Publications | Chemical and Materials Engineering
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Chemical and Materials Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

69 The Effect of Bath Composition for Hot-Dip Aluminizing of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: Aptullah Karakaş, Murat Baydoğan

Abstract:

In the HDA process, Al or Al-Si molten baths are mostly used. However, in this study, three different Al alloys such as Al4043 (Al-Mg), Al5356 (Al-Si) and Al7020 (Al-Zn) were used as the molten bath in order to see their effects on morphological and mechanical properties of the resulting aluminide layers. AISI 4140 low alloyed steel was used as the substrate. Parameters of the HDA process were bath composition, bath temperature, and dipping time. These parameters were considered within a Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. After the HDA process and subsequent diffusion annealing, coating thickness measurement, microstructural analysis and hardness measurement of the aluminide layers were conducted. The optimum process parameters were evaluated according to coating morphology such as cracks, Kirkendall porosity and hardness of the coatings. According to the results, smooth and clean aluminide layer with less Kirkendall porosity and cracks were observed on the sample, which was aluminized in the molten Al7020 bath at 700 C for 10 minutes, and subsequently diffusion annealed at 750 C. Hardness of the aluminide layer was in between 1100-1300 hardness of Vickers (HV) and the coating thickness was approximately 400 µm. The results were promising such that a hard and thick aluminide layer with less Kirkendall porosity and cracks could be formed. It is therefore, concluded that Al7020 bath may be used in the HDA process of AISI 4140 steel substrate.

Keywords: Aluminum alloys, coating, hot-dip aluminizing, microstructure.

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68 Copper Oxide Doped Carbon Catalyst for Anodic Half-Cell of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

Authors: Irshad U. Khan, Tanmay Paul, Murali Mohan Seepana

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on synthesizing and characterizing a Copper Oxide Doped Carbon (CuO-C) electrocatalyst for the negative half-cell reactions of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB). The CuO was synthesized using a microreactor. The electrocatalyst was characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical performance was assessed by Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV). The findings suggest that the synthesized CuO exhibited favorable crystallinity, morphology, and surface area, leading to improved cell performance.

Keywords: ECSA, electrocatalyst, energy storage, Tafel.

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67 Friction Behavior of Wood-Plastic Composites against Uncoated Cemented Carbide

Authors: A. Vilutis, V. Jankauskas

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of the investigation of the dry sliding friction of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) against tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) hard alloy. The dependence of the dynamic coefficient of friction on the main influencing factors (vertical load, temperature, and sliding distance) was investigated by evaluating their mutual interaction. Multiple regression analysis showed a high polynomial dependence (adjusted R2 > 0.98). The resistance of the composite to thermo-mechanical effects determines how temperature and force factors affect the magnitude of the coefficient of friction. WPC-B composite has the lowest friction and highest resistance compared to WPC-A, while composite and cemented carbide materials wear the least. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), based on elemental composition, provided important insights into the friction process.

Keywords: Friction, composite, carbide, temperature.

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66 First-Principle Investigation of the Electronic Band Structure and Dielectric Response Function of ZnIn2Se4 and ZnIn2Te4

Authors: Nnamdi N. Omehe, Chibuzo Emeruwa

Abstract:

ZnIn2Se4 and ZnIn2Te4 are vacancy defect materials whose properties have been investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) framework. The pseudopotential method in conjunction with the LDA+U technique and the Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) was used to calculate the electronic band structure, total density of state, and the partial density of state; while the norm-conserving pseudopotential was used to calculate the dielectric response function with scissors shift. Both ZnIn2Se4 and ZnIn2Te4 were predicted to be semiconductors with energy band gap of 1.66 eV and 1.33 eV respectively, and they both have direct energy band gap at the gamma point of high symmetry. The topmost valence subband for ZnIn2Se4 and ZnIn2Te4 has an energy width of 5.7 eV and 6.0 eV respectively. The calculations of partial density of state (PDOS) show that for ZnIn2Se4, the top of the valence band is dominated by Se-4p orbital, while the bottom of the conduction band is composed of In-5p, In-5s, and Zn-4s states. PDOS for ZnIn2Te4, shows that the top of the valence band is mostly of Te-5p states, while its conduction band bottom is composed mainly of Zn-4s, Te-5p, Te-5s, and In-5s states. Dielectric response function calculation yielded (0) of 11.9 and 36 for ZnIn2Se4 and ZnIn2Te4 respectively.

Keywords: Optoelectronic, Dielectric Response Function, LDA+U, band structure calculation.

