Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 452

Search results for: Sensor node

452 An Elaborate Survey on Node Replication Attack in Static Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: N. S. Usha, E. A. Mary Anita

Abstract:

Recent innovations in the field of technology led to the use of   wireless sensor networks in various applications, which consists of a number of small, very tiny, low-cost, non-tamper proof and resource constrained sensor nodes. These nodes are often distributed and deployed in an unattended environment, so as to collaborate with each other to share data or information. Amidst various applications, wireless sensor network finds a major role in monitoring battle field in military applications. As these non-tamperproof nodes are deployed in an unattended location, they are vulnerable to many security attacks. Amongst many security attacks, the node replication attack seems to be more threatening to the network users. Node Replication attack is caused by an attacker, who catches one true node, duplicates the first certification and cryptographic materials, makes at least one or more copies of the caught node and spots them at certain key positions in the system to screen or disturb the network operations. Preventing the occurrence of such node replication attacks in network is a challenging task. In this survey article, we provide the classification of detection schemes and also explore the various schemes proposed in each category. Also, we compare the various detection schemes against certain evaluation parameters and also its limitations. Finally, we provide some suggestions for carrying out future research work against such attacks.

Keywords: Clone node, data security, detection schemes, node replication attack, wireless sensor networks.

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451 Relay Node Placement for Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Hanieh Tarbiat Khosrowshahi, Mojtaba Shakeri

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a set of sensor nodes with limited capability. WSNs may suffer from multiple node failures when they are exposed to harsh environments such as military zones or disaster locations and lose connectivity by getting partitioned into disjoint segments. Relay nodes (RNs) are alternatively introduced to restore connectivity. They cost more than sensors as they benefit from mobility, more power and more transmission range, enforcing a minimum number of them to be used. This paper addresses the problem of RN placement in a multiple disjoint network by developing a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem is reintroduced as the Steiner tree problem (which is known to be an NP-hard problem) by the aim of finding the minimum number of Steiner points where RNs are to be placed for restoring connectivity. An upper bound to the number of RNs is first computed to set up the length of initial chromosomes. The GA algorithm then iteratively reduces the number of RNs and determines their location at the same time. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA is capable of establishing network connectivity using a reasonable number of RNs compared to the best existing work.

Keywords: Connectivity restoration, genetic algorithms, multiple-node failure, relay nodes, wireless sensor networks.

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450 Concepts for Designing Low Power Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Bahareh Gholamzadeh, Hooman Nabovati

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks have been used in wide areas of application and become an attractive area for researchers in recent years. Because of the limited energy storage capability of sensor nodes, Energy consumption is one of the most challenging aspects of these networks and different strategies and protocols deals with this area. This paper presents general methods for designing low power wireless sensor network. Different sources of energy consumptions in these networks are discussed here and techniques for alleviating the consumption of energy are presented.

Keywords: Energy consumption, MAC protocol, Routing protocol, Sensor node, Topology control, Wireless sensor network.

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449 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. Multiple sensor nodes and a sink node, a gateway, and a server constitute a wireless network for monitoring a parking lot. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. Each sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The sensor nodes and sink node use the 448 MHz band for wireless communication. Since RF transmission only occurs when sensor values show abrupt changes, the number of RF transmission operations is reduced and battery power can be conserved. The data from the sensor nodes reach the server via the sink node and gateway. The server determines which parking spaces are taken by cars based upon the received sensor data and reference values. The reference values are average sensor values measured by each sensor node when the corresponding parking spot is not occupied by a vehicle. Because the decision making is done by the server, the computational burden of the sensor node is relieved, which helps reduce the duty cycle of the sensor node.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, magnetometer, sensor node, wireless sensor network.

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448 Improved Network Construction Methods Based on Virtual Rails for Mobile Sensor Network

Authors: Noritaka Shigei, Kazuto Matsumoto, Yoshiki Nakashima, Hiromi Miyajima

Abstract:

Although Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs), which consist of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs), can cover a wide range of observation region by using a small number of sensor nodes, they need to construct a network to collect the sensing data on the base station by moving the MSNs. As an effective method, the network construction method based on Virtual Rails (VRs), which is referred to as VR method, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose two types of effective techniques for the VR method. They can prolong the operation time of the network, which is limited by the battery capabilities of MSNs and the energy consumption of MSNs. The first technique, an effective arrangement of VRs, almost equalizes the number of MSNs belonging to each VR. The second technique, an adaptive movement method of MSNs, takes into account the residual energy of battery. In the simulation, we demonstrate that each technique can improve the network lifetime and the combination of both techniques is the most effective.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, mobile sensor node, relay of sensing data, virtual rail, residual energy.

