Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: electrification

54 Rural Electrification in India-Challenges and Solutions

Authors: P. Chandhra Sekhar, R. A. Deshpande, T. Raghunatha


The government of India has given special attention on rural electrification under Rajiv Gandhi Grameena Vidyuthikarana Yojana (RGGVY) during 10th plan and 11th plan. Government of India electrified about 107523 villages and 21164003 BPL Households. This paper briefs about various rural electrification programs initiated by government of India and status of RGGVY in India. The paper mainly describes about challenges in the rural electrification, new ideas recently implemented and suggestions for improvement in the rural electrification.

Keywords: rural electrification, RGGVY, NJY, BPL

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53 Electrification Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle as a Solution to Decrease CO2 Emission in Cities

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Mahmoud


Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords: electrification strategy, hybrid electric vehicle, driving cycle, CO2 emission

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52 Technical and Economic Potential of Partial Electrification of Railway Lines

Authors: Rafael Martins Manzano Silva, Jean-Francois Tremong


Electrification of railway lines allows to increase speed, power, capacity and energetic efficiency of rolling stocks. However, this process of electrification is complex and costly. An electrification project is not just about design of catenary. It also includes installation of structures around electrification, as substation installation, electrical isolation, signalling, telecommunication and civil engineering structures. France has more than 30,000 km of railways, whose only 53% are electrified. The others 47% of railways use diesel locomotive and represent only 10% of the circulation ( For this reason, a new type of electrification, less expensive than the usual, is requested to enable the modernization of these railways. One solution could be the use of hybrids trains. This technology opens up new opportunities for less expensive infrastructure development such as the partial electrification of railway lines. In a partially electrified railway, the power supply of theses hybrid trains could be made either by the catenary or by the on-board energy storage system (ESS). Thus, the on-board ESS would feed the energetic needs of the train along the non-electrified zones while in electrified zones, the catenary would feed the train and recharge the on-board ESS. This paper’s objective deals with the technical and economic potential identification of partial electrification of railway lines. This study provides different scenarios of electrification by replacing the most expensive places to electrify using on-board ESS. The target is to reduce the cost of new electrification projects, i.e. reduce the cost of electrification infrastructures while not increasing the cost of rolling stocks. In this study, scenarios are constructed in function of the electrification’s cost of each structure. The electrification’s cost varies considerably because of the installation of catenary support in tunnels, bridges and viaducts is much more expensive than in others zones of the railway. These scenarios will be used to describe the power supply system and to choose between the catenary and the on-board energy storage depending on the position of the train on the railway. To identify the influence of each partial electrification scenario in the sizing of the on-board ESS, a model of the railway line and of the rolling stock is developed for a real case. This real case concerns a railway line located in the south of France. The energy consumption and the power demanded at each point of the line for each power supply (catenary or on-board ESS) are provided at the end of the simulation. Finally, the cost of a partial electrification is obtained by adding the civil engineering costs of the zones to be electrified plus the cost of the on-board ESS. The study of the technical and economic potential ends with the identification of the most economically interesting scenario of electrification.

Keywords: electrification, hybrid, railway, storage

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51 Micro-Hydrokinetic for Remote Rural Electrification

Authors: S. P. Koko, K. Kusakana, H. J. Vermaak


Standalone micro-hydrokinetic river (MHR) system is one of the promising technologies to be used for remote rural electrification. It simply requires the flow of water instead of elevation or head, leading to expensive civil works. This paper demonstrates an economic benefit offered by a standalone MHR system when compared to the commonly used standalone systems such as solar, wind and diesel generator (DG) at the selected study site in Kwazulu Natal. Wind speed and solar radiation data of the selected rural site have been taken from national aeronautics and space administration (NASA) surface meteorology database. The hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER) software was used to determine the most feasible solution when using MHR, solar, wind or DG system to supply 5 rural houses. MHR system proved to be the best cost-effective option to consider at the study site due to its low cost of energy (COE) and low net present cost (NPC).

