Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1750

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electronics and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1750 Performance Evaluation of a Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Antenna Using Circularly Polarized Elements

Authors: Rawad Asfour, Salam Khamas, Edward A. Ball

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the design of an mm-wave phased array. To date, linear polarization is adapted in the reported designs of phased arrays. However, linear polarization faces several well-known challenges. As such, an advanced design for phased array antennas is required that offers circularly polarized (CP) radiation. A feasible solution for achieving CP phased array antennas is proposed using open-circular loop antennas. To this end, a 3-element circular loop phased array antenna is designed to operate at 28 GHz. In addition, the array ability to control the direction of the main lobe is investigated. The results show that the highest achievable field of view (FOV) is 100°, i.e. 50° to the left and 50° to the right-hand side directions. The results are achieved with a CP bandwidth of 15%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a high broadside gain of circa 11 dBi can be achieved for the steered beam. Besides, radiation efficiency of 97% can also be achieved based on the proposed design.

Keywords: loop antenna, phased array, beam steering, wide bandwidth, circular polarization, CST

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1749 Enhanced Interference Management Technique for Multi-Cell Multi-Antenna System

Authors: Simon E. Uguru, Victor E. Idigo, Obinna S. Oguejiofor, Naveed Nawaz

Abstract:

As the deployment of the Fifth Generation (5G) mobile communication networks take shape all over the world, achieving spectral efficiency, energy efficiency, and dealing with interference are among the greatest challenges encountered so far. The aim of this study is to mitigate inter-cell interference (ICI) in a multi-cell multi-antenna system while maximizing the spectral efficiency of the system. In this study, a system model was devised that showed a miniature representation of a multi-cell multi-antenna system. Based on this system model, a convex optimization problem was formulated to maximize the spectral efficiency of the system while mitigating the ICI. This optimization problem was solved using CVX, which is a modeling system for constructing and solving discipline convex programs. The solutions to the optimization problem are sub-optimal coordinated beamformers. These coordinated beamformers direct each data to the served user equipments (UEs) in each cell without interference during downlink transmission, thereby maximizing the system-wide spectral efficiency.

Keywords: coordinated beamforming, convex optimization, inter-cell interference, multi-antenna, multi-cell, spectral efficiency

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1748 Shaping the Input Side Current Waveform of a 3-ϕ Rectifier into a Pure Sine Wave

Authors: Sikder Mohammad Faruk, Mir Mofajjal Hossain, Muhibul Haque Bhuyan

Abstract:

In this investigative research paper, we have presented the simulation results of a three-phase rectifier circuit to improve the input side current using the passive filters, such as capacitors and inductors at the output and input terminals of the rectifier circuit respectively. All simulation works were performed in a personal computer using the PSPICE simulator software, which is a virtual circuit design and simulation software package. The output voltages and currents were measured across a resistive load of 1 k. We observed that the output voltage levels, input current wave shapes, harmonic contents through the harmonic spectrum, and total harmonic distortion improved due to the use of such filters.

Keywords: input current wave, three-phase rectifier, passive filter, PSPICE Simulation

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1747 Reducing the Need for Multi-Input Multi-Output in Multi-Beam Base Transceiver Station Antennas Using Orthogonally-Polarized Feeds with an Arbitrary Number of Ports

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan

Abstract:

A multi-beam BTS (Base Transceiver Station) antenna has been developed using dual parabolic cylindrical reflectors. The ±45° polarization feeds are used in spatial diversity MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output). They can be replaced by single-port orthogonally polarized feeds. Then, with two sets of beams generated above each other, the ± 45° polarization ports of any conventional transceiver can be connected to two of these beam sets. Thus, with two-port transceivers, the system will be equivalent to 4x4 MIMO, instead of 2x2. Radio Frequency (RF) power combiners/splitters can also be used to combine the multiple beams into a single beam or any arbitrary number of beams/ports. The gain of the combined-beam will be more than 20-24 dBi instead of 17-18 dBi of conventional wide-beam antennas. Furthermore, the gain of the combined beam will be high over the whole beam angle. Moreover, the users will always be close to the peak gain value of the combined beam regardless of their location within the combined beam angle. The frequency bands of all the combined beams are adjusted such that they all have the same frequency band. Different configurations of RF power splitter/combiners can be used to provide any arbitrary number of beams/ports according to the requirements of any existing base station configuration.

