Publications | Geological and Environmental Engineering
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 497

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geological and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

497 Physical Deterioration of Semi-Arid Soils as Affected by Land Use Change in North West of Iran

Authors: Ali Reza Vaezi, Fereshteh Haghshenas


Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Extensive changes to forests and pastures are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, and shelter for people in recent decades. Land use is an important factor affecting soil organic carbon accumulation and storage in soils which influence directly on other physicochemical soil properties, soil productivity and soil’s susceptibility to water erosion. The change of pastures to the agricultural lands has been increasing rapidly in most semi-arid regions in Iran. Information on the effect of the land use change in these areas on the deterioration of soil physicochemical properties is limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the physical deterioration of soil as affected by land use change in semi-arid pastures in north west of Iran. Toward this, seven areas covering both pasture and rainfed lands with different soil textures (clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, silt loam, loam, sandy loam and sandy loam) were selected in a semi-arid region in Zanjan, NW Iran. Pasture in the area is covered with poor vegetation and mostly grazed in wet seasons (end of winter and early spring and autumn). Rainfed lands resulting land use change are mostly planted for winter wheat production. In each area, soil samples (0-30 cm depth) were collected from the two land uses (pasture and rainfed land) at three replications. A total of 42 soil samples were taken from the study area. Various soil physical properties consisting of bulk density, total porosity, coarse pores volume, aggregate size, aggregate stability, water-holding capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity were determined in the soil samples using the laboratory conventional methods. The results showed that the change of pastures to rainfeds is severely deteriorated soil physical properties. However, the variation rate of the physical soil properties is different. The loss of soil physical properties as a result of the land use change was in the following order: 61% water-stable aggregates, 60% aggregate size > 41% macroporosity > 28% bulk density > 22% total porosity > 11% water holding capacity > 5% saturated point. This result reveals that the structural characteristics of soils in this area are the most important soil physical characteristics that are affected by land use change. The deterioration of these soil properties influences negatively the pore size distribution and volume percentage of macroporosity. Effects of land use change on deterioration of soil physical properties were different in various soil textures. The highest mean loss of soil physical properties was found in loam (42%), whereas the lowest value was in silty clay loam (23%). As a consequence, loam is the most vulnerable soil to physical degradation caused by land use change in the pastures. This physical loss of soil is associated with its higher percentage of larger aggregates as well as water-stable aggregates.

Keywords: Pasture, soil physical properties, soil structural characteristics, soil texture.

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496 Relationship between Gully Development and Characteristics of Drainage Area in Semi-Arid Region, NW Iran

Authors: Ali Reza Vaezi, Ouldouz Bakhshi Rad


Gully erosion is a widespread and often dramatic form of soil erosion caused by water during and immediately after heavy rainfall. It occurs when flowing surface water is channelled across unprotected land and washes away the soil along the drainage lines. The formation of gully is influenced by various factors, including climate, drainage surface area, slope gradient, vegetation cover, land use, and soil properties. It is a very important problem in semi-arid regions, where soils have lower organic matter and are weakly aggregated. Intensive agriculture and tillage along the slope can accelerate soil erosion by water in the region. There is little information on the development of gully erosion in agricultural rainfed areas. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the relationship between gully erosion and morphometric characteristics of the drainage area and the effects of soil properties and soil management factors (land use and tillage method) on gully development. A field study was done in a 900 km2 agricultural area in Hshtroud township located in the south of East Azerbaijan province, NW Iran. Toward this, 222 gullies created in rainfed lands were found in the area. Some properties of gullies, consisting of length, width, depth, height difference, cross section area, and volume, were determined. Drainage areas for each or some gullies were determined, and their boundaries were drawn. Additionally, the surface area of each drainage, land use, tillage direction, and soil properties that may affect gully formation were determined. The soil erodibility factor (K) defined in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was estimated based on five soil properties (silt and very fine sand, coarse sand, organic matter, soil structure code, and soil permeability). Gully development in each drainage area was quantified using its volume and soil loss. The dependency of gully development on drainage area characteristics (surface area, land use, tillage direction, and soil properties) was determined using correlation matrix analysis. Based on the results, gully length was the most important morphometric characteristic indicating the development of gully erosion in the lands. Gully development in the area was related to slope gradient (r = -0.26), surface area (r = 0.71), the area of rainfed lands (r = 0.23), and the area of rainfed tilled along the slope (r = 0.24). Nevertheless, its correlation with the area of pasture and soil erodibility factor (K) was not significant. Among the characteristics of drainage area, surface area is the major factor controlling gully volume in the agricultural land. No significant correlation was found between gully erosion and soil erodibility factor (K) estimated by the USLE. It seems the estimated soil erodibility cannot describe the susceptibility of the study soils to the gully erosion process. In these soils, aggregate stability and soil permeability are the two soil physical properties that affect the actual soil erodibility and in consequence, these soil properties can control gully erosion in the rainfed lands. 

Keywords: Agricultural area, gully properties, soil structure, USLE, Universal Soil Loss Equation.

