Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32579
Mechanical Characterization of Mango Peel Flour and Biopolypropylene Composites Compatibilized with PP-g-IA

Authors: J. Gomez-Caturla, L. Quiles-Carrillo, J. Ivorra-Martinez, D. Garcia-Garcia, R. Balart


The present work reports on the development of wood plastic composites based on biopolypropylene (BioPP) and mango peel flour (MPF) by extrusion and injection molding processes. PP-g-IA and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) have been used as a compatibilizer and as a free radical initiator for reactive extrusion, respectively. Mechanical and morphological properties have been characterized in order to study the compatibility of the blends. The obtained results showed that DCP and PP-g-IA improved the stiffness of BioPP in terms of elastic modulus. Moreover, they positively increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of the blends in comparison with the sample that only had BioPP and MPF on its composition, improving the affinity between both compounds. DCP and PP-g-IA even seem to have certain synergy, which was corroborated through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis. Images showed that the MPF particles had greater adhesion to the polymer matrix when PP-g-IA and DCP were added. This effect was more intense when both elements were added, observing an almost inexistent gap between MPF particles and the BioPP matrix.

Keywords: Biopolypropylene, compatibilization, mango peel flour, wood plastic composite.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 260


[1] N. Tahir, H.N. Bhatti, M. Iqbal, S. Noreen, "Biopolymers composites with peanut hull waste biomass and application for Crystal Violet adsorption", International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 94, 2017, pp. 210-220.
[2] A. Wechsler, S. Hiziroglu, "Some of the properties of wood–plastic composites", Building and Environment, 42, 2007, pp. 2637-2644.
[3] M. Jorda-Reolid, J. Gomez-Caturla, J. Ivorra-Martinez, P.M. Stefani, S. Rojas-Lema, L. Quiles-Carrillo, "Upgrading argan shell wastes in wood plastic composites with biobased polyethylene matrix and different compatibilizers", Polymers, 13, 2021, pp. 922.
[4] L. Quiles-Carrillo, N. Montanes, C. Sammon, R. Balart, S. Torres-Giner, "Compatibilization of highly sustainable polylactide/almond shell flour composites by reactive extrusion with maleinized linseed oil", Industrial Crops and Products, 111, 2018, pp. 878-888.
[5] F.A. Jasim, A. Hashim, A.G. Hadi, F. Lafta, S.R. Salman, H. Ahmed, "Preparation of (pomegranate peel-polystyrene) composites and study their optical properties", Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 8, 2013, pp. 439-441.
[6] S. Agayev, O. Ozdemir, "Fabrication of high density polyethylene composites reinforced with pine cone powder: mechanical and low velocity impact performances", Materials Research Express, 6, 2019, pp. 045312.
[7] J. Fehlberg, C.L. Lee, L.M. Matuana, E. Almenar, "Orange peel waste from juicing as raw material for plastic composites intended for use in food packaging", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 137, 2020, pp. 48841.
[8] V. Siracusa, I. Blanco, "Bio-polyethylene (Bio-PE), Bio-polypropylene (Bio-PP) and Bio-poly (ethylene terephthalate)(Bio-PET): Recent developments in bio-based polymers analogous to petroleum-derived ones for packaging and engineering applications", Polymers, 12, 2020, pp. 1641.
[9] F. Arrakhiz, M. El Achaby, A. Kakou, S. Vaudreuil, K. Benmoussa, R. Bouhfid, O. Fassi-Fehri, A. Qaiss, "Mechanical properties of high density polyethylene reinforced with chemically modified coir fibers: Impact of chemical treatments", Materials & Design, 37, 2012, pp. 379-383.
[10] Y. Zhang, J. Chen, H. Li, "Functionalization of polyolefins with maleic anhydride in melt state through ultrasonic initiation", Polymer, 47, 2006, pp. 4750-4759.