Keywords: 5G mobile communications, BTS antennas, MIMO, orthogonally polarized antennas, multi-beam antennas.

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1746 Error Correction Method for 2D Ultra-Wideband Indoor Wireless Positioning System Using Logarithmic Error Model

Authors: Phornpat Chewasoonthorn, Surat Kwanmuang

Abstract:

Indoor positioning technologies have been evolved rapidly. They augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) which requires line-of-sight to the sky to track the location of people or objects. In this study, we developed an error correction method for an indoor real-time location system (RTLS) based on an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor from Decawave. Multiple stationary nodes (anchor) were installed throughout the workspace. The distance between stationary and moving nodes (tag) can be measured using a two-way-ranging (TWR) scheme. The result has shown that the uncorrected ranging error from the sensor system can be as large as 1 m. To reduce ranging error and thus increase positioning accuracy, we present an online correction algorithm using the Kalman filter. The results from experiments have shown that the system can reduce ranging error down to 5 cm.

Keywords: Indoor positioning, ultra-wideband, error correction, Kalman filter.

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1745 Neighbour Cell List Reduction in Multi-Tier Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Naveed Nawaz

Abstract:

The ongoing call or data session must be maintained to ensure a good quality of service. This can be accomplished by performing handover procedure while the user is on the move. However, dense deployment of small cells in 5G networks is a challenging issue due to the extensive number of handovers. In this paper, a neighbour cell list method is proposed to reduce the number of target small cells and hence minimizing the number of handovers. The neighbour cell list is built by omitting cells that could cause an unnecessary handover and/or handover failure because of short time of stay of a user in these cells. A multi-attribute decision making technique, simple additive weighting, is then applied to the optimized neighbour cell list. The performance of the proposed method is analysed and compared with that of the existing methods. Results disclose that our method decreases the candidate small cell list, unnecessary handovers, handover failure and short time of stay cells compared to the competitive method.

Keywords: Handover, HetNets, MADM, small cells.

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1744 Hybrid Weighted Multiple Attribute Decision Making Handover Method for Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Li Zhang, Naveed Nawaz

Abstract:

Small cell deployment in 5G networks is a promising technology to enhance the capacity and coverage. However, unplanned deployment may cause high interference levels and high number of unnecessary handovers, which in turn result in an increase in the signalling overhead. To guarantee service continuity, minimize unnecessary handovers and reduce signalling overhead in heterogeneous networks, it is essential to properly model the handover decision problem. In this paper, we model the handover decision problem using Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) method, specifically Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and propose a hybrid TOPSIS method to control the handover in heterogeneous network. The proposed method adopts a hybrid weighting policy, which is a combination of entropy and standard deviation. A hybrid weighting control parameter is introduced to balance the impact of the standard deviation and entropy weighting on the network selection process and the overall performance. Our proposed method show better performance, in terms of the number of frequent handovers and the mean user throughput, compared to the existing methods.

Keywords: Handover, HetNets, interference, MADM, small cells, TOPSIS, weight.

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1743 Embedded Hardware and Software Design of Omnidirectional Autonomous Robotic Platform Suitable for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Testing with Focus on Modularity and Safety

Authors: Ondřej Lufinka, Jan Kadeřábek, Juraj Prstek, Jiří Skála, Kamil Kosturik

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of using Autonomous Robotic Platforms (ARP) for the ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) testing in automotive. There are different possibilities of the testing already in development and lately, the ARP are beginning to be used more and more widely. ARP discussed in this paper explores the hardware and software design possibilities related to the field of embedded systems. The paper focuses in its chapters on the introduction of the problem in general, then it describes the proposed prototype concept and its principles from the embedded HW and SW point of view. It talks about the key features that can be used for the innovation of these platforms (e.g., modularity, omnidirectional movement, common and non-traditional sensors used for localization, synchronization of more platforms and cars together or safety mechanisms). In the end, the future possible development of the project is discussed as well.

Keywords: ADAS Systems, autonomous robotic platform, embedded systems, hardware, localization, modularity, multiple robots synchronization, omnidirectional movement, safety mechanisms, software.