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495 Evaluation of Groundwater and Seawater Intrusion at Tajoura Area, Northwest Libya

Authors: Abdalraheem Huwaysh, Yasmin ElAhmar


Water quality is an important factor that determines its usage for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses. This study was carried out through the Tajoura Area, Jifarah Plain, Northwest Libya. Chemical and physical parameters were measured and analyzed for groundwater samples collected in 2021 from 26 wells distributed throughout the investigation area. Overexploitation of groundwater caused considerable deterioration in the water quality, especially at Tajoura Town (20 km east of Tripoli). The aquifer shows an increase in salinization, which has reached an alarming level in many places during the past 25 years as a result of the seawater intrusion. Based on the WHO and Libyan standards, groundwater from the targeted area was not suitable for direct drinking purposes. Sodium is the dominant cation, while the dominant anion is chloride. Based on the Piper trilinear diagram, most of the groundwater samples (90%) were identified as sodium chloride type. The best groundwater quality exists at the southern part of the study area. Serious degradation in the water quality, expressed in salinity increase, occurs as we go towards the coastline. The abundance of NaCl waters is strong evidence to attribute the successive deterioration of the water quality to the seawater intrusion. Considering the values of Cl- concentration and the ratio of Cl-/HCO3-, about 70% of the groundwater samples were strongly affected by the saline water. Car wash stations in the study area as well as the unlined disposal pond used for the collection of untreated wastewaters, contribute significantly to the deterioration of water quality. In the area of interest (Tajoura), treatment of the groundwater before drinking is essential, and its quality needs to be routinely checked.

Keywords: Tajoura, groundwater, overexploitation, seawater intrusion.

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494 The Necessity to Standardize Procedures of Providing Engineering Geological Data for Designing Road and Railway Tunneling Projects

Authors: Atefeh Saljooghi Khoshkar, Jafar Hassanpour


One of the main problems of design stage relating to many tunneling projects is the lack of an appropriate standard for the provision of engineering geological data in a predefined format. In particular, this is more reflected in highway and railroad tunnels projects in which there is a number of tunnels and different professional teams involved. In this regard, a comprehensive software needs to be designed using the accepted methods in order to help engineering geologists to prepare standard reports, which contain sufficient input data for the design stage. Regarding this necessity, an applied software has been designed using macro capabilities and Visual Basic programming language (VBA) through Microsoft Excel. In this software, all of the engineering geological input data, which are required for designing different parts of tunnels such as discontinuities properties, rock mass strength parameters, rock mass classification systems, boreability classification, the penetration rate and so forth can be calculated and reported in a standard format.

Keywords: Engineering geology, rock mass classification, rock mechanic, tunnel.

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493 Development of a Smart System for Measuring Strain Levels of Natural Gas and Petroleum Pipelines on Earthquake Fault Lines in Türkiye

Authors: Ahmet Yetik, Seyit Ali Kara, Cevat Özarpa


Load changes occur on natural gas and oil pipelines due to natural disasters. The displacement of the soil around the natural gas and oil pipes due to situations that may cause erosion, such as earthquakes, landslides, and floods, is the source of this load change. The exposure of natural gas and oil pipes to variable loads causes deformation, cracks, and breaks in these pipes. Such cracks and breaks can cause significant damage to people and the environment, including the risk of explosions. Especially with the examinations made after natural disasters, it can be easily understood which of the pipes has sustained more damage in those quake-affected regions. It has been determined that earthquakes in Türkiye have caused permanent damage to pipelines. This project was initiated in response to the identification of cracks and gas leaks in the insulation gaskets placed in the pipelines, especially at the junction points. In this study, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) application has been developed to monitor load changes caused by natural disasters. The developed SCADA application monitors the changes in the x, y, and z axes of the stresses occurring in the pipes with the help of strain gauge sensors placed on the pipes. For the developed SCADA system, test setups in accordance with the standards were created during the fieldwork. The test setups created were integrated into the SCADA system, and the system was followed up. Thanks to the SCADA system developed with the field application, the load changes that will occur on the natural gas and oil pipes are instantly monitored, and the accumulations that may create a load on the pipes and their surroundings are immediately intervened, and new risks that may arise are prevented. It has contributed to energy supply security, asset management, pipeline holistic management, and overall sustainability in the industry.

Keywords: Earthquake, natural gas pipes, oil pipes, voltage measurement, landslide.

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492 Petrology Investigation of Apatite Minerals in the Esfordi Mine, Yazd, Iran

Authors: Haleh Rezaei Zanjirabadi, Fatemeh Saberi, Bahman Rahimzadeh, Fariborz Masoudi, Mohammad Rahgosha


In this study, apatite minerals from the iron-phosphate deposit of Yazd have been investigated within the microcontinent zone of Iran in the Zagros structural zone. The geological units in the Esfordi area belong to the pre-Cambrian to lower-Cambrian age, consisting of a succession of carbonate rocks (dolomite), shale, tuff, sandstone, and volcanic rocks. In addition to the mentioned sedimentary and volcanic rocks, the granitoid mass of Bahabad, which is the largest intrusive mass in the region, has intruded into the eastern part of this series and has caused its metamorphism and alteration. After collecting the available data, various samples of Esfordi’s apatite were prepared, and their mineralogy and crystallography were investigated using laboratory methods such as petrographic microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In non-destructive Raman spectroscopy, the molecular structure of apatite minerals was revealed in four distinct spectral ranges. Initially, the spectra of phosphate and aluminum bonds with O2HO, OH, were observed, followed by the identification of Cl, OH, Al, Na, Ca and hydroxyl units depending on the type of apatite mineral family. In SEM analysis, based on various shapes and different phases of apatites, their constituent major elements were identified through EDS, indicating that the samples from the Esfordi mining area exhibit a dense and coherent texture with smooth surfaces. Based on the elemental analysis results by EDS, the apatites in the Esfordi area are classified into the calcic apatite group.

Keywords: Petrology, apatite, Esfordi, EDS, SEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy.