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65 Utilizing Taguchi Experimental Design for Optimizing Effective Parameters in Tire Vulcanization

Authors: Ipak Torkpour

Abstract:

In order to convert natural rubber or related polymers to material with varying physical properties such as elastic modulus or durability, a chemical process named sulfur vulcanization is needed. This can be either done by heating sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds. The main goal of this process is to produce untreated natural rubber latex that can be the main source of manufacturing for several rubber producers. Temperature, pressure, and time are considered as three crucial factors in the tire vulcanization process. The present study is an attempt to optimize these crucial parameters, with the aim of achieving maximum tire modulus using Taguchi experimental design. The results revealed that the optimal parameter values are as follows: a temperature of 170 °C, a pressure of 110 bar, and a time duration of 230 seconds. Under these optimized conditions, the obtained tire modulus reached 8.8 kgf.

Keywords: Rubber vulcanization, experimental design, Taguchi, polymers.

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64 Critical Properties of Charged Filter Membranes for Their Applications in Filtration

Authors: S. Bokka

Abstract:

Fiber filter membranes have a high surface area-to-volume ratio and high porosity making them ideal for various filtration and separation applications. Using the conventional filter membrane, a filtration efficiency of > 95% can be achieved. Specific applications such as air and fuel filtration require nearly 100% filtration efficiency, which is harder to achieve using conventional filter membranes. To achieve high filtration efficiencies additional costs are incurred due to increasing the cost of membrane and operating cost. Due to the simultaneous electrostatic attraction and mechanical capture, the electret filters have shown nearly 100% filtration efficiency. This article presents an overview of the charged filter membrane, its applications, and a discussion on factors contributing to increasing charge.

Keywords: Charged fiber membrane, piezoelectric materials, filtration, polymeric materials.

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63 One-Pot Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Calliandra calothyrsus Leaf Extract

Authors: Indah Kurniawaty, Yoki Yulizar, Haryo Satrya Oktaviano, Adam Kusuma Rianto

Abstract:

Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NP) were successfully synthesized in this study using a one-pot green synthesis mediated by Calliandra calothyrsus leaf extract (CLE). CLE was prepared by maceration of the leaf using methanol with a ratio of 1:5 for 7 days. Secondary metabolites in CLE, such as alkaloids and flavonoids, served as a weak base provider and capping agent in the formation of MgO NP. CLE Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectra peak at 3255 cm-1, 1600 cm-1, 1384 cm-1, 1205 cm-1, 1041 cm-1, and 667 cm-1 showing the presence of vibrations O-H stretching, N-H bending, C-C stretching, C-N stretching and N-H wagging. During the experiment, different CLE volumes and calcined temperatures were used, resulting in a variety of structures. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS) and FTIR were used to characterize metal oxide particles. MgO diffraction patterns at 2θ of 36.9°; 42.9°; 62.2°; 74.6°; and 78.5° can be assigned to crystal planes (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222), respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology. The morphology ranged from sphere to flower-like resulting in crystallite sizes of 28 nm, 23 nm, 12 nm, and 9 nm.

Keywords: Calliandra calothyrsus, green-synthesis, magnesium oxide, nanoparticle.

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62 Preparation and Characterization of Recycled PET/PP Blends from Automotive Textile Waste for Use in the Furniture Edge Banding Sector

Authors: Merve Ozer, Tolga Gokkurt, Yasemen Gokkurt, Ezgi Bozbey

Abstract:

In this study, research has been conducted on the recovery of automotive textile waste, which has heavy use in the automotive sector and consists of PET/PP content, through the upcycling technique of post-product and post-consumer usage. The aim is to investigate the formulation and production methods that will enable the substitution of original PP raw materials, used in the production of plastic edge bands, with PP/PET alloys. The lamination structure of the mentioned waste makes it impossible to separate the incompatible PP and PET phases, thereby hindering the production of high-quality raw materials or products through recycling. In this study, a comprehensive process was examined through a two-step production process using different types of block and maleic-grafted copolymers to achieve compatibility between these two incompatible phases. The obtained plastic raw materials, referred to as PP/PET blends, were examined in detail, with a focus on their mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties, to discuss their substitutability for the original raw materials.

Keywords: Twin screw extruders, mechanical recycling, melt blending, plastic blends, polyethylene, polypropylene, recycling of plastics.

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61 Ammonia Adsorption Properties of Composite Ammonia Carriers Obtained by Supporting Metal Chloride on Porous Materials

Authors: Cheng Shen, LaiHong Shen

Abstract:

Ammonia is an important carrier of hydrogen energy, with the characteristics of high hydrogen content density and no carbon dioxide emission. Safe and efficient ammonia capture for ammonia synthesis from biomass is an important way to alleviate the energy crisis and solve the energy problem. Metal chloride has a chemical adsorption effect on ammonia and can be desorbed at high temperatures to obtain high-concentration ammonia after combining with ammonia, which has a good development prospect in ammonia capture and separation technology. In this paper, the ammonia adsorption properties of CuCl2 were measured, and the composite adsorbents were prepared by using silicon and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively to support CuCl2, and the ammonia adsorption properties of the composite adsorbents were studied. The study found that the ammonia adsorption capacity of the three adsorbents decreased with the increase in temperature, so metal chlorides were more suitable for the low-temperature adsorption of ammonia. Silicon and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have an enhanced effect on the ammonia adsorption of CuCl2. The reason is that the porous material itself has a physical adsorption effect on ammonia, and silicon can play the role of skeleton support in cupric chloride particles, which enhances the pore structure of the adsorbent, thereby alleviating sintering.