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1742 Implementation of Cloud Customer Relationship Management in Banking Sector: Strategies, Benefits and Challenges

Authors: Ngoc Dang Khoa Nguyen, Imran Ali

Abstract:

The cloud customer relationship management (CRM) has emerged as an innovative tool to augment the customer satisfaction and performance of banking systems. Cloud CRM allows to collect, analyze and utilize customer-associated information and update the systems, thereby offer superior customer service. Cloud technologies have invaluable potential to ensure innovative customer experiences, successful collaboration, enhanced speed to marketplace and IT effectiveness. As such, many leading banks have been attracted towards adoption of such innovative and customer-driver solutions to revolutionize their existing business models. Chief Information Officers (CIOs) are already implemented or in the process of implementation of cloud CRM. However, many organizations are still reluctant to take such initiative due to the lack of information on the factors influencing its implementation. This paper, therefore, aims to delve into the strategies, benefits and challenges intertwined in the implementation of cloud CRM in banking sector and provide reliable solutions.

Keywords: Banking sector, cloud computing, cloud CRM, strategy.

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1741 Lamb Wave Wireless Communication in Healthy Plates Using Coherent Demodulation

Authors: Rudy Bahouth, Farouk Benmeddour, Emmanuel Moulin, Jamal Assaad

Abstract:

Guided ultrasonic waves are used in Non-Destructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring for inspection and damage detection. Recently, wireless data transmission using ultrasonic waves in solid metallic channels has gained popularity in some industrial applications such as nuclear, aerospace and smart vehicles. The idea is to find a good substitute for electromagnetic waves since they are highly attenuated near metallic components due to Faraday shielding. The proposed solution is to use ultrasonic guided waves such as Lamb waves as an information carrier due to their capability of propagation for long distances. In addition to this, valuable information about the health of the structure could be extracted simultaneously. In this work, the reliable frequency bandwidth for communication is extracted experimentally from dispersion curves at first. Then, an experimental platform for wireless communication using Lamb waves is described and built. After this, coherent demodulation algorithm used in telecommunications is tested for Amplitude Shift Keying, On-Off Keying and Binary Phase Shift Keying modulation techniques. Signal processing parameters such as threshold choice, number of cycles per bit and Bit Rate are optimized. Experimental results are compared based on the average bit error percentage. Results has shown high sensitivity to threshold selection for Amplitude Shift Keying and On-Off Keying techniques resulting a Bit Rate decrease. Binary Phase Shift Keying technique shows the highest stability and data rate between all tested modulation techniques.

Keywords: Lamb Wave Communication, wireless communication, coherent demodulation, bit error percentage.

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1740 A Modern Review of the Spintronic Technology: Fundamentals, Materials, Devices, Circuits, Challenges, and Current Research Trends

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan

Abstract:

Spintronic, also termed spin electronics or spin transport electronics, is a kind of new technology, which exploits the two fundamental degrees of freedom- spin-state and charge-state of electrons to enhance the operational speed for the data storage and transfer efficiency of the device. Thus, it seems an encouraging technology to combat most of the prevailing complications in orthodox electron-based devices. This novel technology possesses the capacity to mix the semiconductor microelectronics and magnetic devices’ functionalities into one integrated circuit. Traditional semiconductor microelectronic devices use only the electronic charge to process the information based on binary numbers, 0 and 1. Due to the incessant shrinking of the transistor size, we are reaching the final limit of 1 nm or so. At this stage, the fabrication and other device operational processes will become challenging as the quantum effect comes into play. In this situation, we should find an alternative future technology, and spintronic may be such technology to transfer and store information. This review article provides a detailed discussion of the spintronic technology: fundamentals, materials, devices, circuits, challenges, and current research trends. At first, the fundamentals of spintronics technology are discussed. Then types, properties, and other issues of the spintronic materials are presented. After that, fabrication and working principles, as well as application areas and advantages/disadvantages of spintronic devices and circuits, are explained. Finally, the current challenges, current research areas, and prospects of spintronic technology are highlighted. This is a new paradigm of electronic cum magnetic devices built on the charge and spin of the electrons. Modern engineering and technological advances in search of new materials for this technology give us hope that this would be a very optimistic technology in the upcoming days.

Keywords: Spintronic technology, spin, charge, magnetic devices, spintronic devices, spintronic materials.