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447 Detecting and Locating Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Beacon Nodes

Authors: He Ronghui, Ma Guoqing, Wang Chunlei, Fang Lan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on wormhole attacks detection in wireless sensor networks. The wormhole attack is particularly challenging to deal with since the adversary does not need to compromise any nodes and can use laptops or other wireless devices to send the packets on a low latency channel. This paper introduces an easy and effective method to detect and locate the wormholes: Since beacon nodes are assumed to know their coordinates, the straight line distance between each pair of them can be calculated and then compared with the corresponding hop distance, which in this paper equals hop counts × node-s transmission range R. Dramatic difference may emerge because of an existing wormhole. Our detection mechanism is based on this. The approximate location of the wormhole can also be derived in further steps based on this information. To the best of our knowledge, our method is much easier than other wormhole detecting schemes which also use beacon nodes, and to those have special requirements on each nodes (e.g., GPS receivers or tightly synchronized clocks or directional antennas), ours is more economical. Simulation results show that the algorithm is successful in detecting and locating wormholes when the density of beacon nodes reaches 0.008 per m2.

Keywords: Beacon node, wireless sensor network, worm hole attack.

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446 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol.

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445 Enhancement of Environmental Security by the Application of Wireless Sensor Network in Nigeria

Authors: Ahmadu Girgiri, Lawan Gana Ali, Mamman M. Baba

Abstract:

Environmental security clearly articulates the perfections and developments of various communities around the world irrespective of the region, culture, religion or social inclination. Although, the present state of insecurity has become serious issue devastating the peace, unity, stability and progress of man and his physical environment particularly in developing countries. Recently, measure of security and it management in Nigeria has been a bottle-neck to the effectiveness and advancement of various sectors that include; business, education, social relations, politics and above all an economy. Several measures have been considered on mitigating environment insecurity such as surveillance, demarcation, security personnel empowerment and the likes, but still the issue remains disturbing. In this paper, we present the application of new technology that contributes to the improvement of security surveillance known as “Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)”. The system is new, smart and emerging technology that provides monitoring, detection and aggregation of information using sensor nodes and wireless network. WSN detects, monitors and stores information or activities in the deployed area such as schools, environment, business centers, public squares, industries, and outskirts and transmit to end users. This will reduce the cost of security funding and eases security surveillance depending on the nature and the requirement of the deployment.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, node, application, monitoring, insecurity, environment.

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444 Range-Free Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: R. Khadim, M. Erritali, A. Maaden

Abstract:

Localization of nodes is one of the key issues of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that gained a wide attention in recent years. The existing localization techniques can be generally categorized into two types: range-based and range-free. Compared with rang-based schemes, the range-free schemes are more costeffective, because no additional ranging devices are needed. As a result, we focus our research on the range-free schemes. In this paper we study three types of range-free location algorithms to compare the localization error and energy consumption of each one. Centroid algorithm requires a normal node has at least three neighbor anchors, while DV-hop algorithm doesn’t have this requirement. The third studied algorithm is the amorphous algorithm similar to DV-Hop algorithm, and the idea is to calculate the hop distance between two nodes instead of the linear distance between them. The simulation results show that the localization accuracy of the amorphous algorithm is higher than that of other algorithms and the energy consumption does not increase too much.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Node Localization, Centroid Algorithm, DV–Hop Algorithm, Amorphous Algorithm.

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443 Minimizing Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks using Binary Integer Linear Programming

Authors: Chompunut Jantarasorn, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

The important issue considered in the widespread deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is an efficiency of the energy consumption. In this paper, we present a study of the optimal relay station planning problems using Binary Integer Linear Programming (BILP) model to minimize the energy consumption in WSNs. Our key contribution is that the proposed model not only ensures the required network lifetime but also guarantees the radio connectivity at high level of communication quality. Specially, we take into account effects of noise, signal quality limitation and bit error rate characteristics. Numerical experiments were conducted in various network scenarios. We analyzed the effects of different sensor node densities and distribution on the energy consumption.

Keywords: Binary Integer Linear Programming, BILP, Energy consumption, Optimal node placement and Wireless sensor networks.