Keywords: Ammonia, adsorption properties, metal chloride, MWCNTs, silicon.

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60 Electron Spin Resonance of Conduction Electrons and Spin Waves Dynamics Investigations in Bi-2223 Superconductor for Decoding Pairing Mechanism

Authors: S. N. Ekbote, G. K. Padam, Manju Arora

Abstract:

Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic investigations of (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x (Bi-2223) bulk samples were carried out in both the normal and superconducting states. A broad asymmetric resonance signal with side signals is obtained in the normal state, and all of them disappear in the superconducting state. The temperature and angular orientation effects on these signals suggest that the broad asymmetric signal arises from electron spin resonance of conduction electrons (CESR) and the side signals from exchange interactions as Platzman-Wolff type spin waves. The disappearance of CESR and spin waves in a superconducting state demonstrates the role of exchange interactions in Cooper pair formation.

Keywords: Bi-2223 superconductor, electron spin resonance of conduction electrons, electron spin resonance, Exchange interactions, spin waves.

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59 Preparation and Characterization of Pure PVA and PVA/MMT Matrix: Effect of Thermal Treatment

Authors: Albana Hasimi, Edlira Tako, Partizan Malkaj, Elvin Çomo, Blerina Papajani, Mirela Ndrita, Ledjan Malaj

Abstract:

Many endeavors have been exerted during the last years for developing new artificial polymeric membranes, which fulfill the demanded conditions for biomedical uses. One of the most tested polymers is Poly(vinyl alcohol) [PVA]. Our teams are based on the possibility of using PVA for personal protective equipment against COVID-19. In personal protective equipment, we explore the possibility of modifying the properties of the polymer by adding Montmorillonite [MMT]. Heat-treatment above the glass transition temperature is used to improve mechanical properties mainly by increasing the crystallinity of the polymer, which acts as a physical network. Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC) measurements indicated that the presence of 0.5% MMT in PVA causes a higher Tg value and shaped peak of crystallinity. Decomposition is observed at two of the melting points of the crystals during heating 25-240 oC and overlap of the recrystallization ridges during cooling 240-25 oC. This is indicative of the presence of two types (quality or structure) of polymer crystals. On the other hand, some indication of improvement of the quality of the crystals by heat-treatment is given by the distinct non-reversing contribution to melting. Data on sorption and transport of water in PVA films: PVA pure and PVA/MMT matrix, modified by thermal treatment are presented. The membranes become more rigid as a result of the heat treatment and because of this the water uptake is significantly lower in membranes. That is indicated by analysis of the resulting water uptake kinetics. The presence of 0.5% w/w of MMT has no significant impact on the properties of PVA membranes. Water uptake kinetics deviate from Fick’s law due to slow relaxation of glassy polymer matrix for all types of membranes.

Keywords: Crystallinity, montmorillonite, nanocomposite, poly(vinyl alcohol).

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58 Investigation and Identification of a Number of Precious and Semi-Precious Stones Related to Bam Historical Citadel Using Micro Raman Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy

Authors: Nazli Darkhal

Abstract:

The use of gems and ornaments has been common in Iran since the beginning of history. The prosperity of the country, the wealth, and the interest of the people of this land in a luxurious and glorious life, combined with beauty, have always attracted the attention of Iranian people to gems and jewelry. Iranians are famous in the world for having a long history of collecting and recognizing precious stones. In this case, we can use the unique treasure of national jewelry. Raman spectroscopy method is one of the oscillating spectroscopy methods that is classified in the group of nondestructive study methods, and like other methods, in addition to several advantages, it also has disadvantages and problems. Micro Raman spectroscopy is one of the different types of Raman spectroscopy in which an optical microscope is combined with a Raman device to provide more capabilities and advantages than its original method. In this way, with the help of Raman spectroscopy and a light microscope, while observing more details from different parts of the historical sample, natural or artificial pigments can be identified in a small part of it. The EDX (Energy Dispersive X ray) electron microscope also functions as the basis for the interaction of the electron beam with the matter. The beams emitted from this interaction can be used to examine samples. In this article, in addition to introducing the micro-Raman spectroscopy method, studies have been conducted on the structure of three samples of existing stones in the historic citadel of Bam. Using this method of study on precious and semi-precious stones, in addition to requiring a short time, can provide us with complete information about the structure and theme of these samples. The results of experiments and gemology of the stones showed that the selected beads are agate and jasper, and they can be placed in the chalcedony group.