Keywords: economic analysis, micro-hydrokinetic, rural-electrification, cost of energy (COE), net present cost (NPC)

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50 A User-Friendly Approach for Design and Economic Analysis of Standalone PV System for the Electrification of Rural Area of Eritrea

Authors: Tedros Asefaw Gebremeskel, Xaoyi Yang


The potential of solar energy in Eritrea is relatively high, based on this truth, there are a number of isolated and remote villages situated far away from the electrical national grid which don’t get access to electricity. The core objective of this work is to design a most favorable and cost-effective power by means of standalone PV system for the electrification of a single housing in the inaccessible area of Eritrea. The sizing of the recommended PV system is achieved, such as radiation data and electrical load for the typical household of the selected site is also well thought-out in the design steps. Finally, the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis is conducted to evaluate the economic viability of the system. The outcome of the study promote the use of PV system for a residential building and show that PV system is a reasonable option to provide electricity for household applications in the rural area of Eritrea.

Keywords: electrification, inaccessible area, life cycle cost, residential building, stand-alone PV system

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49 Advantages of Electrifying Offshore Compression System

Authors: Siva Sankara Arudra, Kamaruzaman Baharuddin, Ir. Ahmed Fadzil Mustafa Kamal, Ir. Abdul Latif Mohamed


The advancement of electrical and electronics technologies has rewarded the oil and gas industry with great opportunities to embed more environmentally solutions into design. Most offshore oil and gas producers have their engineering and production asset goals to promote greater use of environmentally friendly compression system technologies to eliminate hazardous emissions from conventional gas compressor drivers. Therefore, this paper comprehensively elaborates the parametric study conducted in integrating the latest electrical and electronics drives technology into the existing compression system. This study was conducted in aspects of layout, reliability & availability, maintainability, emission, and cost. An existing offshore facility that utilized gas turbines as the driver for gas compression was set as Conventional Case for this study. The Electrification Case will utilize electric motor drives as the driver for the compression system. Findings from this study indicate more advantages in driver electrification compared to conventional compression systems. The findings of this paper can be set as a benchmark for future offshore driver selection for gas compression systems of similar operating parameters and power range.

Keywords: turbomachinery, electrification, emission, compression system

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48 Design and Analysis of 1.4 MW Hybrid Saps System for Rural Electrification in Off-Grid Applications

Authors: Arpan Dwivedi, Yogesh Pahariya


In this paper, optimal design of hybrid standalone power supply system (SAPS) is done for off grid applications in remote areas where transmission of power is difficult. The hybrid SAPS system uses two primary energy sources, wind and solar, and in addition to these diesel generator is also connected to meet the load demand in case of failure of wind and solar system. This paper presents mathematical modeling of 1.4 MW hybrid SAPS system for rural electrification. This paper firstly focuses on mathematical modeling of PV module connected in a string, secondly focuses on modeling of permanent magnet wind turbine generator (PMWTG). The hybrid controller is also designed for selection of power from the source available as per the load demand. The power output of hybrid SAPS system is analyzed for meeting load demands at urban as well as for rural areas.

Keywords: SAPS, DG, PMWTG, rural area, off-grid, PV module

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47 Scope, Relevance and Sustainability of Decentralized Renewable Energy Systems in Developing Economies: Imperatives from Indian Case Studies

Authors: Harshit Vallecha, Prabha Bhola


‘Energy for all’, is a global issue of concern for the past many years. Despite the number of technological advancements and innovations, significant numbers of people are living without access to electricity around the world. India, an emerging economy, tops the list of nations having the maximum number of residents living off the grid, thus raising global attention in past few years to provide clean and sustainable energy access solutions to all of its residents. It is evident from developed economies that centralized planning and electrification alone is not sufficient for meeting energy security. Implementation of off-grid and consumer-driven energy models like Decentralized Renewable Energy (DRE) systems have played a significant role in meeting the national energy demand in developed nations. Cases of DRE systems have been reported in developing countries like India for the past few years. This paper attempts to profile the status of DRE projects in the Indian context with their scope and relevance to ensure universal electrification. Diversified cases of DRE projects, particularly solar, biomass and micro hydro are identified in different Indian states. Critical factors affecting the sustainability of DRE projects are extracted with their interlinkages in the context of developers, beneficiaries and promoters involved in such projects. Socio-techno-economic indicators are identified through similar cases in the context of DRE projects. Exploratory factor analysis is performed to evaluate the critical sustainability factors followed by regression analysis to establish the relationship between the dependent and independent factors. The generated EFA-Regression model provides a basis to develop the sustainability and replicability framework for broader coverage of DRE projects in developing nations in order to attain the goal of universal electrification with least carbon emissions.