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1739 Vulnerability Analysis for Risk Zones Boundary Definition to Support a Decision Making Process at CBRNE Operations

Authors: Aliaksei Patsekha, Michael Hohenberger, Harald Raupenstrauch

Abstract:

An effective emergency response to accidents with chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive materials (CBRNE) that represent highly dynamic situations needs immediate actions within limited time, information and resources. The aim of the study is to provide the foundation for division of unsafe area into risk zones according to the impact of hazardous parameters (heat radiation, thermal dose, overpressure, chemical concentrations). A decision on the boundary values for three risk zones is based on the vulnerability analysis that covered a variety of accident scenarios containing the release of a toxic or flammable substance which either evaporates, ignites and/or explodes. Critical values are selected for the boundary definition of the Red, Orange and Yellow risk zones upon the examination of harmful effects that are likely to cause injuries of varying severity to people and different levels of damage to structures. The obtained results provide the basis for creating a comprehensive real-time risk map for a decision support at CBRNE operations.

Keywords: Boundary values, CBRNE threats, decision making process, hazardous effects, vulnerability analysis, risk zones.

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1738 Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Comparative Analysis: Modulation Formats and Channel Spacings

Authors: A. Fayad, Q. Alqhazaly, T. Cinkler

Abstract:

In light of the substantial increase in end-user requirements and the incessant need of network operators to upgrade the capabilities of access networks, in this paper, the performance of the different modulation formats on eight-channels Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (TWDM-PON) transmission system has been examined and compared. Limitations and features of modulation formats have been determined to outline the most suitable design to enhance the data rate and transmission reach to obtain the best performance of the network. The considered modulation formats are On-Off Keying Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ-OOK), Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero (CSRZ), Duo Binary (DB), Modified Duo Binary (MODB), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), and Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK). The performance has been analyzed by varying transmission distances and bit rates under different channel spacing. Furthermore, the system is evaluated in terms of minimum Bit Error Rate (BER) and Quality factor (Qf) without applying any dispersion compensation technique, or any optical amplifier. Optisystem software was used for simulation purposes.

Keywords: Bit Error Rate, BER, Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero, CSRZ, Duo Binary, DB, Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, DQPSK, Modified Duo Binary, MODB, On-Off Keying Non-Return-to-Zero, NRZ-OOK, Quality factor, Qf, Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network, TWDM-PON.

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1737 Film Sensors for the Harsh Environment Application

Authors: Wenmin Qu

Abstract:

A capacitance level sensor with a segmented film electrode and a thin-film volume flow sensor with an innovative by-pass sleeve is presented as industrial products for the application in a harsh environment. The working principle of such sensors is well known; however, the traditional sensors show some limitations for certain industrial measurements. The two sensors presented in this paper overcome this limitation and enlarge the application spectrum. The problem is analyzed, and the solution is given. The emphasis of the paper is on developing the problem-solving concepts and the realization of the corresponding measuring circuits. These should give advice and encouragement, how we can still develop electronic measuring products in an almost saturated market.

Keywords: By-pass sleeve, charge transfer circuit, fixed ΔT circuit, harsh environment, industrial application, segmented electrode.

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1736 Miniaturized Wideband Single-Feed Shorted-Edge Stacked Patch Antenna for C-Band Applications

Authors: Abdelheq Boukarkar, Omar Guermoua

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a miniaturized and wideband patch antenna for C-band applications. The antenna miniaturization is obtained by loading shorting vias along one patch edge. At the same time, the wideband performance is achieved by combining two resonances using one feed line. The measured results reveal that the antenna covers the frequency band 4.32 GHz to 6.52 GHz (41%) with a peak gain and a peak efficiency of 5.5 dBi and 87%, respectively. The antenna occupies a relatively small size of only 26 x 22 x 5.6 mm3, making it suitable for compact wireless devices requiring a stable unidirectional gain over a wide frequency range.

Keywords: Miniaturized antennas, patch antennas, stable gain, wideband antennas.

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1735 Evaluating the Feasibility of Magnetic Induction to Cross an Air-Water Boundary

Authors: Mark Watson, J.-F. Bousquet, Adam Forget

Abstract:

A magnetic induction based underwater communication link is evaluated using an analytical model and a custom Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation tool. The analytical model is based on the Sommerfeld integral, and a full-wave simulation tool evaluates Maxwell’s equations using the FDTD method in cylindrical coordinates. The analytical model and FDTD simulation tool are then compared and used to predict the system performance for various transmitter depths and optimum frequencies of operation. To this end, the system bandwidth, signal to noise ratio, and the magnitude of the induced voltage are used to estimate the expected channel capacity. The models show that in seawater, a relatively low-power and small coils may be capable of obtaining a throughput of 40 to 300 kbps, for the case where a transmitter is at depths of 1 to 3 m and a receiver is at a height of 1 m.