Keywords: Bam citadel, precious stones, semi-precious stones, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope.

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57 Analyzing the Performance of Phase Change Material Insulation Layer on Food Packaging

Authors: Kasra Ghaemi, Syeda Tasnim, Shohel Mahmud

Abstract:

One of the main issues affecting the quality and shelf life of food products is temperature fluctuation during transportation and storage. Packaging plays an important role in protecting food from environmental conditions, especially thermal variations. In this study, the performance of using microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM) as a promising thermal buffer layer in smart food packaging is investigated. The considered insulation layer is evaluated for different thicknesses and the absorbed heat from the environment. The results are presented in terms of the melting time of PCM or provided thermal protection period.

Keywords: Food packaging, phase change material, thermal buffer, protection time.

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56 Restored CO2 from Flue Gas and Utilization by Converting to Methanol by 3 Step Processes: Steam Reforming, Reverse Water Gas Shift, and Hydrogenation

Authors: R. Jitrwung, K. Krekkeitsakul, C. Kumpidet, J. Tepkeaw, K. Jaikengdee, A. Wannajampa, W. Pathaveekongka

Abstract:

Flue gas discharging from coal fired or gas combustion power plant is containing partially carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 is a greenhouse gas which has been concerned to the global warming. Carbon Capture Storage and Utilization (CCSU) is a topic which is a tool to deal with this CO2 realization. In this paper, the Flue gas is drawn down from the chimney and filtered then it is compressed to build up the pressure until 8 barg. This compressed flue gas is sent to three stages Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) which is filled with activated carbon. The experiment showed the optimum adsorption pressure at 7 barg at which CO2 can be adsorbed step by step in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd stages obtaining CO2 concentration 29.8, 66.4, and 96.7% respectively. The mixed gas concentration from the last step composed of 96.7% CO2, 2.7% N2 and 0.6% O2. This mixed CO2 product gas obtained from 3 stages PSA contained high concentration of CO2 which is ready to be used for methanol synthesis. The mixed CO2 was experimented in 5-liter methanol synthesis reactor skid by 3 step processes: steam reforming, reverse water gas shift then hydrogenation. The result showed that the ratio of mixed CO2 and CH4 70/30, 50/50, 30/70 and 10/90 yielded methanol 2.4, 4.3, 5.6 and 5.3 L/day and saved 40, 30, 15, and 7% CO2 respectively. The optimum condition (positive in both methanol and CO2 consumption) was mixed CO2/CH4 ratio 47/53% by volume which yielded 4.2 L/day methanol and saved 32% CO2 compared with traditional methanol production from methane steam reforming (5 L/day) but no CO2 consumption.

Keywords: Carbon capture storage and utilization, pressure swing adsorption, reforming, methanol.

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55 Development of Environment Friendly Mimosa Tannin-Cornstarch Based Wood Adhesive

Authors: Salise Oktay, Nilgün Kızılcan, Başak Bengü

Abstract:

At present, formaldehyde-based adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF) etc. are mostly used in wood-based panel industry because of their high reactivity, chemical versatility and economic competitiveness. However, formaldehyde-based wood adhesives are produced from non-renewable resources. Hence, there has been a growing interest in the development of environment friendly, economically competitive, bio-based wood adhesives in order to meet wood-based panel industry requirements. In this study, as formaldehyde free adhesive, tannin and starch-based wood adhesive was synthesized. Citric acid and tartaric acid were used as hardener for the resin system. Solid content, viscosity and gel time analyzes of the prepared adhesive were performed in order to evaluate the adhesive processability. FTIR characterization technique was used to elucidate chemical structures of the cured adhesive samples. In order to evaluate the performance of the prepared bio-based resin formulation, particleboards were produced in laboratory scale and mechanical, physical properties of the boards were investigated. Besides, formaldehyde contents of the boards were determined by using perforator method. The obtained results revealed that the developed bio-based wood adhesive formulation can be a good potential candidate to use in wood-based panel industry with some developments.

Keywords: Wood adhesive, cornstarch, mimosa tannin, particleboard.

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54 Mechanical Characterization of Mango Peel Flour and Biopolypropylene Composites Compatibilized with PP-g-IA

Authors: J. Gomez-Caturla, L. Quiles-Carrillo, J. Ivorra-Martinez, D. Garcia-Garcia, R. Balart

Abstract:

The present work reports on the development of wood plastic composites based on biopolypropylene (BioPP) and mango peel flour (MPF) by extrusion and injection molding processes. PP-g-IA and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) have been used as a compatibilizer and as a free radical initiator for reactive extrusion, respectively. Mechanical and morphological properties have been characterized in order to study the compatibility of the blends. The obtained results showed that DCP and PP-g-IA improved the stiffness of BioPP in terms of elastic modulus. Moreover, they positively increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of the blends in comparison with the sample that only had BioPP and MPF on its composition, improving the affinity between both compounds. DCP and PP-g-IA even seem to have certain synergy, which was corroborated through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis. Images showed that the MPF particles had greater adhesion to the polymer matrix when PP-g-IA and DCP were added. This effect was more intense when both elements were added, observing an almost inexistent gap between MPF particles and the BioPP matrix.