Keywords: climate change, decentralized generation, electricity access, renewable energy

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46 A Feasibility and Implementation Model of Small-Scale Hydropower Development for Rural Electrification in South Africa: Design Chart Development

Authors: Gideon J. Bonthuys, Marco van Dijk, Jay N. Bhagwan


Small scale hydropower used to play a very important role in the provision of energy to urban and rural areas of South Africa. The national electricity grid, however, expanded and offered cheap, coal generated electricity and a large number of hydropower systems were decommissioned. Unfortunately, large numbers of households and communities will not be connected to the national electricity grid for the foreseeable future due to high cost of transmission and distribution systems to remote communities due to the relatively low electricity demand within rural communities and the allocation of current expenditure on upgrading and constructing of new coal fired power stations. This necessitates the development of feasible alternative power generation technologies. A feasibility and implementation model was developed to assist in designing and financially evaluating small-scale hydropower (SSHP) plants. Several sites were identified using the model. The SSHP plants were designed for the selected sites and the designs for the different selected sites were priced using pricing models (civil, mechanical and electrical aspects). Following feasibility studies done on the designed and priced SSHP plants, a feasibility analysis was done and a design chart developed for future similar potential SSHP plant projects. The methodology followed in conducting the feasibility analysis for other potential sites consisted of developing cost and income/saving formulae, developing net present value (NPV) formulae, Capital Cost Comparison Ratio (CCCR) and levelised cost formulae for SSHP projects for the different types of plant installations. It included setting up a model for the development of a design chart for a SSHP, calculating the NPV, CCCR and levelised cost for the different scenarios within the model by varying different parameters within the developed formulae, setting up the design chart for the different scenarios within the model and analyzing and interpreting results. From the interpretation of the develop design charts for feasible SSHP in can be seen that turbine and distribution line cost are the major influences on the cost and feasibility of SSHP. High head, short transmission line and islanded mini-grid SSHP installations are the most feasible and that the levelised cost of SSHP is high for low power generation sites. The main conclusion from the study is that the levelised cost of SSHP projects indicate that the cost of SSHP for low energy generation is high compared to the levelised cost of grid connected electricity supply; however, the remoteness of SSHP for rural electrification and the cost of infrastructure to connect remote rural communities to the local or national electricity grid provides a low CCCR and renders SSHP for rural electrification feasible on this basis.

Keywords: cost, feasibility, rural electrification, small-scale hydropower

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45 Governance of Energy Transitions in Developing States

Authors: Robert Lindner


In recent years a multitude of international efforts, including the United Nations’ aspirational 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, provided a new momentum to facilitate energy access and rural electrification projects to combat energy poverty in developing states in Asia. Rural electrification projects promise to facilitate other sustainable development aims, such as the empowerment of local communities through the creation of economic opportunities or increased disaster resilience. This study applies a multi-governance research framework to study the cases of the ongoing energy system transition in Myanmar and Cambodia. It explores what impact the international aid community, especially multilateral development banks and international development agencies, has on the governance of the transitions and how diverging aid donor interest shape policy making and project planning. The study is based on policy analysis and expert interviews, as well as extensive field research. It critically examines the current development trajectories and the strategies of the stakeholders involved. It concludes that institutional and technological competition between donors, as well as a lack of transparency and inclusion in the project planning and implementation phases, contributes to insufficient coordination in national energy policy making and project implementation at the local level. The study further discusses possible alternative approaches that might help to promote the spread of sustainable energy technologies.

Keywords: energy governance, developing countries, multi-level governance, energy transitions

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44 The Impact of Large-Scale Wind Energy Development on Islands’ Interconnection to the Mainland System