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442 Modified Energy and Link Failure Recovery Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Jayekumar, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network finds role in environmental monitoring, industrial applications, surveillance applications, health monitoring and other supervisory applications. Sensing devices form the basic operational unit of the network that is self-battery powered with limited life time. Sensor node spends its limited energy for transmission, reception, routing and sensing information. Frequent energy utilization for the above mentioned process leads to network lifetime degradation. To enhance energy efficiency and network lifetime, we propose a modified energy optimization and node recovery post failure method, Energy-Link Failure Recovery Routing (E-LFRR) algorithm. In our E-LFRR algorithm, two phases namely, Monitored Transmission phase and Replaced Transmission phase are devised to combat worst case link failure conditions. In Monitored Transmission phase, the Actuator Node monitors and identifies suitable nodes for shortest path transmission. The Replaced Transmission phase dispatches the energy draining node at early stage from the active link and replaces it with the new node that has sufficient energy. Simulation results illustrate that this combined methodology reduces overhead, energy consumption, delay and maintains considerable amount of alive nodes thereby enhancing the network performance.

Keywords: Actuator node, energy efficient routing, energy hole, link failure recovery, link utilization, wireless sensor network.

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441 Enhancing the Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Low Power Design

Authors: N. Mahendran, R. Madhuranthi

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are constantly in demand to process information more rapidly with less energy and area cost. Presently, processor based solutions have difficult to achieve high processing speed with low-power consumption. This paper presents a simple and accurate data processing scheme for low power wireless sensor node, based on reduced number of processing element (PE). The presented model provides a simple recursive structure (SRS) to process the sampled data in the wireless sensor environment and to reduce the power consumption in wireless sensor node. Based on this model, to process the incoming samples and produce a smaller amount of data sufficient to reconstruct the original signal. The ModelSim simulator used to simulate SRS structure. Functional simulation is carried out for the validation of the presented architecture. Xilinx Power Estimator (XPE) tool is used to measure the power consumption. The experimental results show the average power consumption of 91 mW; this is 42% improvement compared to the folded tree architecture.

Keywords: Power consumption, energy efficiency, low power WSN node, recursive structure, sleep/wake scheduling.

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440 Adding Edges between One Node and Every Other Node with the Same Depth in a Complete K-ary Tree

Authors: Kiyoshi Sawada, Takashi Mitsuishi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a model of adding relations between members of the same level in a pyramid organization structure which is a complete K-ary tree such that the communication of information between every member in the organization becomes the most efficient. When edges between one node and every other node with the same depth N in a complete K-ary tree of height H are added, an optimal depth N* = H is obtained by minimizing the total path length which is the sum of lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes.

Keywords: complete K-ary tree, organization structure, shortest path

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439 Cellular Components of the Hemal Node of Egyptian Cattle

Authors: Amira E. Derbalah, Doaa M. Zaghloul

Abstract:

10 clinically healthy hemal nodes were collected from male bulls aged 2-3 years. Light microscopy revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisted mainly of collagen fiber surrounding hemal node, numerous erythrocytes were found in wide subcapsular sinus under the capsule. The parenchyma of the hemal node was divided into cortex and medulla. Diffused lymphocytes, and lymphoid follicles, having germinal centers were the main components of the cortex, while in the medulla there was wide medullary sinus, diffused lymphocytes and few lymphoid nodules. The area occupied with lymph nodules was larger than that occupied with non-nodular structure of lymphoid cords and blood sinusoids. Electron microscopy revealed the cellular components of hemal node including elements of circulating erythrocytes intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, reticular cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells lining the blood sinuses. The lymphocytes were somewhat triangular in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent erythrocytes. Nuclei were triangular to oval in shape, lightly stained with clear nuclear membrane indentation and clear nucleoli. The reticular cells were elongated in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent lymphocytes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and few lysosomes were seen in their cytoplasm. Nucleus was elongated in shape with less condensed chromatin. Plasma cells were oval to irregular in shape with numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron lucent material occupying the whole cytoplasm and few mitochondria were found. Nuclei were centrally located and oval in shape with heterochromatin emarginated and often clumped near the nuclear membrane. Occasionally megakaryocytes and mast cells were seen among lymphocytes. Megakaryocytes had multilobulated nucleus and free ribosomes often appearing as small aggregates in their cytoplasm, while mast cell had their characteristic electron dense granule in the cytoplasm, few electron lucent granules were found also, we conclude that, the main function of the hemal node of cattle is proliferation of lymphocytes. No role for plasma cell in erythrophagocytosis could be suggested.

Keywords: Cattle, Electron microscopy, Hemal node, Histology, Immune system.