Keywords: Biopolypropylene, compatibilization, mango peel flour, wood plastic composite.

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53 The Fabrication and Characterization of a Honeycomb Ceramic Electric Heater with a Conductive Coating

Authors: Siming Wang, Qing Ni, Yu Wu, Ruihai Xu, Hong Ye

Abstract:

Porous electric heaters, compared to conventional electric heaters, exhibit excellent heating performance due to their large specific surface area. Porous electric heaters employ porous metallic materials or conductive porous ceramics as the heating element. The former attains a low heating power with a fixed current due to the low electrical resistivity of metal. Although the latter can bypass the inherent challenges of porous metallic materials, the fabrication process of the conductive porous ceramics is complicated and high cost. This work proposed a porous ceramic electric heater with dielectric honeycomb ceramic as a substrate and surface conductive coating as a heating element. The conductive coating was prepared by the sol-gel method using silica sol and methyl trimethoxysilane as raw materials and graphite powder as conductive fillers. The conductive mechanism and degradation reason of the conductive coating was studied by electrical resistivity and thermal stability analysis. The heating performance of the proposed heater was experimentally investigated by heating air and deionized water. The results indicate that the electron transfer is achieved by forming the conductive network through the contact of the graphite flakes. With 30 wt% of graphite, the electrical resistivity of the conductive coating can be as low as 0.88 Ω∙cm. The conductive coating exhibits good electrical stability up to 500 °C but degrades beyond 600 °C due to the formation of many cracks in the coating caused by the weight loss and thermal expansion. The results also show that the working medium has a great influence on the volume power density of the heater. With air under natural convection as the working medium, the volume power density attains 640.85 kW/m3, which can be increased by 5 times when using deionized water as the working medium. The proposed honeycomb ceramic electric heater has the advantages of the simple fabrication method, low cost, and high-volume power density, demonstrating great potential in the fluid heating field.

Keywords: Conductive coating, honeycomb ceramic electric heater, high specific surface area, high volume power density.

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52 Accelerated Ageing of Unidirectional Flax Fibers Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites

Authors: Lara Alam, Laetitia Van-Schoors, Olivier Sicot, Benoit Piezel, Shahram Aivazzadeh

Abstract:

Over the last decades, worldwide environmental awareness has grown due to the depletion of raw material resources and global warming. This awareness has prompted the development of new products more environmentally friendly. Among these products are biocomposite materials reinforced with natural fibers. The main challenge in developing the use of biocomposites in exterior applications is the lack of knowledge about their durability and the evolution of their mechanical and physicochemical properties in the long term. The aim of this work is to study the photooxidation of unidirectional (UD) composites based on recycled matrix. For this purpose, UD flax fiber composites based on recycled polypropylene were prepared by thermocompression. An accelerated aging test was carried out using a xenon arc WeatherOmeter. The consequences of UV exposure on the chemical composition and morphology of the surface of composites as well as on their tensile mechanical properties have been reported. The results showed that accelerated aging had a significant effect on the surface of these composites while it had little impact on their mechanical properties.

Keywords: Flax fiber, photooxidation, physico-chemical properties, recycled polypropylene, tensile properties.

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51 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Modified with Galactose as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Releasing of Zinc Ions

Authors: Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Olga Długosz, Marcin Banach

Abstract:

The toxicity of bare zinc oxide nanoparticles used as drug carriers may be the result of releasing zinc ions. Thus, zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with galactose were obtained. The process of their formation was conducted in the microwave field. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were studied. The size and electrokinetic potential were defined by using dynamic light scattering technique. The crystalline properties were assessed by X-ray diffractometry. In order to confirm the formation of the desired products, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used. Releasing of zinc ions from the prepared products when comparing to the bare oxide was analyzed. It was found out that modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles with galactose limits the releasing of zinc ions which are responsible for the toxic effect of the whole carrier-drug conjugate.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, zinc oxide, drug delivery system, toxicity.