Authors: Marina Kapsali, John S. Anagnostopoulos


Greek islands’ interconnection (IC) with larger power systems, such as the mainland grid, is a crucial issue that has attracted a lot of interest; however, the recent economic recession that the country undergoes together with the highly capital intensive nature of this kind of projects have stalled or sifted the development of many of those on a more long-term basis. On the other hand, most of Greek islands are still heavily dependent on the lengthy and costly supply chain of oil imports whilst the majority of them exhibit excellent potential for wind energy (WE) applications. In this respect, the main purpose of the present work is to investigate −through a parametric study which varies both in wind farm (WF) and submarine IC capacities− the impact of large-scale WE development on the IC of the third in size island of Greece (Lesbos) with the mainland system. The energy and economic performance of the system is simulated over a 25-year evaluation period assuming two possible scenarios, i.e. S(a): without the contribution of the local Thermal Power Plant (TPP) and S(b): the TPP is maintained to ensure electrification of the island. The economic feasibility of the two options is investigated in terms of determining their Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) including also a sensitivity analysis on the worst/reference/best Cases. According to the results, Lesbos island IC presents considerable economic interest for covering part of island’s future electrification needs with WE having a vital role in this challenging venture.

Keywords: electricity generation cost, levelized cost of energy, mainland grid, wind energy rejection

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43 Integration of Thermal Energy Storage and Electric Heating with Combined Heat and Power Plants

Authors: Erich Ryan, Benjamin McDaniel, Dragoljub Kosanovic


Combined heat and power (CHP) plants are an efficient technology for meeting the heating and electric needs of large campus energy systems, but have come under greater scrutiny as the world pushes for emissions reductions and lower consumption of fossil fuels. The electrification of heating and cooling systems offers a great deal of potential for carbon savings, but these systems can be costly endeavors due to increased electric consumption and peak demand. Thermal energy storage (TES) has been shown to be an effective means of improving the viability of electrified systems, by shifting heating and cooling load to off-peak hours and reducing peak demand charges. In this study, we analyze the integration of an electrified heating and cooling system with thermal energy storage into a campus CHP plant, to investigate the potential of leveraging existing infrastructure and technologies with the climate goals of the 21st century. A TRNSYS model was built to simulate a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system with TES using measured campus heating and cooling loads. The GSHP with TES system is modeled to follow the parameters of industry standards and sized to provide an optimal balance of capital and operating costs. Using known CHP production information, costs and emissions were investigated for a unique large energy user rate structure that operates a CHP plant. The results highlight the cost and emissions benefits of a targeted integration of heat pump technology within the framework of existing CHP systems, along with the performance impacts and value of TES capability within the combined system.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, combined heat and power, heat pumps, electrification

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42 Electric Propulsion Systems in Aerospace Applications - Energy Balance Analysis

Authors: T. Tulwin, M. Gęca, R. Sochaczewski


Recent improvements in electric propulsion systems and energy storage systems allow for the electrification of many sectors where it was previously not feasible. This analysis proves the feasibility of electric propulsion in aviation applications reviewing recent energy storage developments. It can be more quiet, energy efficient and more environmentally friendly. Numerical simulations were done to prove that energy efficiency can be improved for rotorcrafts especially in hover conditions. New types of aircraft configurations are reviewed and future trends are presented.

Keywords: aircraft, propulsion , efficiency, storage

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41 Six-Phase Tooth-Coil Winding Starter-Generator Embedded in Aerospace Engine

Authors: Flur R. Ismagilov, Vyacheslav E. Vavilov, Denis V. Gusakov


This paper is devoted to solve the problem of increasing the electrification of aircraft engines by installing a synchronous generator at high pressure shaft. Technical solution of this problem by various research centers is discussed. A design solution of the problem was proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed cooling system, thermal analysis was carried out in ANSYS software.

Keywords: starter-generator, more electrical engine, aircraft engines, high pressure shaft, synchronous generator

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40 Implications of Agricultural Subsidies Since Green Revolution: A Case Study of Indian Punjab

