Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Paraguay

10 Effectiveness of ATMS (Advanced Transport Management Systems) in Asuncion, Paraguay

Authors: Sung Ho Oh

Abstract:

The advanced traffic lights, the system of traffic information collection and provision, the CCTVs for traffic control, and the traffic information center were installed in Asuncion, capital of Paraguay. After pre-post comparison of the installation, significant changes were found. Even though the traffic volumes were increased, travel speed was higher, so that travel time from origin to destination was decreased. the saving values for travel time, gas cost, and environmental cost are about 47 million US dollars per year. Satisfaction survey results for the installation were presented with statistical significance analysis.

Keywords: advanced transport management systems, effectiveness, Paraguay, traffic lights

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9 Most Recent Lifespan Estimate for the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant Computed by Using Borland and Miller Method and Mass Balance in Brazil, Paraguay

Authors: Anderson Braga Mendes

Abstract:

Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant is settled on the Paraná River, which is a natural boundary between Brazil and Paraguay; thus, the facility is shared by both countries. Itaipu Power Plant is the biggest hydroelectric generator in the world, and provides clean and renewable electrical energy supply for 17% and 76% of Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The plant started its generation in 1984. It counts on 20 Francis turbines and has installed capacity of 14,000 MWh. Its historic generation record occurred in 2016 (103,098,366 MWh), and since the beginning of its operation until the last day of 2016 the plant has achieved the sum of 2,415,789,823 MWh. The distinct sedimentologic aspects of the drainage area of Itaipu Power Plant, from its stretch upstream (Porto Primavera and Rosana dams) to downstream (Itaipu dam itself), were taken into account in order to best estimate the increase/decrease in the sediment yield by using data from 2001 to 2016. Such data are collected through a network of 14 automatic sedimentometric stations managed by the company itself and operating in an hourly basis, covering an area of around 136,000 km² (92% of the incremental drainage area of the undertaking). Since 1972, a series of lifespan studies for the Itaipu Power Plant have been made, being first assessed by Sir Hans Albert Einstein, at the time of the feasibility studies for the enterprise. From that date onwards, eight further studies were made through the last 44 years aiming to confer more precision upon the estimates based on more updated data sets. From the analysis of each monitoring station, it was clearly noticed strong increase tendencies in the sediment yield through the last 14 years, mainly in the Iguatemi, Ivaí, São Francisco Falso and Carapá Rivers, the latter situated in Paraguay, whereas the others are utterly in Brazilian territory. Five lifespan scenarios considering different sediment yield tendencies were simulated with the aid of the softwares SEDIMENT and DPOSIT, both developed by the author of the present work. Such softwares thoroughly follow the Borland & Miller methodology (empirical method of area-reduction). The soundest scenario out of the five ones under analysis indicated a lifespan foresight of 168 years, being the reservoir only 1.8% silted by the end of 2016, after 32 years of operation. Besides, the mass balance in the reservoir (water inflows minus outflows) between 1986 and 2016 shows that 2% of the whole Itaipu lake is silted nowadays. Owing to the convergence of both results, which were acquired by using different methodologies and independent input data, it is worth concluding that the mathematical modeling is satisfactory and calibrated, thus assigning credibility to this most recent lifespan estimate.

Keywords: Borland and Miller method, hydroelectricity, Itaipu Power Plant, lifespan, mass balance

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8 Comparison of Home Ranges of Radio Collared Jaguars (Panthera onca L.) in the Dry Chaco and Wet Chaco of Paraguay

Authors: Juan Facetti, Rocky McBride, Karina Loup

Abstract:

The Chaco Region of Paraguay is a key biodiverse area for the conservation of jaguars (Panthera onca), the largest feline of the Americas. It comprises five eco-regions, which holds important but decreasing populations of this species. The last decades, the expansion of soybean over the Atlantic Forest, forced the translocation of cattle-ranches towards the Chaco. Few studies of Jaguar's population densities in the American hemisphere were done until now. In the region, the specie is listed as vulnerable or threatened and more information is needed to implement any conservation policy. Among the factors that threaten the populations are land-use change, habitat fragmentation, prey depletion and illegal hunting. Two largest eco-regions were studied: the Wet Chaco and the Dry Chaco. From 2002 more than 20 jaguars were captured and fitted with GPS-collar. Data collected from 11 GPS-collars were processed, transformed numerically and finally converted into maps for analyzing. 8.092 locations were determined for four adult females (AF) and one adult male (AM) in the Wet Chaco, and one AF, one juvenile male (JM) and four AM in the Dry Chaco, during 1,867 days. GIS and kernel methodology were used to calculate daily distance of movement, home range-HR (95% isopleth), and core area (considered as 50% isopleth). In the Wet Chaco HR were 56 Km2 and 238 km2 for females and males respectively; while in the Dry Chaco HR were 685 Km2 and 844.5 km2 for females and males respectively, and 172 Km2 for a juvenile. Core areas of individual activity for each jaguar, were on average 11.5 Km2 and 33.55 km2 for AF and AM respectively in the Wet Chaco, while in the Dry Chaco were larger: 115 km2 for five AM and 225 Km2 for an AF and 32.4 Km2 for a JM. In both ecoregions, only one relevant overlap of HR of adults was reported. During the reproduction season, the HR (95% K) of one AM overlapped 49.83% with that of one AF. At the Wet Chaco, the maximum daily distance moved by an AF was 14.5 Km and 11.6 Km for the AM, while the Maximum Mean Daily Moved (MMDM) distance was 5.6 km for an AF and 3.1 km for an AM. At the Dry Chaco, the maximum daily distance for an AF was 61.7Km., 50.9Km for the AM and 6.6 Km for the JM, while the MMDM distance was 13.2 km for an AM and 8.4 km for an AF. This study confirmed that, as the invasion to jaguar habitat increased, it resulted in fragmented landscapes that influence spacing patterns of jaguars. Males used largest HR that of the smaller females and males covers largest distances that of the females. There appeared to be important spatial segregation between not only females but also males. It is likely that the larger areas used by males are partly caused by the sexual dimorphism in body size that entails differences in prey requirements. These could explain the larger distances travelled daily by males.