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491 Synthesis of Temperature Sensitive Nano/Microgels by Soap-Free Emulsion Polymerization and Their Application in Hydrate Sediments Drilling Operations

Authors: Xuan Li, Weian Huang, Jinsheng Sun, Fuhao Zhao, Zhiyuan Wang, Jintang Wang


Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) as promising alternative energy sources have gained increasing attention. Hydrate-bearing formation in marine areas is highly unconsolidated formation and is fragile, which is composed of weakly cemented sand-clay and silty sediments. During the drilling process, the invasion of drilling fluid can easily lead to excessive water content in the formation. It will change the soil liquid plastic limit index, which significantly affects the formation quality, leading to wellbore instability due to the metastable character of hydrate-bearing sediments. Therefore, controlling the filtrate loss into the formation in the drilling process has to be highly regarded for protecting the stability of the wellbore. In this study, the temperature-sensitive nanogel of P(NIPAM-co-AMPS-co-tBA) was prepared by soap-free emulsion polymerization, and the temperature-sensitive behavior was employed to achieve self-adaptive plugging in hydrate sediments. First, the effects of additional amounts of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), and methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) on the microgel synthesis process and temperature-sensitive behaviors were investigated. Results showed that, as a reactive emulsifier, AMPS can not only participate in the polymerization reaction but also act as an emulsifier to stabilize micelles and enhance the stability of nanoparticles. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of nanogels gradually decreased with the increase of the contents of hydrophobic monomer tBA. An increase in the content of the cross-linking agent MBA can lead to a rise in the coagulum content and instability of the emulsion. The plugging performance of nanogel was evaluated in a core sample with a pore size distribution range of 100-1000 nm. The temperature-sensitive nanogel can effectively improve the microfiltration performance of drilling fluid. Since a combination of a series of nanogels could have a wide particle size distribution at any temperature, around 200 nm to 800 nm, the self-adaptive plugging capacity of nanogels for the hydrate sediments was revealed. Thermosensitive nanogel is a potential intelligent plugging material for drilling operations in NGH-bearing sediments.

Keywords: Temperature-sensitive nanogel, NIPAM, self-adaptive plugging performance, drilling operations, hydrate-bearing sediments.

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490 Optimization of Shale Gas Production by Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing

Authors: Fazl Ullah, Rahmat Ullah


This paper shows a comprehensive learning focused on the optimization of gas production in shale gas reservoirs through hydraulic fracturing. Shale gas has emerged as an important unconventional vigor resource, necessitating innovative techniques to enhance its extraction. The key objective of this study is to examine the influence of fracture parameters on reservoir productivity and formulate strategies for production optimization. A sophisticated model integrating gas flow dynamics and real stress considerations is developed for hydraulic fracturing in multi-stage shale gas reservoirs. This model encompasses distinct zones: a single-porosity medium region, a dual-porosity average region, and a hydraulic fracture region. The apparent permeability of the matrix and fracture system is modeled using principles like effective stress mechanics, porous elastic medium theory, fractal dimension evolution, and fluid transport apparatuses. The developed model is then validated using field data from the Barnett and Marcellus formations, enhancing its reliability and accuracy. By solving the partial differential equation by means of COMSOL software, the research yields valuable insights into optimal fracture parameters. The findings reveal the influence of fracture length, diversion capacity, and width on gas production. For reservoirs with higher permeability, extending hydraulic fracture lengths proves beneficial, while complex fracture geometries offer potential for low-permeability reservoirs. Overall, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of hydraulic cracking dynamics in shale gas reservoirs and provides essential guidance for optimizing gas production. The research findings are instrumental for energy industry professionals, researchers, and policymakers alike, shaping the future of sustainable energy extraction from unconventional resources.

Keywords: Fluid-solid coupling, apparent permeability, shale gas reservoir, fracture property, numerical simulation.

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489 Rainfall Seasonality Changes over India Based on Changes in the Climate

Authors: Randhir Singh Baghel, Govind Prasad Sahu


An individual seasonality index is used to study the seasonality of rainfall over India. The seasonality indicator is examined for two time periods: early (1901-1970) and recent (1971-2015). In some regions of India throughout the recent time (1971-2015), trend analysis using linear regression during these two periods reveals a downward trend in the seasonality index (i.e., decreasing values of the index), which implies shorter dry spells resulting in more consistent rainfall throughout the year.

Keywords: Individual seasonality index, rainfall distribution, seasonality index, climate.

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488 The Role of Heat Pumps for the Decarbonization of European Regions

Authors: D. M. Mongelli, M. De Carli, L. Carnieletto, F. Busato


This research aims to provide a contribution to the reduction of fossil fuels and the consequent reduction of CO2eq emissions for each European region. Simulations have been carried out to replace fossil fuel fired heating boilers with air-to-water heat pumps, when allowed by favorable environmental conditions (outdoor temperature, water temperature in emission systems, etc.). To estimate the potential coverage of high-temperature heat pumps in European regions, the energy profiles of buildings were considered together with the potential coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pumps operating with flow temperature with variable climatic regulation. The electrification potential for heating buildings was estimated by dividing the 38 European countries examined into 179 territorial units. The yields have been calculated in terms of energy savings and CO2eq reduction.

Keywords: Decarbonization, Space heating, Heat pumps, Energy policies.