Keywords: Magnetic Induction, FDTD, Underwater Communication, Sommerfeld.

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1734 Random Access in IoT Using Naïve Bayes Classification

Authors: Alhusein Almahjoub, Dongyu Qiu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the random access procedure in next-generation networks and presents the solution to reduce total service time (TST) which is one of the most important performance metrics in current and future internet of things (IoT) based networks. The proposed solution focuses on the calculation of optimal transmission probability which maximizes the success probability and reduces TST. It uses the information of several idle preambles in every time slot, and based on it, it estimates the number of backlogged IoT devices using Naïve Bayes estimation which is a type of supervised learning in the machine learning domain. The estimation of backlogged devices is necessary since optimal transmission probability depends on it and the eNodeB does not have information about it. The simulations are carried out in MATLAB which verify that the proposed solution gives excellent performance.

Keywords: Random access, LTE/LTE-A, 5G, machine learning, Naïve Bayes estimation.

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1733 Impedance Matching of Axial Mode Helical Antennas

Authors: Hossein Mardani, Neil Buchanan, Robert Cahill, Vincent Fusco

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas to find an effective way for matching it to 50 Ω. The study is done on the important matching parameters such as like wire diameter and helix to the ground plane gap. It is intended that these parameters control the matching without detrimentally affecting the radiation pattern. Using transmission line theory, a simple broadband technique is proposed, which is applicable for perfect matching of antennas with similar design parameters. We provide design curves to help to choose the proper dimensions of the matching section based on the antenna’s unmatched input impedance. Finally, using the proposed technique, a 4-turn axial mode helix is designed at 2.5 GHz center frequency and the measurement results of the manufactured antenna will be included. This parametric study gives a good insight into the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas and the proposed impedance matching approach provides a simple, useful method for matching these types of antennas.

Keywords: Antenna, helix, helical, axial mode, wireless power transfer, impedance matching.

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1732 Integrated Grey Rational Analysis-Standard Deviation Method for Handover in Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Naveed Nawaz, Mahmoud Al-Faris

Abstract:

The dense deployment of small cells is a promising solution to enhance the coverage and capacity of the heterogeneous networks (HetNets). However, the unplanned deployment could bring new challenges to the network ranging from interference, unnecessary handovers and handover failures. This will cause a degradation in the quality of service (QoS) delivered to the end user. In this paper, we propose an integrated Grey Rational Analysis Standard Deviation based handover method (GRA-SD) for HetNet. The proposed method integrates the Standard Deviation (SD) technique to acquire the weight of the handover metrics and the GRA method to select the best handover base station. The performance of the GRA-SD method is evaluated and compared with the traditional Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) methods including Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) and VIKOR methods. Results reveal that the proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of minimizing the number of frequent unnecessary handovers and handover failures, in addition to improving the energy efficiency.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, handover, HetNets, MADM, small cells.

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1731 Handover for Dense Small Cells Heterogeneous Networks: A Power-Efficient Game Theoretical Approach

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Li Zhang, Naveed Nawaz

Abstract:

In this paper, a non-cooperative game method is formulated where all players compete to transmit at higher power. Every base station represents a player in the game. The game is solved by obtaining the Nash equilibrium (NE) where the game converges to optimality. The proposed method, named Power Efficient Handover Game Theoretic (PEHO-GT) approach, aims to control the handover in dense small cell networks. Players optimize their payoff by adjusting the transmission power to improve the performance in terms of throughput, handover, power consumption and load balancing. To select the desired transmission power for a player, the payoff function considers the gain of increasing the transmission power. Then, the cell selection takes place by deploying Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). A game theoretical method is implemented for heterogeneous networks to validate the improvement obtained. Results reveal that the proposed method gives a throughput improvement while reducing the power consumption and minimizing the frequent handover.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, game theory, handover, HetNets, small cells.