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438 A Mesh Free Moving Node Method To Analyze Flow Through Spirals of Orbiting Scroll Pump

Authors: I.Banerjee, A.K.Mahendra, T.K.Bera, B.G.Chandresh

Abstract:

The scroll pump belongs to the category of positive displacement pump can be used for continuous pumping of gases at low pressure apart from general vacuum application. The shape of volume occupied by the gas moves and deforms continuously as the spiral orbits. To capture flow features in such domain where mesh deformation varies with time in a complicated manner, mesh less solver was found to be very useful. Least Squares Kinetic Upwind Method (LSKUM) is a kinetic theory based mesh free Euler solver working on arbitrary distribution of points. Here upwind is enforced in molecular level based on kinetic flux vector splitting scheme (KFVS). In the present study we extended the LSKUM to moving node viscous flow application. This new code LSKUM-NS-MN for moving node viscous flow is validated for standard airfoil pitching test case. Simulation performed for flow through scroll pump using LSKUM-NS-MN code agrees well with the experimental pumping speed data.

Keywords: Least Squares, Moving node, Pitching, Spirals.

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437 Wireless Healthcare Monitoring System for Home

Authors: T. Hui Teo, Wee Tiong Tan, Pradeep K. Gopalakrishnan, Victor K. H. Phay, Ma Su M. M. Shwe

Abstract:

A healthcare monitoring system is presented in this paper. This system is based on ultra-low power sensor nodes and a personal server, which is based on hardware and software extensions to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)/Smartphone. The sensor node collects data from the body of a patient and sends it to the personal server where the data is processed, displayed and made ready to be sent to a healthcare network, if necessary. The personal server consists of a compact low power receiver module and equipped with a Smartphone software. The receiver module takes less than 30 × 30 mm board size and consumes approximately 25 mA in active mode.

Keywords: healthcare monitoring, sensor node, personal server, wireless.

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436 Imposter Detection Based on Location in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

Authors: Sanjoy Das, Akash Arya, Rishi Pal Singh

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad hoc Network is basically the solution of several problems associated while vehicles are plying on the road. In this paper, we have focused on the detection of imposter node while it has stolen the ID's of the authenticated vehicle in the network. The purpose is to harm the network through imposter messages. Here, we have proposed a protocol namely Imposter Detection based on Location (IDBL), which will store the location coordinate of the each vehicle as the key of the authenticity of the message so that imposter node can be detected. The imposter nodes send messages from a stolen ID and show that it is from an authentic node ID. So, to detect this anomaly, the first location is checked and observed different from original vehicle location. This node is known as imposter node. We have implemented the algorithm through JAVA and tested various types of node distribution and observed the detection probability of imposter node.

Keywords: Authentication, detection, IDBL protocol, imposter node, node detection.

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435 Integrated Flavor Sensor Using Microbead Array

Authors: Ziba Omidi, Min-Ki Kim

Abstract:

This research presents the design, fabrication and application of a flavor sensor for an integrated electronic tongue and electronic nose that can allow rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in a solution. The odor gas and liquid are separated using hydrophobic porous membrane in micro fluidic channel. The sensor uses an array composed of microbeads in micromachined cavities localized on silicon wafer. Sensing occurs via colorimetric and fluorescence changes to receptors and indicator molecules that are attached to termination sites on the polymeric microbeads. As a result, the sensor array system enables simultaneous and near-real-time analyses using small samples and reagent volumes with the capacity to incorporate significant redundancies. One of the key parts of the system is a passive pump driven only by capillary force. The hydrophilic surface of the fluidic structure draws the sample into the sensor array without any moving mechanical parts. Since there is no moving mechanical component in the structure, the size of the fluidic structure can be compact and the fabrication becomes simple when compared to the device including active microfluidic components. These factors should make the proposed system inexpensive to mass-produce, portable and compatible with biomedical applications.

Keywords: Optical Sensor, Semiconductor manufacturing, Smell sensor, Taste sensor.

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434 Relay Node Selection Algorithm for Cooperative Communications in Wireless Networks

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim

Abstract:

IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards support multiple transmission rates. Even though the use of multiple transmission rates increase the WLAN capacity, this feature leads to the performance anomaly problem. Cooperative communication was introduced to relieve the performance anomaly problem. Data packets are delivered to the destination much faster through a relay node with high rate than through direct transmission to the destination at low rate. In the legacy cooperative protocols, a source node chooses a relay node only based on the transmission rate. Therefore, they are not so feasible in multi-flow environments since they do not consider the effect of other flows. To alleviate the effect, we propose a new relay node selection algorithm based on the transmission rate and channel contention level. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and delay.