Authors: Kriti Jain, Sucha Singh Gill


Subsidies have been a major part of agricultural policies around the world, and more extensively since the green revolution in developing countries, for the sake of attaining higher agricultural productivity and achieving food security. But entrenched subsidies lead to distorted incentives and promote inefficiencies in the agricultural sector, threatening the viability of these very subsidies and sustainability of the agricultural production systems, posing a threat to the livelihood of farmers and laborers dependent on it. This paper analyzes the economic and ecological sustainability implications of prolonged input and output subsidies in agriculture by studying the case of Indian Punjab, an agriculturally developed state responsible for ensuring food security in the country when it was facing a major food crisis. The paper focuses specifically on the environmentally unsustainable cropping pattern changes as a result of Minimum Support Price (MSP) and assured procurement and on the resource use efficiency and cost implications of power subsidy for irrigation in Punjab. The study is based on an analysis of both secondary and primary data sources. Using secondary data, a time series analysis was done to capture the changes in Punjab’s cropping pattern, water table depth, fertilizer consumption, and electrification of agriculture. This has been done to examine the role of price and output support adopted to encourage the adoption of green revolution technology in changing the cropping structure of the state, resulting in increased input use intensities (especially groundwater and fertilizers), which harms the ecological balance and decreases factor productivity. Evaluation of electrification of Punjab agriculture helped evaluate the trend in electricity productivity of agriculture and how free power imposed further pressure on the extant agricultural ecosystem. Using data collected from a primary survey of 320 farmers in Punjab, the extent of wasteful application of groundwater irrigation, water productivity of output, electricity usage, and cost of irrigation driven electricity subsidy to the exchequer were estimated for the dominant cropping pattern amongst farmers. The main findings of the study revealed how because of a subsidy has driven agricultural framework, Punjab has lost area under agro climatically suitable and staple crops and moved towards a paddy-wheat cropping system, that is gnawing away the state’s natural resources like water table has been declining at a significant rate of 25 cms per year since 1975-76, and excessive and imbalanced fertilizer usage has led to declining soil fertility in the state. With electricity-driven tubewells as the major source of irrigation within a regime of free electricity and water-intensive crop cultivation, there is both wasteful application of irrigation water and electricity in the cultivation of paddy crops, burning an unproductive hole in the exchequer’s pocket. There is limited access to both agricultural extension services and water-conserving technology, along with policy imbalance, keeping farmers in an intensive and unsustainable production system. Punjab agriculture is witnessing diminishing returns to factor, which under the business-as-usual scenario, will soon enter the phase of negative returns to factor.

Keywords: cropping pattern, electrification, subsidy, sustainability

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39 Electric Vehicles Charging Stations: Strategies and Algorithms Integrated in a Power-Sharing Model

Authors: Riccardo Loggia, Francesca Pizzimenti, Francesco Lelli, Luigi Martirano


Recent air emission regulations point toward the complete electrification of road vehicles. An increasing number of users are beginning to prefer full electric or hybrid, plug-in vehicle solutions, incentivized by government subsidies and the lower cost of electricity compared to gasoline or diesel. However, it is necessary to optimize charging stations so that they can simultaneously satisfy as many users as possible. The purpose of this paper is to present optimization algorithms that enable simultaneous charging of multiple electric vehicles while ensuring maximum performance in relation to the type of charging station.

Keywords: electric vehicles, charging stations, sharing model, fast charging, car park, power profiles

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38 Transition Pathways of Commercial-Urban Fleet Electrification

Authors: Emily Gould, Walter Wehremeyer, David Greaves, Rodney Turtle


This paper considers current thinking on the pathway for electric vehicles, identifying the development blocks of alternative innovation within the market and analyse technological lock-in. The relationship between transition pathways and technological lock-in is largely under-researched particularly in the field of e-mobility. This paper is based on a study with three commercial-urban fleets that examines strategic decisions in new technology adaption alongside vehicle procurement and driver perspective. The paper will analyse the fleet’s decision matrix upon electric vehicles and seek to understand the influence of company culture, strategy and technology applicability, within the context of transition pathways.

Keywords: electric vehicles, fleets, path dependencies, transition pathways

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37 Evaluation of the Electric Vehicle Impact in Distribution System

Authors: Sania Maghsodloo, Sirus Mohammadi


Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Transportation electrification has become an important issue in recent decades and the large scale deployment of EVs has yet to be achieved. The smart coordination of EV demand addresses an improvement in the flexibility of power systems and reduces the costs of power system investment. The uncertainty in EV drivers’ behaviour is one of the main problems to solve to obtain an optimal integration of EVs into power systems Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. The stochastic process of the driving pattern is done to make the outcome of the project more realistic. Based on the stochastic data, the optimization of charging plans is made.