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487 Application of Remote Sensing for Monitoring the Impact of Lapindo Mud Sedimentation for Mangrove Ecosystem: Case Study in Sidoarjo, East Java

Authors: Akbar Cahyadhi Pratama Putra, Tantri Utami Widhaningtyas, M. Randy Aswin


Indonesia, as an archipelagic nation, has a very long coastline with significant potential for marine resources, including mangrove ecosystems. The Lapindo mudflow disaster in Sidoarjo, East Java, resulted in mudflow being discharged into the sea through the Brantas and Porong rivers. The mud material transported by the river flow is feared to be dangerous because it contains harmful substances such as heavy metals. This study aims to map the mangrove ecosystem in terms of its density and assess the impact of the Lapindo mud disaster on the mangrove ecosystem, along with efforts to sustain its continuity. The mapping of the coastal mangrove conditions in Sidoarjo was carried out using remote sensing products, specifically Landsat 7 ETM+ images, taken during dry months in 2002, 2006, 2009, and 2014. The density of mangroves was determined using NDVI, which utilizes band 3 (the red channel) and band 4 (the near IR channel). Image processing to generate NDVI was performed using ENVI 5.1 software. The NDVI results were used to assess mangrove density on a scale from 0 to 1. The growth of mangrove ecosystems, both in terms of area and density, showed a significant increase from year to year. The development of mangrove ecosystems was influenced by the deposition of Lapindo mud in the estuaries of the Porong and Brantas rivers, where the silt provided a suitable medium for the growth of the mangrove ecosystem, leading to an increase in its density. The rise in density was supported by public awareness to mitigate heavy metal contamination, allowing for mangrove breeding near the affected areas.

Keywords: Archipelagic nation, Mangrove, Lapindo mudflow disaster, NDVI.

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486 Appraisal of Methods for Identifying, Mapping, and Modelling of Fluvial Erosion in a Mining Environment

Authors: F. F. Howard, I. Yakubu, C. B. Boye, J. S. Y. Kuma


Natural and human activities, such as mining operations, expose the natural soil to adverse environmental conditions, leading to contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water, which has negative effects on humans, flora, and fauna. Bare or partly exposed soil is most liable to fluvial erosion. This paper enumerates various methods used to identify, map, and model fluvial erosion in a mining environment. Classical, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and GIS methods have been reviewed. One of the many classical methods used to estimate river erosion is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. The RUSLE model is easy to use. Its reliance on empirical relationships that may not always be applicable to specific circumstances or locations is a flaw. Other classical models for estimating fluvial erosion are the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). These models offer a more complete understanding of the underlying physical processes and encompass a wider range of situations. Although more difficult to utilise, they depend on the availability and dependability of input data for correctness. AI can help deal with multivariate and complex difficulties and predict soil loss with higher accuracy than traditional methods, and also be used to build unique models for identifying degraded areas. AI techniques have become popular as an alternative predictor for degraded environments. However, this research proposed a hybrid of classical, AI, and GIS methods for efficient and effective modelling of fluvial erosion.

Keywords: Fluvial erosion, classical methods, Artificial Intelligence, Geographic Information System.

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485 Numerical Modeling of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining of Coltan in the African Great Lakes Region

Authors: Sergio Perez Rodriguez


Findings of a production model of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) of coltan ore by an average Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mineworker are presented in this paper. These can be used as a reference for a similar characterization of the daily labor of counterparts from other countries in the Africa's Great Lakes region. To that end, the Fundamental Equation of Mineral Production has been applied in this paper, considering a miner's average daily output of coltan, estimated in the base of gross statistical data gathered from reputable sources. Results indicate daily yields of individual miners in the order of 300 g of coltan ore, with hourly peaks of production in the range of 30 to 40 g of the mineral. Yields are expected to be in the order of 5 g or less during the least productive hours. These outputs are expected to be achieved during the halves of the eight to 10 hours of daily working sessions that these artisanal laborers can attend during the mining season.

Keywords: Coltan, mineral production, Production to Reserve ratio, artisanal mining, small-scale mining, ASM, human work, Great Lakes region, Democratic Republic of Congo.

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484 Evaluation of Coastal Erosion in the Jurisdiction of the Municipalities of Puerto Colombia and Tubará, Atlántico, Colombia in Google Earth Engine with Landsat and Sentinel 2 Images

Authors: Francisco Javier Reyes Salazar, Héctor Mauricio Ramírez


The coastal zones are home to mangrove swamps, coral reefs, and seagrass ecosystems, which are the most biodiverse and fragile on the planet. These areas support a great diversity of marine life; they are also extraordinarily important for humans in the provision of food, water, wood, and other associated goods and services; they also contribute to climate regulation. The lack of an automated model that generates information on the dynamics of changes in coastlines and coastal erosion is identified as a central problem. In this paper, coastlines were determined from 1984 to 2020 on the Google Earth Engine platform from Landsat and Sentinel images. Then, we determined the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) and used Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) v5.0. Starting from the 2020 coastline; the 10-year prediction (Year 2031) was determined with the erosion of 238.32 hectares and an accretion of 181.96 hectares. For the 20-year prediction (Year 2041) will be presented an erosion of 544.04 hectares and an accretion of 133.94 hectares. The erosion and accretion of Playa Muelle in the municipality of Puerto Colombia were established, which will register the highest value of erosion. The coverage that presented the greatest change was that of artificialized territories.

Keywords: Coastline, coastal erosion, MNDWI, Google Earth Engine, Colombia.

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483 Effect of Sand Particle Transportation in Oil and Gas Pipeline Erosion

Authors: Christopher Deekia Nwimae, Nigel Simms, Liyun Lao


Erosion in a pipe bends caused by particles is a major concern in the oil and gas fields and might cause breakdown to production equipment. This work investigates the effect of sand particle transport in an elbow using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. Two-way coupled Euler-Lagrange and discrete phase model is employed to calculate the air/solid particle flow in the elbow. Generic erosion model in Ansys fluent and three particle rebound models are used to predict the erosion rate on the 90° elbows. The model result is compared with experimental data from the open literature validating the CFD-based predictions which reveals that due to the sand particles impinging on the wall of the elbow at high velocity, a point on the pipe elbow were observed to have started turning red due to velocity increase and the maximum erosion locations occur at 48°.