Keywords: Cooperative communications, MAC protocol, Relay node, WLAN.

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433 Internal Node Stabilization for Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Multi-Channel Systems

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer by the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a voltage sense amplifier. Due to its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transition, the input sides are inevitably disturbed. It can possible disturb the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization technique is proposed by utilizing an additional biasing circuit. It achieves 47% and 43% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

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432 Performance Evaluation of QoS Based Forwarding and Non Forwarding Energetic Node Selection Algorithm for Reducing the Flooding in Multihop Routing in Highly Dynamic MANET

Authors: R. Reka, R. S. D. Wahidabanu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to propose a novel technique to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) in a highly dynamic environment. The MANET changes its topology dynamically as the nodes are moved frequently. This will cause link failure between mobile nodes. MANET cannot ensure reliability without delay. The relay node is selected based on achieving QoS in previous transmission. It considers one more factor Connection Existence Period (CEP) to ensure reliability. CEP is to find out the period during that connection exists between the nodes. The node with highest CEP becomes a next relay node. The relay node is selected dynamically to avoid frequent failure. The bandwidth of each link changed dynamically based on service rate and request rate. This paper proposes Active bandwidth setting up algorithm to guarantee the QoS. The series of results obtained by using the Network Simulator (NS-2) demonstrate the viability of our proposed techniques.

Keywords: Bandwidth, Connection Existence Period (CEP), Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), Quality of Service (QoS), Relay node.

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431 New Multipath Node-Disjoint Routing Based on AODV Protocol

Authors: V. Zangeneh, S. Mohammadi

Abstract:

Today, node-disjoint routing becomes inessential technique in communication of packets among various nodes in networks. Meanwhile AODV (Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector) creates single-path route between a pair of source and destination nodes. Some researches has done so far to make multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV protocol. But however their overhead and end-to-end delay are relatively high, while the detail of their code is not available too. This paper proposes a new approach of multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV protocol. Then the algorithm of analytical model is presented. The extensive results of this algorithm will be presented in the next paper.

Keywords: AODV; MANET; Multipath Routing; Node-disjoint;transmission delay.

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430 Suitable Partner Node Selection and Resource Allocation in Cooperative Wireless Communication Using the Trade-Off Game

Authors: Oluseye A. Adeleke, Mohd. F. M. Salleh

Abstract:

The performance of any cooperative communication system depends largely on the selection of a proper partner. Another important factor to consider is an efficient allocation of resource like power by the source node to help it in forwarding information to the destination. In this paper, we look at the concepts of partner selection and resource (power) allocation for a distributed communication network. A type of non-cooperative game referred to as Trade-Off game is employed so as to jointly consider the utilities of the source and relay nodes, where in this case, the source is the node that requires help with forwarding of its information while the partner is the node that is willing to help in forwarding the source node’s information, but at a price. The approach enables the source node to maximize its utility by selecting a partner node based on (i) the proximity of the partner node to the source and destination nodes, and (ii) the price the partner node will charge for the help being rendered. Our proposed scheme helps the source locate and select the relay nodes at ‘better’ locations and purchase power optimally from them. It also aids the contending relay nodes maximize their own utilities as well by asking proper prices. Our game scheme is seen to converge to unique equilibrium.

Keywords: Cooperative communication, game theory, node, power allocation, trade-off, utility.

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429 Stabilization Technique for Multi-Inputs Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Node Sharing Converters

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer through the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a multi-inputs voltage sense amplifier. Its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transitions at the output nodes inevitably disturb the input sides through the capacitive coupling between the outputs and inputs. Then, it can possible degrade the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes more serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the overall systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization techniques are proposed. It achieves 45% and 40% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, multi-inputs, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

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428 Optimal Design of Reference Node Placement for Wireless Indoor Positioning Systems in Multi-Floor Building

Authors: Kittipob Kondee, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an optimization technique that can be used to optimize the placements of reference nodes and improve the location determination performance for the multi-floor building. The proposed technique is based on Simulated Annealing algorithm (SA) and is called MSMR-M. The performance study in this work is based on simulation. We compare other node-placement techniques found in the literature with the optimal node-placement solutions obtained from our optimization. The results show that using the optimal node-placement obtained by our proposed technique can improve the positioning error distances up to 20% better than those of the other techniques. The proposed technique can provide an average error distance within 1.42 meters.