Keywords: electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid, Monticello, distribution system

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36 Economic and Technical Study for Hybrid (PV/Wind) Power System in the North East of Algeria

Authors: Nabila Louai, Fouad Khaldi, Houria Benharchache


In this paper, the case of meeting a household’s electrical energy demand with hybrid systems has been examined. The objective is to study technological feasibility and economic viability of the electrification project by a hybrid system (PV/ wind) of a residential home located in Batna-Algeria and to reduce the emissions from traditional power by using renewable energy. An autonomous hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV)/battery power system and a PV/Wind grid connected system, has been carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) simulation software. As a result, it has been found that electricity from the grid can be supplied at a lower price than electricity from renewable energy at this moment.

Keywords: batna, household, hybrid system, renewable energy, techno-economy

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35 Methodology of Geometry Simplification for Conjugate Heat Transfer of Electrical Rotating Machines Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sachin Aggarwal, Sarah Kassinger, Nicholas Hoffman


Geometry simplification is a key step in performing conjugate heat transfer analysis using CFD. This paper proposes a standard methodology for the geometry simplification of rotating machines, such as electrical generators and electrical motors (both air and liquid-cooled). These machines are extensively deployed throughout the aerospace and automotive industries, where optimization of weight, volume, and performance is paramount -especially given the current global transition to renewable energy sources and vehicle hybridization and electrification. Conjugate heat transfer analysis is an essential step in optimizing their complex design. This methodology will help in reducing convergence issues due to poor mesh quality, thus decreasing computational cost and overall analysis time.

Keywords: CFD, electrical machines, Geometry simplification, heat transfer

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34 Vibration Propagation in Body-in-White Structures Through Structural Intensity Analysis

Authors: Jamal Takhchi


The understanding of vibration propagation in complex structures such as automotive body in white remains a challenging issue in car design regarding NVH performances. The current analysis is limited to the low frequency range where modal concepts are dominant. Higher frequencies, between 200 and 1000 Hz, will become critical With the rise of electrification. EVs annoying sounds are mostly whines created by either Gears or e-motors between 300 Hz and 2 kHz. Structural intensity analysis was Experienced a few years ago on finite element models. The application was promising but limited by the fact that the propagating 3D intensity vector field is masked by a rotational Intensity field. This rotational field should be filtered using a differential operator. The expression of this operator in the framework of finite element modeling is not yet known. The aim of the proposed work is to implement this operator in the current dynamic solver (NASTRAN) of Stellantis and develop the Expected methodology for the mid-frequency structural analysis of electrified vehicles.

Keywords: structural intensity, NVH, body in white, irrotatational intensity

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33 Small Wind Turbine Hybrid System for Remote Application: Egyptian Case Study

Authors: M. A. Badr, A. N. Mohib, M. M. Ibrahim


The objective of this research is to study the technical and economic performance of wind/diesel/battery (W/D/B) system supplying a remote small gathering of six families using HOMER software package. The electrical energy is to cater for the basic needs for which the daily load pattern is estimated. Net Present Cost (NPC) and Cost of Energy (COE) are used as economic criteria, while the measure of performance is % of power shortage. Technical and economic parameters are defined to estimate the feasibility of the system under study. Optimum system configurations are estimated for two sites. Using HOMER software, the simulation results showed that W/D/B systems are economical for the assumed community sites as the price of generated electricity is about 0.308 $/kWh, without taking external benefits into considerations. W/D/B systems are more economical than W/B or diesel alone systems, as the COE is 0.86 $/kWh for W/B and 0.357 $/kWh for diesel alone.

Keywords: optimum energy systems, remote electrification, renewable energy, wind turbine systems

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32 Cost Analysis of Hybrid Wind Energy Generating System Considering CO2 Emissions

Authors: M. A. Badr, M. N. El Kordy, A. N. Mohib, M. M. Ibrahim


The basic objective of the research is to study the effect of hybrid wind energy on the cost of generated electricity considering the cost of reduction CO2 emissions. The system consists of small wind turbine(s), storage battery bank and a diesel generator (W/D/B). Using an optimization software package, different system configurations are investigated to reach optimum configuration based on the net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE) as economic optimization criteria. The cost of avoided CO2 is taken into consideration. The system is intended to supply the electrical load of a small community (gathering six families) in a remote Egyptian area. The investigated system is not connected to the electricity grid and may replace an existing conventional diesel powered electric supply system to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The simulation results showed that W/D energy system is more economic than diesel alone. The estimated COE is 0.308$/kWh and extracting the cost of avoided CO2, the COE reached 0.226 $/kWh which is an external benefit of wind turbine, as there are no pollutant emissions through operational phase.