Keywords: Erosion, prediction, elbow, computational fluid dynamics, CFD.

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482 Application of Cite Space Software in Visual Analysis of Land Use Coupling Research Progress

Authors: Jing Zhou, Weiqun Su, Naying Luo, Min Shang, Li Wu


The coupling of land use system in geographical research is mainly the coupling of pattern and process, which is essentially the human-land coupling, and is an important part of the research and discussion of human-land relationship. Based on the Web of Science database, the paper titles, authors, keywords, and references from 1997-2020 related to land use coupling were used as data sources to explore the research progress of land use coupling. Cite Space bibliometric tool was used for co-occurrence analysis of the issuing country, issuing institution, co-cited author, disciplinary institution, and keywords. The results are shown as follows: (1) From 1997 to 2020, the United States, China, and Germany rank the top, with more than 250 published papers. Although China ranks second in the number of published papers on foreign literature, it has less centrality and less influence. (2) The top 10 institutions (universities) in the number of published papers (more than 300 articles) are mainly from the United States and China, and the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences has the highest output of papers. At the same time, the phenomenon of multi-institutional cooperation has increased in the field of land use coupling research. (3) From 1997 to 2020, land sensitivity research and the impact of climate change on land use patterns are the main directions of land use coupling research. However, in the past five years, scholars have mainly focused on the coupling research methods of land use and the coupling relationship between ecological and environmental factors and land use.

Keywords: Land use coupling, cite space, knowledge graph, visual analysis, research progress.

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481 Artificial Neural Networks Technique for Seismic Hazard Prediction Using Seismic Bumps

Authors: Belkacem Selma, Boumediene Selma, Samira Chouraqui, Hanifi Missoum, Tourkia Guerzou


Natural disasters have occurred and will continue to cause human and material damage. Therefore, the idea of "preventing" natural disasters will never be possible. However, their prediction is possible with the advancement of technology. Even if natural disasters are effectively inevitable, their consequences may be partly controlled. The rapid growth and progress of artificial intelligence (AI) had a major impact on the prediction of natural disasters and risk assessment which are necessary for effective disaster reduction. Earthquake prediction to prevent the loss of human lives and even property damage is an important factor; that, is why it is crucial to develop techniques for predicting this natural disaster. This study aims to analyze the ability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict earthquakes that occur in a given area. The used data describe the problem of high energy (higher than 104 J) seismic bumps forecasting in a coal mine using two long walls as an example. For this purpose, seismic bumps data obtained from mines have been analyzed. The results obtained show that the ANN is able to predict earthquake parameters with  high accuracy; the classification accuracy through neural networks is more than 94%, and the models developed are efficient and robust and depend only weakly on the initial database.

Keywords: Earthquake prediction, artificial intelligence, AI, Artificial Neural Network, ANN, seismic bumps.

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480 Main Control Factors of Fluid Loss in Drilling and Completion in Shunbei Oilfield by Unmanned Intervention Algorithm

Authors: Peng Zhang, Lihui Zheng, Xiangchun Wang, Xiaopan Kou


Quantitative research on the main control factors of lost circulation has few considerations and single data source. Using Unmanned Intervention Algorithm to find the main control factors of lost circulation adopts all measurable parameters. The degree of lost circulation is characterized by the loss rate as the objective function. Geological, engineering and fluid data are used as layers, and 27 factors such as wellhead coordinates and Weight on Bit (WOB) used as dimensions. Data classification is implemented to determine function independent variables. The mathematical equation of loss rate and 27 influencing factors is established by multiple regression method, and the undetermined coefficient method is used to solve the undetermined coefficient of the equation. Only three factors in t-test are greater than the test value 40, and the F-test value is 96.557%, indicating that the correlation of the model is good. The funnel viscosity, final shear force and drilling time were selected as the main control factors by elimination method, contribution rate method and functional method. The calculated values of the two wells used for verification differ from the actual values by -3.036 m3/h and -2.374 m3/h, with errors of 7.21% and 6.35%. The influence of engineering factors on the loss rate is greater than that of funnel viscosity and final shear force, and the influence of the three factors is less than that of geological factors. The best combination of funnel viscosity, final shear force and drilling time is obtained through quantitative calculation. The minimum loss rate of lost circulation wells in Shunbei area is 10 m3/h. It can be seen that man-made main control factors can only slow down the leakage, but cannot fundamentally eliminate it. This is more in line with the characteristics of karst caves and fractures in Shunbei fault solution oil and gas reservoir.

Keywords: Drilling fluid, loss rate, main controlling factors, Unmanned Intervention Algorithm.

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479 ADA Tool for Satellite InSAR-Based Ground Displacement Analysis: The Granada Region

Authors: M. Cuevas-González, O. Monserrat, A. Barra, C. Reyes-Carmona, R. M. Mateos, J. P. Galve, R. Sarro, M. Cantalejo, E. Peña, M. Martínez-Corbella, J. A. Luque, J. M. Azañón, A. Millares, M. Béjar, J. A. Navarro, L. Solari


Geohazard prone areas require continuous monitoring to detect risks, understand the phenomena occurring in those regions and prevent disasters. Satellite interferometry (InSAR) has come to be a trustworthy technique for ground movement detection and monitoring in the last few years. InSAR based techniques allow to process large areas providing high number of displacement measurements at low cost. However, the results provided by such techniques are usually not easy to interpret by non-experienced users hampering its use for decision makers. This work presents a set of tools developed in the framework of different projects (Momit, Safety, U-Geohaz, Riskcoast) and an example of their use in the Granada Coastal area (Spain) is shown. The ADA (Active Displacement Areas) tool has been developed with the aim of easing the management, use and interpretation of InSAR based results. It provides a semi-automatic extraction of the most significant ADAs through the application ADAFinder tool. This tool aims to support the exploitation of the European Ground Motion Service (EU-GMS), which will offer reliable and systematic information on natural and anthropogenic ground motion phenomena across Europe.