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1730 Impact of Gate Insulation Material and Thickness on Pocket Implanted MOS Device

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan

Abstract:

This paper reports on the impact study with the variation of the gate insulation material and thickness on different models of pocket implanted sub-100 nm n-MOS device. The gate materials used here are silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum silicate (Al2SiO5), silicon nitride (Si3N4), alumina (Al2O3), hafnium silicate (HfSiO4), tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5), hafnium dioxide (HfO2), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and lanthanum oxide (La2O3) upon a p-type silicon substrate material. The gate insulation thickness was varied from 2.0 nm to 3.5 nm for a 50 nm channel length pocket implanted n-MOSFET. There are several models available for this device. We have studied and simulated threshold voltage model incorporating drain and substrate bias effects, surface potential, inversion layer charge, pinch-off voltage, effective electric field, inversion layer mobility, and subthreshold drain current models based on two linear symmetric pocket doping profiles. We have changed the values of the two parameters, viz. gate insulation material and thickness gradually fixing the other parameter at their typical values. Then we compared and analyzed the simulation results. This study would be helpful for the nano-scaled MOS device designers for various applications to predict the device behavior.

Keywords: Linear symmetric pocket profile, pocket implanted n-MOS Device, model, impact of gate material, insulator thickness.

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1729 Determining Optimum Time Multiplier Setting of Overcurrent Relays Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

Authors: P. N. Korde, P. P. Bedekar

Abstract:

The time coordination of overcurrent relays (OCR) in a power distribution network is of great importance, as it reduces the power outages by avoiding the mal-operation of the backup relays. For this, the optimum value of the time multiplier setting (TMS) of OCRs should be chosen. The problem of determining the optimum value of TMS of OCRs in power distribution networks is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. The objective is to find the optimum value of TMS of OCRs to minimize the time of operation of relays under the constraint of maintaining the coordination of relays. A power distribution network can have a combination of numerical and electromechanical relays. The TMS of numerical relays can be set to any real value (which satisfies the constraints of the problem), whereas the TMS of electromechanical relays can be set in fixed step (0 to 1 in steps of 0.05). The main contribution of this paper is a formulation of the problem as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problem and application of Gomory's cutting plane method to find the optimum value of TMS of OCRs. The TMS of electromechanical relays are taken as integers in the range 1 to 20 in the step of 1, and these values are mapped to 0.05 to 1 in the step of 0.05. The results obtained are compared with those obtained using a simplex method and its variants. It has been shown that the mixed-integer linear programming method outperforms the simplex method (and its variants) in the case of a system having a combination of numerical and electromechanical relays.

Keywords: Backup protection, constrained optimization, Gomory's cutting plane method, mixed-integer linear programming, overcurrent relay coordination, simplex method.

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1728 Facial Expression Phoenix (FePh): An Annotated Sequenced Dataset for Facial and Emotion-Specified Expressions in Sign Language

Authors: Marie Alaghband, Niloofar Yousefi, Ivan Garibay

Abstract:

Facial expressions are important parts of both gesture and sign language recognition systems. Despite the recent advances in both fields, annotated facial expression datasets in the context of sign language are still scarce resources. In this manuscript, we introduce an annotated sequenced facial expression dataset in the context of sign language, comprising over 3000 facial images extracted from the daily news and weather forecast of the public tv-station PHOENIX. Unlike the majority of currently existing facial expression datasets, FePh provides sequenced semi-blurry facial images with different head poses, orientations, and movements. In addition, in the majority of images, identities are mouthing the words, which makes the data more challenging. To annotate this dataset we consider primary, secondary, and tertiary dyads of seven basic emotions of "sad", "surprise", "fear", "angry", "neutral", "disgust", and "happy". We also considered the "None" class if the image’s facial expression could not be described by any of the aforementioned emotions. Although we provide FePh as a facial expression dataset of signers in sign language, it has a wider application in gesture recognition and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems.

Keywords: Annotated Facial Expression Dataset, Sign Language Recognition, Gesture Recognition, Sequenced Facial Expression Dataset.