Keywords: hybrid wind turbine systems, remote areas electrification, simulation of hybrid energy systems, techno-economic study

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31 Integrated Modeling Approach for Energy Planning and Climate Change Mitigation Assessment in the State of Florida

Authors: K. Thakkar, C. Ghenai


An integrated modeling approach was used in this study to (1) track energy consumption, production, and resource extraction, (2) track greenhouse gases emissions and (3) analyze emissions for local and regional air pollutions. The model was used in this study for short and long term energy and GHG emissions reduction analysis for the state of Florida. The integrated modeling methodology will help to evaluate the alternative energy scenarios and examine emissions-reduction strategies. The mitigation scenarios have been designed to describe the future energy strategies. They consist of various demand and supply side scenarios. One of the GHG mitigation scenarios is crafted by taking into account the available renewable resources potential for power generation in the state of Florida to compare and analyze the GHG reduction measure against ‘Business As Usual’ and ‘Florida State Policy’ scenario. Two more ‘integrated’ scenarios, (‘Electrification’ and ‘Efficiency and Lifestyle’) are crafted through combination of various mitigation scenarios to assess the cumulative impact of the reduction measures such as technological changes and energy efficiency and conservation.

Keywords: energy planning, climate change mitigation assessment, integrated modeling approach, energy alternatives, and GHG emission reductions

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30 Analysis and Optimization of Fault-Tolerant Behaviour of Motors in Electric Vehicular Systems

Authors: Shivani Jitendra Khare, Shubham Singh, Siddharth Roy, Yogesh B. Mandake, Deepak S. Bankar


The advent of electrification in vehicular drives has proven to be challenging over time. An increase in electronics in drive systems has demonstrated escalation in performance efficiency but has, in turn, escorted extensive concerns regarding internal electric faults and safety. Failure of the drive caused by the abnormal conditions will ultimately cause the failure of the entire electric vehicle system. Thus, the fault tolerance capability of a motor drive is of utmost importance for enhancing motor speed limit range and safety. Several methods of fault detection have already been worked upon. The scope of this research includes analyses of torque ripple values, State of Charge (SOC) decline rate and minimum-maximum torque acquired by Switch Reluctance Motor (SRM) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drives under varied fault conditions. Furthermore, a solution to increase the fault tolerance capability of the PMSM motor drive will be discussed.

Keywords: PMSM, SRM, electric vehicle system, EV drives, fault-tolerance, state of charge, efficiency, torque

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29 Adsorptive Waste Heat Based Air-Conditioning Control Strategy for Automotives

Authors: Indrasen Raghupatruni, Michael Glora, Ralf Diekmann, Thomas Demmer


As the trend in automotive technology is fast moving towards hybridization and electrification to curb emissions as well as to improve the fuel efficiency, air-conditioning systems in passenger cars have not caught up with this trend and still remain as the major energy consumers amongst others. Adsorption based air-conditioning systems, e.g. with silica-gel water pair, which are already in use for residential and commercial applications, are now being considered as a technology leap once proven feasible for the passenger cars. In this paper we discuss a methodology, challenges and feasibility of implementing an adsorption based air-conditioning system in a passenger car utilizing the exhaust waste heat. We also propose an optimized control strategy with interfaces to the engine control unit of the vehicle for operating this system with reasonable efficiency supported by our simulation and validation results in a prototype vehicle, additionally comparing to existing implementations, simulation based as well as experimental. Finally we discuss the influence of start-stop and hybrid systems on the operation strategy of the adsorption air-conditioning system.

