Ang, "Mechanistic Seismic Damage Model for Reinforced-Concrete" J Struct Eng-ASCE, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 722-739, 1985
[33] S.K. Kunnath, A.M. Reinhorn, and R.F. Lobo, "IDARC Version 3: A program for the inelastic damage analysis of RC structures", Technical Report NCEER-92-0022. National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research, State University of New York, Buffalo NY, 1992.