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50 Application of Molecular Materials in the Manufacture of Flexible and Organic Devices for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: M. Gómez-Gómez, M. E. Sánchez-Vergara

Abstract:

Many sustainable approaches to generate electric energy have emerged in the last few decades; one of them is through solar cells. Yet, this also has the disadvantage of highly polluting inorganic semiconductor manufacturing processes. Therefore, the use of molecular semiconductors must be considered. In this work, allene compounds C24H26O4 and C24H26O5 were used as dopants to manufacture semiconductor films based on PbPc by high-vacuum evaporation technique. IR spectroscopy was carried out to determine the phase and any significant chemical changes which may occur during the thermal evaporation. According to UV-visible spectroscopy and Tauc’s model, the deposition process generated thin films with an activation energy range of 1.47 eV to 1.55 eV for direct transitions and 1.29 eV to 1.33 eV for indirect transitions. These values place the manufactured films within the range of low bandgap semiconductors. The flexible devices were manufactured: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic semiconductor/Cubic Close Packed (CCP). The characterization of the devices was carried out by evaluating electrical conductivity using the four-probe collinear method. I-V curves were obtained under different lighting conditions at room temperature. OS1 (PbPc/C24H26O4) showed an Ohmic behavior, while OS2 (PbPc/C24H26O5) reached higher current values at lower voltages. The results obtained show that the semiconductor devices doped with allene compounds can be used in the manufacture of optoelectronic devices.

Keywords: Electrical properties, optical gap, phthalocyanine, thin film.

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49 Effect of Different Types of Highly Consumed Beverages on the Surface Structure of Orthodontic Restorative Material

Authors: A. Alhazza, B. Alnaser

Abstract:

Orthodontic restorative materials are widely used for the direct restoration of teeth or for cosmetic dentistry purposes. These materials have helped to solve many dental problems, providing healthy and beautiful smiles for many patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the pH value has an effect on the surface structure of a nanohybrid composite material. Five different types of highly consumed beverages were selected to examine their effect on the surface structure of the nanohybrid composite material. The beverages had different pH values in the range of 3–6, i.e., they were all acidic. The material was investigated under the hardest conditions of surface exposure to the drinks by immersing the material for a long period. The specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at different magnifications to investigate the effect of these beverages on the morphology of the nanohybrid composite material discs. All specimens showed an effect including pores, cracks, protrusions, and surface roughness as a result of the beverages. The degree of effect differed from one experimental group to another, but there was no relationship between the pH (acidity) value and the degree of effect on the surface structure of the specimens.

Keywords: Acidity, beverage, SEM, dentistry.

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48 Modeling of Silicon Solar Cell with Anti-Reflecting Coating

Authors: Ankita Gaur, Mouli Karmakar, Shyam

Abstract:

In this study, a silicon solar cell has been modeled and analyzed to enhance its performance by improving the optical properties using an anti-reflecting coating (ARC). The dynamic optical reflectance, transmittance along with the net transmissivity absorptivity product of each layer are assessed as per the diurnal variation of the angle of incidence using MATLAB 2019. The model is tested with various anti-reflective coatings and the performance has also been compared with uncoated cells. ARC improves the optical transmittance of the photon. Higher transmittance of ⁓96.57% with lowest reflectance of ⁓ 1.74% at 12.00 hours was obtained with MgF2 coated silicon cells. The electrical efficiency of the configured solar cell was evaluated for a composite climate of New Delhi, India, for all weather conditions. The annual electricity generation for anti-reflective coated and uncoated crystalline silicon PV Module was observed to be 103.14 KWh and 99.51 KWh, respectively.

Keywords: Anti-reflecting coating, electrical efficiency, reflectance, solar cell, transmittance.

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47 Review of Carbon Materials: Application in Alternative Energy Sources and Catalysis

Authors: Marita Pigłowska, Beata Kurc, Maciej Galiński

Abstract:

The application of carbon materials in the branches of the electrochemical industry shows an increasing tendency each year due to the many interesting properties they possess. These are, among others, a well-developed specific surface, porosity, high sorption capacity, good adsorption properties, low bulk density, electrical conductivity and chemical resistance. All these properties allow for their effective use, among others in supercapacitors, which can store electric charges of the order of 100 F due to carbon electrodes constituting the capacitor plates. Coals (including expanded graphite, carbon black, graphite carbon fibers, activated carbon) are commonly used in electrochemical methods of removing oil derivatives from water after tanker disasters, e.g., phenols and their derivatives by their electrochemical anodic oxidation. Phenol can occupy practically the entire surface of carbon material and leave the water clean of hydrophobic impurities. Regeneration of such electrodes is also not complicated, it is carried out by electrochemical methods consisting in unblocking the pores and reducing resistances, and thus their reactivation for subsequent adsorption processes. Graphite is commonly used as an anode material in lithium-ion cells, while due to the limited capacity it offers (372 mAh g-1), new solutions are sought that meet both capacitive, efficiency and economic criteria. Increasingly, biodegradable materials, green materials, biomass, waste (including agricultural waste) are used in order to reuse them and reduce greenhouse effects and, above all, to meet the biodegradability criterion necessary for the production of lithium-ion cells as chemical power sources. The most common of these materials are cellulose, starch, wheat, rice, and corn waste, e.g., from agricultural, paper and pharmaceutical production. Such products are subjected to appropriate treatments depending on the desired application (including chemical, thermal, electrochemical). Starch is a biodegradable polysaccharide that consists of polymeric units such as amylose and amylopectin that build an ordered (linear) and amorphous (branched) structure of the polymer. Carbon is also used as a catalyst. Elemental carbon has become available in many nano-structured forms representing the hybridization combinations found in the primary carbon allotropes, and the materials can be enriched with a large number of surface functional groups. There are many examples of catalytic applications of coal in the literature, but the development of this field has been hampered by the lack of a conceptual approach combining structure and function and a lack of understanding of material synthesis. In the context of catalytic applications, the integrity of carbon environmental management properties and parameters such as metal conductivity range and bond sequence management should be characterized. Such data, along with surface and textured information, can form the basis for the provision of network support services.