Keywords: Ground displacements, InSAR, natural hazards, satellite imagery.

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478 Identification of Igneous Intrusions in South Zallah Trough, Sirt Basin, Libya

Authors: Mohamed A. Saleem


Using mostly seismic data, this study intends to show some examples of igneous intrusions found in some areas of the Sirt Basin and explore the period of their emplacement as well as the interrelationships between these sills. The study area is located in the south of the Zallah Trough, south-west Sirt basin, Libya. It is precisely between the longitudes 18.35ᵒ E and 19.35ᵒ E, and the latitudes 27.8ᵒ N and 28.0ᵒ N. Based on a variety of criteria that are usually used as marks on the igneous intrusions, 12 igneous intrusions (Sills), have been detected and analysed using 3D seismic data. One or more of the following were used as identification criteria: the high amplitude reflectors paired with abrupt reflector terminations, vertical offsets, or what is described as a dike-like connection, the violation, the saucer form, and the roughness. Because of their laying between the hosting layers, the majority of these intrusions are classified as sills. Another distinguishing feature is the intersection geometry link between some of these sills. Every single sill has given a name just to distinguish the sills from each other such as S-1, S-2, and … S-12. To avoid the repetition of description, the common characteristics and some statistics of these sills are shown in summary tables, while the specific characters that are not common and have been noticed for each sill are shown individually. The sills, S-1, S-2, and S-3, are approximately parallel to one other, with the shape of these sills being governed by the syncline structure of their host layers. The faults that dominated the strata (pre-upper Cretaceous strata) have a significant impact on the sills; they caused their discontinuity, while the upper layers have a shape of anticlines. S-1 and S-10 are the group's deepest and highest sills, respectively, with S-1 seated near the basement's top and S-10 extending into the sequence of the upper cretaceous. The dramatic escalation of sill S-4 can be seen in North-South profiles. The majority of the interpreted sills are influenced and impacted by a large number of normal faults that strike in various directions and propagate vertically from the surface to the basement's top. This indicates that the sediment sequences were existed before the sill’s intrusion, deposited, and that the younger faults occurred more recently. The pre-upper cretaceous unit is the current geological depth for the Sills S-1, S-2 … S-9, while Sills S-10, S-11, and S-12 are hosted by the Cretaceous unit. Over the sills S-1, S-2, and S-3, which are the deepest sills, the pre-upper cretaceous surface has a slightly forced folding, these forced folding is also noticed above the right and left tips of sill S-8 and S-6, respectively, while the absence of these marks on the above sequences of layers supports the idea that the aforementioned sills were emplaced during the early upper cretaceous period.

Keywords: Sirt Basin, Zallah Trough, igneous intrusions, seismic data.

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477 Analytic on Various Grounding Configurations in Uniform Layer Soil

Authors: Mohd Shahriman B. Mohd Yunus, Mohd Hanif B. Jamaludin, Norain Bt. Bahror


The performance of an embedded grounding system is very important for the safe operation of electrical appliances and human beings. In principle, a safe grounding system has two objectives, which are to dissipate fault current without exceeding any operating and equipment limits and to ensure there is no risk of electric shock to humans in the vicinity of earthed facilities. The case studies in this paper present the calculating grounding resistance for multiple configurations of vertical and horizontally by using a simple and accurate formula. From the analytic calculated results, observed good/empirical relationship between the grounding resistance and length of the embedded grounding configurations. Moreover, the configurations of vertical and horizontal observed effectiveness of grounding resistance and good agreement on the reduction of grounding resistance values especially for vertical configuration.

Keywords: Grounding system, grounding resistance, soil resistivity, electrode geometry, configurations.

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476 Florida’s Groundwater and Surface Water System Reliability in Terms of Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise

Authors: Rahman Davtalab, Saba Ghotbi


Florida is one of the most vulnerable states to natural disasters among the 50 states of the USA. The state exposed by tropical storms, hurricanes, storm surge, landslide, etc. Besides the mentioned natural phenomena, global warming, sea-level rise, and other anthropogenic environmental changes make a very complicated and unpredictable system for decision-makers. In this study, we tried to highlight the effects of climate change and sea-level rise on surface water and groundwater systems for three different geographical locations in Florida; Main Canal of Jacksonville Beach in the northeast of Florida adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean, Grace Lake in central Florida, far away from surrounded coastal line, and Mc Dill in Florida and adjacent to Tampa Bay and Mexican Gulf. An integrated hydrologic and hydraulic model was developed and simulated for all three cases, including surface water, groundwater, or a combination of both. For the case study of Main Canal-Jacksonville Beach, the investigation showed that a 76 cm sea-level rise in time horizon 2060 could increase the flow velocity of the tide cycle for the main canal's outlet and headwater. This case also revealed how the sea level rise could change the tide duration, potentially affecting the coastal ecosystem. As expected, sea-level rise can raise the groundwater level. Therefore, for the Mc Dill case, the effect of groundwater rise on soil storage and the performance of stormwater retention ponds is investigated. The study showed that sea-level rise increased the pond’s seasonal high water up to 40 cm by time horizon 2060. The reliability of the retention pond is dropped from 99% for the current condition to 54% for the future. The results also proved that the retention pond could not retain and infiltrate the designed treatment volume within 72 hours, which is a significant indication of increasing pollutants in the future. Grace Lake case study investigates the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge. This study showed that using the dynamically downscaled data of the groundwater recharge can decline up to 24 % by the mid-21st century. 