[11] E. Moncada, R. Quijada, I. Lieberwirth, M. Yazdani‐Pedram, "Use of PP grafted with itaconic acid as a new compatibilizer for PP/clay nanocomposites", Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 207, 2006, pp. 1376-1386.
[12] J.S. Kim, J.-H. Jang, D.-G. Jeon, D.H. Kim, "Preparation of PP-g-IA and its Compatibilizing Effects in PP/EVOH Blends", Elastomers and Composites, 49, 2014, pp. 225-231.
[13] N.A. Abdul Aziz, L.M. Wong, R. Bhat, L.H. Cheng, "Evaluation of processed green and ripe mango peel and pulp flours (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant compounds and functional properties", Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92, 2012, pp. 557-563.
[14] S. Ferreira, T. Araujo, N. Souza, L. Rodrigues, H.M. Lisboa, M. Pasquali, G. Trindade, A.P. Rocha, "Physicochemical, morphological and antioxidant properties of spray-dried mango kernel starch", Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 1, 2019, pp. 100012.
[15] M.N. Safdar, T. Kausar, M. Nadeem, "Comparison of ultrasound and maceration techniques for the extraction of polyphenols from the mango peel", Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 41, 2017, pp. e13028.
[16] S. Pesetskii, B. Jurkowski, O. Makarenko, "Free radical grafting of itaconic acid and glycidyl methacrylate onto PP initiated by organic peroxides", Journal of applied polymer science, 86, 2002, pp. 64-72.
[17] Y. Zhou, V. Rangari, H. Mahfuz, S. Jeelani, P. Mallick, "Experimental study on thermal and mechanical behavior of polypropylene, talc/polypropylene and polypropylene/clay nanocomposites", Materials Science and Engineering: A, 402, 2005, pp. 109-117.
[18] S.A. Paul, K. Joseph, G.G. Mathew, L.A. Pothen, S. Thomas, "Influence of polarity parameters on the mechanical properties of composites from polypropylene fiber and short banana fiber", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41, 2010, pp. 1380-1387.
[19] S. Haq, R. Srivastava, "Wood polypropylene (PP) composites manufactured by mango wood waste with virgin or recycled PP: mechanical, morphology, melt flow index and crystalline behaviour", Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 25, 2017, pp. 640-648.
[20] S.M. Yadav, K.B. Yusoh, "Mechanical and physical properties of wood-plastic composites made of polypropylene, wood flour and nanoclay", International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation, 1, 2015, pp. 52-58.
[21] M. Poletto, "Polypropylene-based wood-plastic composites: Effect of using a coupling agent derived from a renewable resource", Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología, 19, 2017, pp. 265-272.
[22] K. Joseph, S. Thomas, C. Pavithran, "Effect of chemical treatment on the tensile properties of short sisal fibre-reinforced polyethylene composites", Polymer, 37, 1996, pp. 5139-5149.
[23] N.H. Sari, M. Sanjay, G. Arpitha, C.I. Pruncu, S. Siengchin, "Synthesis and properties of pandanwangi fiber reinforced polyethylene composites: Evaluation of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) effect", Composites Communications, 15, 2019, pp. 53-57.
[24] F. Burgada, E. Fages, L. Quiles-Carrillo, D. Lascano, J. Ivorra-Martinez, M.P. Arrieta, O. Fenollar, "Upgrading Recycled Polypropylene from Textile Wastes in Wood Plastic Composites with Short Hemp Fiber", Polymers, 13, 2021, pp. 1248.
[25] I. Naghmouchi, F.X. Espinach, P. Mutjé, S. Boufi, "Polypropylene composites based on lignocellulosic fillers: how the filler morphology affects the composite properties", Materials & Design (1980-2015), 65, 2015, pp. 454-461.
[26] M. Yazdani-Pedram, C. Menzel, P. Toro, R. Quijada, A. May-Pat, F. Avilés, "Mechanical and thermal properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube/polypropylene composites using itaconic acid as compatibilizer and coupling agent", Macromolecular Research, 21, 2013, pp. 153-160.