Keywords: carbon materials, catalysis, BET, capacitors, lithium ion cell

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46 Combination of Tensile Strength and Elongation of Reverse Rolled TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: M. Veerasham

Abstract:

The refractory high entropy alloys are potential materials for high-temperature applications because of their ability to retain high strength up to 1600°C. However, their practical applications were limited due to poor elongation at room temperature. Therefore, decreasing the average valence electron concentrations (VEC) is an effective design strategy to improve the intrinsic ductility of refractory high entropy alloys. In this work, the high-entropy alloy TaNbHfZrTi was processed at room temperature by each step reverse rolling up to a 90% reduction in thickness. Subsequently, the reverse rolled 90% samples were utilized for annealing treatment at 800°C and 1000°C for 1 h to understand phase stability, microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. The reverse rolled 90% condition contains body-centered cubic (BCC) single-phase; upon annealing at 800 °C, the formation of secondary phase BCC-2 prevailed. The partial recrystallization and complete recrystallization microstructures were developed for annealed at 800°C and 1000°C, respectively. The reverse rolled condition and 1000°C annealed temperature exhibit extraordinary room temperature tensile properties with high ultimate tensile strength (UTS) without compromising loss of ductility called “strength-ductility” trade-off. The reverse-rolled 90% and annealing treatment carried out at temperature about 1000°C for 1 h consist of UTS 1430 MPa and 1556 MPa with an appreciable amount of 21% and 20% elongation, respectively. The development of hierarchical microstructure prevailed for the annealed 1000°C which led to the simultaneous increase in tensile strength and elongation.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, reverse rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties

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45 Heavy Deformation and High-Temperature Annealing Microstructure and Texture Studies of TaHfNbZrTi Equiatomic Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Veeresham Mokali

Abstract:

The refractory alloys are crucial for high-temperature applications to improve performance and reduce cost. They are used in several applications such as aerospace, outer space, military and defense, nuclear powerplants, automobiles, and industry. The conventional refractory alloys show greater stability at high temperatures and in contrast they have operational limitations due to their low melting temperatures. However, there is a huge requirement to improve the refractory alloys’ operational temperatures and replace the conventional alloys. The newly emerging refractory high entropy alloys (RHEAs) could be alternative materials for conventional refractory alloys and fulfill the demands and requirements of various practical applications in the future. The RHEA TaHfNbZrTi was prepared through an arc melting process. The annealing behavior of severely deformed equiatomic RHEATaHfNbZrTi has been investigated. To obtain deformed condition, the alloy is cold-rolled to 90% thickness reduction and then subjected to an annealing process to observe recrystallization and microstructural evolution in the range of 800 °C to 1400 °C temperatures. The cold-rolled – 90% condition shows the presence of microstructural heterogeneity. The annealing microstructure of 800 °C temperature reveals that partial recrystallization and further annealing treatment carried out annealing treatment in the range of 850 °C to 1400 °C temperatures exhibits completely recrystallized microstructures, followed by coarsening with a degree of annealing temperature. The deformed and annealed conditions featured the development of body-centered cubic (BCC) fiber textures. The experimental investigation of heavy deformation and followed by high-temperature annealing up to 1400 °C temperature will contribute to the understanding of microstructure and texture evolution of emerging RHEAs.

Keywords: Refractory high entropy alloys, cold-rolling, annealing, microstructure, texture.

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44 Operational Challenges of Marine Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Structures Coupled with Piezoelectric Transducers

Authors: H. Ucar, U. Aridogan

Abstract:

Composite structures become intriguing for the design of aerospace, automotive and marine applications due to weight reduction, corrosion resistance and radar signature reduction demands and requirements. Studies on piezoelectric ceramic transducers (PZT) for diagnostics and health monitoring have gained attention for their sensing capabilities, however PZT structures are prone to fail in case of heavy operational loads. In this paper, we develop a piezo-based Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite finite element (FE) model, validate with experimental setup, and identify the applicability and limitations of PZTs for a marine application. A case study is conducted to assess the piezo-based sensing capabilities in a representative marine composite structure. A FE model of the composite structure combined with PZT patches is developed, afterwards the response and functionality are investigated according to the sea conditions. Results of this study clearly indicate the blockers and critical aspects towards industrialization and wide-range use of PZTs for marine composite applications.