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1727 Performance Analysis of 5G for Low Latency Transmission Based on Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier Technique and Interleave Division Multiple Access

Authors: A. Asgharzadeh, M. Maroufi

Abstract:

5G mobile communication system has drawn more and more attention. The 5G system needs to provide three different types of services, including enhanced Mobile BroadBand (eMBB), massive machine-type communication (mMTC), and ultra-reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC). Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC), Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC), and Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (f-OFDM) are suggested as a well-known candidate waveform for the coming 5G system. Themachine-to-machine (M2M) communications are one of the essential applications in 5G, and it involves exchanging of concise messages with a very short latency. However, in UFMC systems, the subcarriers are grouped into subbands but f-OFDM only one subband covers the entire band. Furthermore, in FBMC, a subband includes only one subcarrier, and the number of subbands is the same as the number of subcarriers. This paper mainly discusses the performance of UFMC with different parameters for the UFMC system. Also, paper shows that UFMC is the best choice outperforming OFDM in any case and FBMC in case of very short packets while performing similarly for long sequences with channel estimation techniques for Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) systems.

Keywords: UFMC, IDMA, 5G, subband.

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1726 Performance Evaluation of Clustered Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Awatef Chniguir, Tarek Farah, Zouhair Ben Jemaa, Safya Belguith

Abstract:

Optimal routing allows minimizing energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Clustering has proven its effectiveness in organizing WSN by reducing channel contention and packet collision and enhancing network throughput under heavy load. Therefore, nowadays, with the emergence of the Internet of Things, heterogeneity is essential. Stable election protocol (SEP) that has increased the network stability period and lifetime is the first clustering protocol for heterogeneous WSN. SEP and its descendants, namely SEP, Threshold Sensitive SEP (TSEP), Enhanced TSEP (ETSSEP) and Current Energy Allotted TSEP (CEATSEP), were studied. These algorithms’ performance was evaluated based on different metrics, especially first node death (FND), to compare their stability. Simulations were conducted on the MATLAB tool considering two scenarios: The first one demonstrates the fraction variation of advanced nodes by setting the number of total nodes. The second considers the interpretation of the number of nodes while keeping the number of advanced nodes permanent. CEATSEP outperforms its antecedents by increasing stability and, at the same time, keeping a low throughput. It also operates very well in a large-scale network. Consequently, CEATSEP has a useful lifespan and energy efficiency compared to the other routing protocol for heterogeneous WSN.

Keywords: Clustering, heterogeneous, stability, scalability, throughput, IoT, WSN.

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1725 Impairments Correction of Six-Port Based Millimeter-Wave Radar

Authors: Dan Ohev Zion, Alon Cohen

Abstract:

In recent years, the presence of short-range millimeter-wave radar in civil application has increased significantly. Autonomous driving, security, 3D imaging and high data rate communication systems are a few examples. The next challenge is the integration inside small form-factor devices, such as smartphones (e.g. gesture recognition). The main challenge is implementation of a truly low-power, low-complexity high-resolution radar. The most popular approach is the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar, with an analog multiplication front-end. In this paper, we present an approach for adaptive estimation and correction of impairments of such front-end, specifically implemented using the Six-Port Device (SPD) as the multiplier element. The proposed algorithm was simulated and implemented on a 60 GHz radar lab prototype.

Keywords: Radar, millimeter-wave, six-port, FMCW Radar, IQ mismatch.

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1724 Deployment of Beyond 4G Wireless Communication Networks with Carrier Aggregation

Authors: Bahram Khan, Anderson Rocha Ramos, Rui R. Paulo, Fernando J. Velez

Abstract:

With the growing demand for a new blend of applications, the users dependency on the internet is increasing day by day. Mobile internet users are giving more attention to their own experiences, especially in terms of communication reliability, high data rates and service stability on move. This increase in the demand is causing saturation of existing radio frequency bands. To address these challenges, researchers are investigating the best approaches, Carrier Aggregation (CA) is one of the newest innovations, which seems to fulfill the demands of the future spectrum, also CA is one the most important feature for Long Term Evolution - Advanced (LTE-Advanced). For this purpose to get the upcoming International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-Advanced) mobile requirements (1 Gb/s peak data rate), the CA scheme is presented by 3GPP, which would sustain a high data rate using widespread frequency bandwidth up to 100 MHz. Technical issues such as aggregation structure, its implementations, deployment scenarios, control signal techniques, and challenges for CA technique in LTE-Advanced, with consideration of backward compatibility, are highlighted in this paper. Also, performance evaluation in macro-cellular scenarios through a simulation approach is presented, which shows the benefits of applying CA, low-complexity multi-band schedulers in service quality, system capacity enhancement and concluded that enhanced multi-band scheduler is less complex than the general multi-band scheduler, which performs better for a cell radius longer than 1800 m (and a PLR threshold of 2%).