Keywords: adsorption air-conditioning, feasibility study, optimized control strategy, prototype vehicle

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28 Modelling a Distribution Network with a Hybrid Solar-Hydro Power Plant in Rural Cameroon

Authors: Contimi Kenfack Mouafo, Sebastian Klick


In the rural and remote areas of Cameroon, access to electricity is very limited since most of the population is not connected to the main utility grid. Throughout the country, efforts are underway to not only expand the utility grid to these regions but also to provide reliable off-grid access to electricity. The Cameroonian company Solahydrowatt is currently working on the design and planning of one of the first hybrid solar-hydropower plants of Cameroon in Fotetsa, in the western region of the country, to provide the population with reliable access to electricity. This paper models and proposes a design for the low-voltage network with a hybrid solar-hydropower plant in Fotetsa. The modelling takes into consideration the voltage compliance of the distribution network, the maximum load of operating equipment, and most importantly, the ability for the network to operate as an off-grid system. The resulting modelled distribution network does not only comply with the Cameroonian voltage deviation standard, but it is also capable of being operated as a stand-alone network independent of the main utility grid.

Keywords: Cameroon, rural electrification, hybrid solar-hydro, off-grid electricity supply, network simulation

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27 Techno-Economic Prospects of High Wind Energy Share in Remote vs. Interconnected Island Grids

Authors: Marina Kapsali, John S. Anagnostopoulos


On the basis of comparative analysis of alternative “development scenarios” for electricity generation, the main objective of the present study is to investigate the techno-economic viability of high wind energy (WE) use at the local (island) level. An integrated theoretical model is developed based on first principles assuming two main possible scenarios for covering future electrification needs of a medium–sized Greek island, i.e. Lesbos. The first scenario (S1), assumes that the island will keep using oil products as the main source for electricity generation. The second scenario (S2) involves the interconnection of the island with the mainland grid to satisfy part of the electricity demand, while remarkable WE penetration is also achieved. The economic feasibility of the above solutions is investigated in terms of determining their Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) for the time-period 2020-2045, including also a sensitivity analysis on the worst/reference/best Cases. According to the results obtained, interconnection of Lesbos Island with the mainland grid (S2) presents considerable economic interest in comparison to autonomous development (S1) with WE having a prominent role to this effect.

Keywords: electricity generation cost, levelized cost of energy, mainland, wind energy surplus

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26 Neural Network Based Fluctuation Frequency Control in PV-Diesel Hybrid Power System

Authors: Heri Suryoatmojo, Adi Kurniawan, Feby A. Pamuji, Nursalim, Syaffaruddin, Herbert Innah


Photovoltaic (PV) system hybrid with diesel system is utilized widely for electrification in remote area. PV output power fluctuates due to uncertainty condition of temperature and sun irradiance. When the penetration of PV power is large, the reliability of the power utility will be disturbed and seriously impact the unstable frequency of system. Therefore, designing a robust frequency controller in PV-diesel hybrid power system is very important. This paper proposes new method of frequency control application in hybrid PV-diesel system based on artificial neural network (ANN). This method can minimize the frequency deviation without smoothing PV output power that controlled by maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method. The neural network algorithm controller considers average irradiance, change of irradiance and frequency deviation. In order the show the effectiveness of proposed algorithm, the addition of battery as energy storage system is also presented. To validate the proposed method, the results of proposed system are compared with the results of similar system using MPPT only. The simulation results show that the proposed method able to suppress frequency deviation smaller compared to the results of system using MPPT only.

Keywords: energy storage system, frequency deviation, hybrid power generation, neural network algorithm

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25 Application of ANN for Estimation of Power Demand of Villages in Sulaymaniyah Governorate

Authors: A. Majeed, P. Ali


Before designing an electrical system, the estimation of load is necessary for unit sizing and demand-generation balancing. The system could be a stand-alone system for a village or grid connected or integrated renewable energy to grid connection, especially as there are non–electrified villages in developing countries. In the classical model, the energy demand was found by estimating the household appliances multiplied with the amount of their rating and the duration of their operation, but in this paper, information exists for electrified villages could be used to predict the demand, as villages almost have the same life style. This paper describes a method used to predict the average energy consumed in each two months for every consumer living in a village by Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The input data are collected using a regional survey for samples of consumers representing typical types of different living, household appliances and energy consumption by a list of information, and the output data are collected from administration office of Piramagrun for each corresponding consumer. The result of this study shows that the average demand for different consumers from four villages in different months throughout the year is approximately 12 kWh/day, this model estimates the average demand/day for every consumer with a mean absolute percent error of 11.8%, and MathWorks software package MATLAB version 7.6.0 that contains and facilitate Neural Network Toolbox was used.

Keywords: artificial neural network, load estimation, regional survey, rural electrification

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