Keywords: groundwater, surface water, Florida, retention pond, tide, sea-level rise

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475 Generation of 3D Models Obtained with Low-Cost RGB and Thermal Sensors Mounted on Drones

Authors: Julio Manuel de Luis Ruiz, Javier Sedano Cibrián, Rubén Pérez Álvarez, Raúl Pereda García, Felipe Piña García


Nowadays it is common to resort to aerial photography to carry out the prospection and/or exploration of archaeological sites. In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been applied as the vehicles that carry the sensor. This implies certain advantages, such as the possibility of including low-cost sensors, given that these vehicles can carry the sensor at relatively low altitudes. Due to this, low-cost dual sensors have recently begun to be used. This new equipment can collaborate with classic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in the exploration of archaeological sites, but this entails the need for a methodological setting to optimize the acquisition, processing and exploitation of the information provided by low-cost dual sensors. This research focuses on the design of an appropriate workflow to obtain 3D models with low-cost sensors carried on UAVs, both in the RGB and thermal domains. All the foregoing has been applied to the archaeological site of Juliobriga, located in Cantabria (Spain). To this end, a flight with this type of sensors has been planned, developed and analyzed. It has been applied to the archaeological site of Juliobriga (Cantabria, Spain). A strong dependence of the thermal sensor on the GSD, and the capability of this technique to interpret underground materials. This research allows to state that the thermal nature of the site does not provide main information about the site itself, but with combination with other types of information, such as the DEM, the typology of materials, etc., can produce very positive results with respect to the exploration and knowledge of the site. 

Keywords: process optimization, RGB models, thermal models, UAV, workflow

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474 Structural-Geotechnical Effects of the Foundation of a Medium-Height Structure

Authors: V. Rodas, L. Almache


The interaction effects between the existing soil and the substructure of a 5-story building with an underground one, were evaluated in such a way that the structural-geotechnical concepts were validated through the method of impedance factors with a program based on the method of the finite elements. The continuous wall-type foundation had a constant thickness and followed inclined and orthogonal directions, while the ground had homogeneous and medium-type characteristics. The soil considered was type C according to the Ecuadorian Construction Standard (NEC) and the corresponding foundation comprised a depth of 4.00 meters and a basement wall thickness of 40 centimeters. This project is part of a mid-rise building in the city of Azogues (Ecuador). The hypotheses raised responded to the objectives in such a way that the model implemented with springs had a variation with respect to the embedded base, obtaining conservative results.

Keywords: interaction, soil, substructure, springs, effects, modeling, embedment

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473 Morphological Characteristics and Development of the Estuary Area of Lam River, Vietnam

Authors: Hai Nguyen Tien


On the basis of the structure of alluvial sediments explained by echo sounding data and remote sensing images, the following results can be given: The estuary of Lam river from Ben Thuy Bridge (original word: Bến Thủy) to Cua Hoi (original word: Cửa Hội) is divided into three channels (location is calculated according to the river bank on the Nghe An Province, original word: Nghệ An): i) channel I (from Ben Thuy Bridge to Hung Hoa, original word: Hưng Hòa) is the branching river; ii) channel II (from Hung Hoa to Nghi Thai, original word: Nghi Thái)is a channel develops in a meandering direction with a concave side toward Ha Tinh Province (Hà Tĩnh); iii) channel III (from Nghi Thai to Cua Hoi)is a channel develops in a meandering direction with a concave side toward Nghe An province.This estuary area is formed in the period from after the sea level dropped below 0m (current water level) to the present: i) Channel II developed moving towards Ha Tinh Province; ii) Channel III developed moving towards Nghe An Province; iii) In channel I, a second river branch is formed because the flow of river cuts through the Hong Lam- Hong Nhat mudflat (original word: Hồng Lam -Hồng Nhất),at the same time creating an island.Morphological characteristics of the estuary area of Lam River are the main result of erosion and deposition activities corresponding to two water levels: the water level is about 2 m lower than the current water level and the current water level.Characteristics of the sediment layers on the riverbed in the estuary can be used to determine the sea levels in Late Holocene to the present.

Keywords: Lam River, development, Cua Hoi, river morphology

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472 Hydrochemical Contamination Profiling and Spatial-Temporal Mapping with the Support of Multivariate and Cluster Statistical Analysis

Authors: S. Barbosa, M. Pinto, J. A. Almeida, E. Carvalho, C. Diamantino


The aim of this work was to test a methodology able to generate spatial-temporal maps that can synthesize simultaneously the trends of distinct hydrochemical indicators in an old radium-uranium tailings dam deposit. Multidimensionality reduction derived from principal component analysis and subsequent data aggregation derived from clustering analysis allow to identify distinct hydrochemical behavioral profiles and generate synthetic evolutionary hydrochemical maps.

Keywords: Contamination plume migration, K-means of PCA scores, groundwater and mine water monitoring, spatial-temporal hydrochemical trends.