Keywords: Component carrier, carrier aggregation, LTE-Advanced, scheduling, spectrum management.

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1723 Photodetector Engineering with Plasmonic Properties

Authors: Hasan Furkan Kurt, Tugba Nur Atabey, Onat Cavit Dereli, Ahmad Salmanogli, H. Selcuk Gecim

Abstract:

In the article, the main goal is to study the effect of the plasmonic properties on the photocurrent generated by a photodetector. Fundamentally, a typical photodetector is designed and simulated using the finite element methods. To utilize the plasmonic effect, gold nanoparticles with different shape, size and morphology are buried into the intrinsic region. Plasmonic effect is arisen through the interaction of the incoming light with nanoparticles by which electrical properties of the photodetector are manipulated. In fact, using plasmonic nanoparticles not only increases the absorption bandwidth of the incoming light, but also generates a high intensity near-field close to the plasmonic nanoparticles. Those properties strongly affect the generated photocurrent. The simulation results show that using plasmonic nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrical properties of the photodetectors. More importantly, one can easily manipulate the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles through engineering the nanoparticles' size, shape and morphology. Another important phenomenon is plasmon-plasmon interaction inside the photodetector. It is shown that plasmon-plasmon interaction improves the electron-hole generation rate by which the rate of the current generation is severely enhanced. This is the key factor that we want to focus on, to improve the photodetector electrical properties.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, plasmonic, plasmon-plasmon interaction, plasmonic photodetector.

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1722 Optimization Modeling of the Hybrid Antenna Array for the DoA Estimation

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian

Abstract:

The direction of arrival (DoA) estimation is the crucial aspect of the radar technologies for detecting and dividing several signal sources. In this scenario, the antenna array output modeling involves numerous parameters including noise samples, signal waveform, signal directions, signal number, and signal to noise ratio (SNR), and thereby the methods of the DoA estimation rely heavily on the generalization characteristic for establishing a large number of the training data sets. Hence, we have analogously represented the two different optimization models of the DoA estimation; (1) the implementation of the decision directed acyclic graph (DDAG) for the multiclass least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and (2) the optimization method of the deep neural network (DNN) radial basis function (RBF). We have rigorously verified that the LS-SVM DDAG algorithm is capable of accurately classifying DoAs for the three classes. However, the accuracy and robustness of the DoA estimation are still highly sensitive to technological imperfections of the antenna arrays such as non-ideal array design and manufacture, array implementation, mutual coupling effect, and background radiation and thereby the method may fail in representing high precision for the DoA estimation. Therefore, this work has a further contribution on developing the DNN-RBF model for the DoA estimation for overcoming the limitations of the non-parametric and data-driven methods in terms of array imperfection and generalization. The numerical results of implementing the DNN-RBF model have confirmed the better performance of the DoA estimation compared with the LS-SVM algorithm. Consequently, we have analogously evaluated the performance of utilizing the two aforementioned optimization methods for the DoA estimation using the concept of the mean squared error (MSE).

Keywords: DoA estimation, adaptive antenna array, Deep Neural Network, LS-SVM optimization model, radial basis function, MSE.

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1721 Security in Resource Constraints Network Light Weight Encryption for Z-MAC

Authors: Mona Almansoori, Ahmed Mustafa, Ahmad Elshamy

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network was formed by a combination of nodes, systematically it transmitting the data to their base stations, this transmission data can be easily compromised if the limited processing power and the data consistency from these nodes are kept in mind; there is always a discussion to address the secure data transfer or transmission in actual time. This will present a mechanism to securely transmit the data over a chain of sensor nodes without compromising the throughput of the network by utilizing available battery resources available in the sensor node. Our methodology takes many different advantages of Z-MAC protocol for its efficiency, and it provides a unique key by sharing the mechanism using neighbor node MAC address. We present a light weighted data integrity layer which is embedded in the Z-MAC protocol to prove that our protocol performs well than Z-MAC when we introduce the different attack scenarios.

Keywords: Hybrid MAC protocol, data integrity, lightweight encryption, Neighbor based key sharing, Sensor node data processing, Z-MAC.

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