Keywords: FRP, marine composite, piezoelectric transducer, sea state, wave-induced loads.

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43 Effect of Changing Iron Content and Excitation Frequency on Magnetic Particle Imaging Signal: A Comparative Study of Synomag® Nanoparticles

Authors: Kalthoum Riahi, Max T. Rietberg, Javier Perez y Perez, Corné Dijkstra, Bennie ten Haken, Lejla Alic

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used to facilitate magnetic particle imaging (MPI) which has the potential to become the leading diagnostic instrument for biomedical imaging. This comparative study assesses the effects of changing iron content and excitation frequency on point-spread function (PSF) representing the effect of magnetization reversal. PSF is quantified by features of interest for MPI: i.e., drive field amplitude and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). A superparamagnetic quantifier (SPaQ) is used to assess differential magnetic susceptibility of two commercially available MNPs: Synomag®-D50 and Synomag®-D70. For both MNPs, the signal output depends on increase in drive field frequency and amount of iron-oxide, which might be hampering the sensitivity of MPI systems that perform on higher frequencies. Nevertheless, there is a clear potential of Synomag®-D for a stable MPI resolution, especially in case of 70 nm version, that is independent of either drive field frequency or amount of iron-oxide.

Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles, MNPs, Differential magnetic susceptibility, DMS, Magnetic particle imaging, MPI, magnetic relaxation, Synomag®-D.

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42 An Evaluation of the Oxide Layers in Machining Swarfs to Improve Recycling

Authors: J. Uka, B. McKay, T. Minton, O. Adole, R. Lewis, S. J. Glanvill, L. Anguilano

Abstract:

Effective heat treatment conditions to obtain maximum aluminium swarf recycling are investigated in this work. Aluminium swarf briquettes underwent treatments at different temperatures and cooling times to investigate the improvements obtained in the recovery of aluminium metal. The main issue for the recovery of the metal from swarfs is to overcome the constraints due to the oxide layers present in high concentration in the swarfs since they have a high surface area. Briquettes supplied by Renishaw were heat treated at 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 ℃ for 1-hour and then cooled at 2.3, 3.5 and 5 ℃/min. The resulting material was analysed using SEM EDX to observe the oxygen diffusion and aluminium coalescence at the boundary between adjacent swarfs. Preliminary results show that, swarf needs to be heat treated at a temperature of 850 ℃ and cooled down slowly at 2.3 ℃/min to have thin and discontinuous alumina layers between the adjacent swarf and consequently allowing aluminium coalescence. This has the potential to save energy and provide maximum financial profit in preparation of swarf briquettes for recycling.

Keywords: Aluminium, swarf, oxide layers, recycle, reuse.

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41 Characterization of a Hypoeutectic Al Alloy Obtained by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Jairo A. Muñoz, Alexander Komissarov, Alexander Gromov

Abstract:

In this investigation, a hypoeutectic AlSi11Cu alloy was printed. This alloy was obtained in powder form with an average particle size of 40 µm. Bars 20 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length were printed with the building direction parallel to the bars' longitudinal direction. The microstructural characterization demonstrated an Al matrix surrounded by a Si network forming a coral-like pattern. The microstructure of the alloy showed a heterogeneous behavior with a mixture of columnar and equiaxed grains. Likewise, the texture indicated that the columnar grains were preferentially oriented towards the building direction, while the equiaxed followed a texture dominated by the cube component. On the other hand, the as-printed material strength showed higher values than those obtained in the same alloy using conventional processes such as casting. In addition, strength and ductility differences were found in the printed material, depending on the measurement direction. The highest values were obtained in the radial direction (565 MPa maximum strength and 4.8% elongation to failure). The lowest values corresponded to the transverse direction (508 MPa maximum strength and 3.2 elongation to failure), which corroborate the material anisotropy.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, aluminium alloy, melting pools, tensile test.

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40 The Collapse of a Crane on Site: A Case Study

Authors: T. Teruzzi, S. Antonietti, C. Mosca, C. Paglia

Abstract:

This paper discusses the causes of the structural failure in a tower crane. The structural collapse occurred at the upper joints of the extension element used to increase the height of the crane. The extension element consists of a steel lattice structure made with angular profiles and plates joined to the tower element by arc welding. Macroscopic inspection of the sections showed that the break was always observed on the angular profiles at the weld bead edge. The case study shows how, using mechanical characterization, chemical analysis of the steel and macroscopic and microscopic metallographic examinations, it was possible to obtain significant evidence that identified the mechanism causing the breakage. The analyses identified the causes of the structural failure as the use of materials that were not suitable for welding and poor performance in the welding joints.

Keywords: Failure, weld, microstructure, microcracks.

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