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471 Thin Bed Reservoir Delineation Using Spectral Decomposition and Instantaneous Seismic Attributes, Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

Authors: P. Sophon, M. Kruachanta, S. Chaisri, G. Leaungvongpaisan, P. Wongpornchai


The thick bed hydrocarbon reservoirs are primarily interested because of the more prolific production. When the amount of petroleum in the thick bed starts decreasing, the thin bed reservoirs are the alternative targets to maintain the reserves. The conventional interpretation of seismic data cannot delineate the thin bed having thickness less than the vertical seismic resolution. Therefore, spectral decomposition and instantaneous seismic attributes were used to delineate the thin bed in this study. Short Window Discrete Fourier Transform (SWDFT) spectral decomposition and instantaneous frequency attributes were used to reveal the thin bed reservoir, while Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) spectral decomposition and envelope (instantaneous amplitude) attributes were used to indicate hydrocarbon bearing zone. The study area is located in the Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. The thin bed target is the uppermost part of Mangahewa Formation, the most productive in the gas-condensate production in the Pohokura Field. According to the time-frequency analysis, SWDFT spectral decomposition can reveal the thin bed using a 72 Hz SWDFT isofrequency section and map, and that is confirmed by the instantaneous frequency attribute. The envelope attribute showing the high anomaly indicates the hydrocarbon accumulation area at the thin bed target. Moreover, the CWT spectral decomposition shows the low-frequency shadow zone and abnormal seismic attenuation in the higher isofrequencies below the thin bed confirms that the thin bed can be a prospective hydrocarbon zone.

Keywords: Hydrocarbon indication, instantaneous seismic attribute, spectral decomposition, thin bed delineation.

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470 A Study of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in the Manganese Mining in Drama, Greece

Authors: A. Argiri, A. Molla, Tzouvalekas, E. Skoufogianni, N. Danalatos


The release of heavy metals into the environment has increased over the last years. In this study, 25 soil samples (0-15 cm) from the fields near the mining area in Drama region were selected. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for their physicochemical properties and for seven “pseudo-total’’ heavy metals content, namely Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn. The total metal concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Mn) in digests were determined by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. According to the results, the mean concentration of the listed heavy metals in 25 soil samples are Cd 1.1 mg/kg, Cr 15 mg/kg, Cu 21.7 mg/kg, Ni 30.1 mg/kg, Pd 50.8 mg/kg, Zn 99.5 mg/kg and Mn 815.3 mg/kg. The results show that the heavy metals remain in the soil even if the mining closed many years ago.

Keywords: Greece, heavy metals, mining, pollution

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469 Effect of Landfill Leachate on Engineering Properties of Test Soil

Authors: S. A. Nta, M. J. Ayotamuno, I. J. Udom


The work presents result of laboratory analysis of the effects of landfill leachate on engineering properties of test soil. The soil used for the present study was a sandy loam soil and acidic in nature. It was collected at a depth of 0.9 m. The landfill leachate used was collected from a hole dug some meters away from dumped solid waste and analyzed to identify the pollutants and its effect on engineering properties of the test soil. The test soil applied with landfill leachate was collected at 0.25 and 0.50 m radial distances at a depth of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 m from the point of application of leachate after 50 days were the application of the leachate end and 80 days from the start of the experiment for laboratory analysis. Engineering properties such as particle size distribution, specific gravity, optimum moisture content, maximum dry density, unconfined compressive strength, liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit were considered. The concentration of various chemicals at 0.25 and 0.50 radial distances and 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.6 m depth from the point of application of leachate were different. This study founds the effect of landfill leachate on the engineering properties of soil. It can be concluded that, the type of soil, chemical composition of the leachate, infiltration rate, aquifers, ground water table etc., will have a major role on the area of influence zone of the pollutants in a landfill.

Keywords: Engineering properties of test soil, landfill leachate, Municipal solid waste.

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468 Soil/Phytofisionomy Relationship in Southeast of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

Authors: Marcelo Araujo da Nóbrega, Ariel Moura Vilas Boas


This study aims to characterize the physicochemical aspects of the soils of southeastern Chapada Diamantina - Bahia related to the phytophysiognomies of this area, rupestrian field, small savanna (savanna fields), small dense savanna (savanna fields), savanna (Cerrado), dry thorny forest (Caatinga), dry thorny forest/savanna, scrub (Carrasco - ecotone), forest island (seasonal semi-deciduous forest - Capão) and seasonal semi-deciduous forest. To achieve the research objective, soil samples were collected in each plant formation and analyzed in the soil laboratory of ESALQ - USP in order to identify soil fertility through the determination of pH, organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, potential acidity, sum of bases, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. The composition of soil particles was also checked; that is, the texture, step made in the terrestrial ecosystems laboratory of the Department of Ecology of USP and in the soil laboratory of ESALQ. Another important factor also studied was to show the variations in the vegetation cover in the region as a function of soil moisture in the different existing physiographic environments. Another study carried out was a comparison between the average soil moisture data with precipitation data from three locations with very different phytophysiognomies. The soils found in this part of Bahia can be classified into 5 classes, with a predominance of oxisols. All of these classes have a great diversity of physical and chemical properties, as can be seen in photographs and in particle size and fertility analyzes. The deepest soils are located in the Central Pediplano of Chapada Diamantina where the dirty field, the clean field, the executioner and the semideciduous seasonal forest (Capão) are located, and the shallower soils were found in the rupestrian field, dry thorny forest, and savanna fields, the latter located on a hillside. As for the variations in water in the region's soil, the data indicate that there were large spatial variations in humidity in both the rainy and dry periods.

Keywords: Bahia, Chapada diamantina, phytophysiognomies, soils.

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