Keywords: Indoor positioning System, Optimization System design, Multi-Floor Building, Wireless Sensor Networks.

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427 High Perfomance Communication Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

Authors: Toshihiko Sasama, Takahide Yanaka, Kazunori Sugahara, Hiroshi Masuyama

Abstract:

In order to monitor for traffic traversal, sensors can be deployed to perform collaborative target detection. Such a sensor network achieves a certain level of detection performance with the associated costs of deployment and routing protocol. This paper addresses these two points of sensor deployment and routing algorithm in the situation where the absolute quantity of sensors or total energy becomes insufficient. This discussion on the best deployment system concluded that two kinds of deployments; Normal and Power law distributions, show 6 and 3 times longer than Random distribution in the duration of coverage, respectively. The other discussion on routing algorithm to achieve good performance in each deployment system was also addressed. This discussion concluded that, in place of the traditional algorithm, a new algorithm can extend the time of coverage duration by 4 times in a Normal distribution, and in the circumstance where every deployed sensor operates as a binary model.

Keywords: binary sensor, coverage rate, power energy consumption, routing algorithm, sensor deployment

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426 A Fast Sensor Relocation Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Yu-Chen Kuo, Shih-Chieh Lin

Abstract:

Sensor relocation is to repair coverage holes caused by node failures. One way to repair coverage holes is to find redundant nodes to replace faulty nodes. Most researches took a long time to find redundant nodes since they randomly scattered redundant nodes around the sensing field. To record the precise position of sensor nodes, most researches assumed that GPS was installed in sensor nodes. However, high costs and power-consumptions of GPS are heavy burdens for sensor nodes. Thus, we propose a fast sensor relocation algorithm to arrange redundant nodes to form redundant walls without GPS. Redundant walls are constructed in the position where the average distance to each sensor node is the shortest. Redundant walls can guide sensor nodes to find redundant nodes in the minimum time. Simulation results show that our algorithm can find the proper redundant node in the minimum time and reduce the relocation time with low message complexity.

Keywords: Coverage, distributed algorithm, sensor relocation, wireless sensor networks.

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425 Highly Flexible Modularized Sensor Platform

Authors: Kai-Chao Yang, Chun-Ming Huang, Chih-Chiao Yang, Chien-Ming Wu

Abstract:

Sensors have been used in various kinds of academic fields and applications. In this article, we propose the idea of modularized sensors that combine multiple sensor modules into a unique sensor. We divide a sensor into several units according to functionalities. Each unit has different sensor modules, which share the same type of connectors and can be serially and arbitrarily connected each other. A user can combine different sensor modules into a sensor platform according to requirements. Compared with current modularized sensors, the proposed sensor platform is highly flexible and reusable. We have implemented the prototype of the proposed sensor platform, and the experimental results show the proposed platform can work correctly.

Keywords: Sensor device, sensor fusion.

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424 Localization by DKF Multi Sensor Fusion in the Uncertain Environments for Mobile Robot

Authors: Omid Sojodishijani, Saeed Ebrahimijam, Vahid Rostami

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimized algorithm for robot localization which increases the correctness and accuracy of the estimating position of mobile robot to more than 150% of the past methods [1] in the uncertain and noisy environment. In this method the odometry and vision sensors are combined by an adapted well-known discrete kalman filter [2]. This technique also decreased the computation process of the algorithm by DKF simple implementation. The experimental trial of the algorithm is performed on the robocup middle size soccer robot; the system can be used in more general environments.

Keywords: Discrete Kalman filter, odometry sensor, omnidirectional vision sensor, Robot Localization.

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423 UDCA: An Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Boregowda S.B., Hemanth Kumar A.R. Babu N.V, Puttamadappa C., And H.S Mruthyunjaya

Abstract:

In the past few years, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) potentially increased in applications such as intrusion detection, forest fire detection, disaster management and battle field. Sensor nodes are generally battery operated low cost devices. The key challenge in the design and operation of WSNs is to prolong the network life time by reducing the energy consumption among sensor nodes. Node clustering is one of the most promising techniques for energy conservation. This paper presents a novel clustering algorithm which maximizes the network lifetime by reducing the number of communication among sensor nodes. This approach also includes new distributed cluster formation technique that enables self-organization of large number of nodes, algorithm for maintaining constant number of clusters by prior selection of cluster head and rotating the role of cluster head to evenly distribute the energy load among all sensor nodes.

Keywords: Clustering algorithms, Cluster head, Energy consumption, Sensor nodes, and Wireless sensor networks.

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