Keywords: Chaco ecoregions, Jaguar, home range, Panthera onca, Paraguay

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7 Lifespan Assessment of the Fish Crossing System of Itaipu Power Plant (Brazil/Paraguay) Based on the Reaching of Its Sedimentological Equilibrium Computed by 3D Modeling and Churchill Trapping Efficiency

Authors: Anderson Braga Mendes, Wallington Felipe de Almeida, Cicero Medeiros da Silva

Abstract:

This study aimed to assess the lifespan of the fish transposition system of the Itaipu Power Plant (Brazil/Paraguay) by using 3D hydrodynamic modeling and Churchill trapping effiency in order to identify the sedimentological equilibrium configuration in the main pond of the Piracema Channel, which is part of a 10 km hydraulic circuit that enables fish migration from downstream to upstream (and vice-versa) the Itaipu Dam, overcoming a 120 m water drop. For that, bottom data from 2002 (its opening year) and 2015 were collected and analyzed, besides bed material at 12 stations to the purpose of identifying their granulometric profiles. The Shields and Yalin and Karahan diagrams for initiation of motion of bed material were used to determine the critical bed shear stress for the sedimentological equilibrium state based on the sort of sediment (grain size) to be found at the bottom once the balance is reached. Such granulometry was inferred by analyzing the grosser material (fine and medium sands) which inflows the pond and deposits in its backwater zone, being adopted a range of diameters within the upper and lower limits of that sand stratification. The software Delft 3D was used in an attempt to compute the bed shear stress at every station under analysis. By modifying the input bathymetry of the main pond of the Piracema Channel so as to the computed bed shear stress at each station fell within the intervals of acceptable critical stresses simultaneously, it was possible to foresee the bed configuration of the main pond when the sedimentological equilibrium is reached. Under such condition, 97% of the whole pond capacity will be silted, and a shallow water course with depths ranging from 0.2 m to 1.5 m will be formed; in 2002, depths ranged from 2 m to 10 m. Out of that water path, the new bottom will be practically flat and covered by a layer of water 0.05 m thick. Thus, in the future the main pond of the Piracema Channel will lack its purpose of providing a resting place for migrating fish species, added to the fact that it may become an insurmountable barrier for medium and large sized specimens. Everything considered, it was estimated that its lifespan, from the year of its opening to the moment of the sedimentological equilibrium configuration, will be approximately 95 years–almost half of the computed lifespan of Itaipu Power Plant itself. However, it is worth mentioning that drawbacks concerning the silting in the main pond will start being noticed much earlier than such time interval owing to the reasons previously mentioned.

Keywords: 3D hydrodynamic modeling, Churchill trapping efficiency, fish crossing system, Itaipu power plant, lifespan, sedimentological equilibrium

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6 The Shrinking of the Pink Wave and the Rise of the Right-Wing in Latin America

Authors: B. M. Moda, L. F. Secco

Abstract:

Through free and fair elections and others less democratic processes, Latin America has been gradually turning into a right-wing political region. In order to understand these recent changes, this paper aims to discuss the origin and the traits of the pink wave in the subcontinent, the reasons for its current rollback and future projections for left-wing in the region. The methodology used in this paper will be descriptive and analytical combined with secondary sources mainly from the social and political sciences fields. The canons of the Washington Consensus was implemented by the majority of the Latin American governments in the 80s and 90s under the social democratic and right-wing parties. The neoliberal agenda caused political, social and economic dissatisfaction bursting into a new political configuration for the region. It started in 1998 when Hugo Chávez took the office in Venezuela through the Fifth Republic Movement under the socialist flag. From there on, Latin America was swiped by the so-called ‘pink wave’, term adopted to define the rising of self-designated left-wing or center-left parties with a progressive agenda. After Venezuela, countries like Chile, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Equator, Nicaragua, Paraguay, El Salvador and Peru got into the pink wave. The success of these governments was due a post-neoliberal agenda focused on cash transfers programs, increasing of public spending, and the straightening of national market. The discontinuation of the preference for the left-wing started in 2012 with the coup against Fernando Lugo in Paraguay. In 2015, the chavismo in Venezuela lost the majority of the legislative seats. In 2016, an impeachment removed the Brazilian president Dilma Rousself from office who was replaced by the center-right vice-president Michel Temer. In the same year, Mauricio Macri representing the right-wing party Proposta Republicana was elected in Argentina. In 2016 center-right and liberal, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski was elected in Peru. In 2017, Sebastián Piñera was elected in Chile through the center-right party Renovación Nacional. The pink wave current rollback points towards some findings that can be arranged in two fields. Economically, the 2008 financial crisis affected the majority of the Latin American countries and the left-wing economic policies along with the end of the raw materials boom and the subsequent shrinking of economic performance opened a flank for popular dissatisfaction. In Venezuela, the 2014 oil crisis reduced the revenues for the State in more than 50% dropping social spending, creating an inflationary spiral, and consequently loss of popular support. Politically, the death of Hugo Chavez in 2013 weakened the ‘socialism of the twenty first century’ ideal, which was followed by the death of Fidel Castro, the last bastion of communism in the subcontinent. In addition, several cases of corruption revealed during the pink wave governments made the traditional politics unpopular. These issues challenge the left-wing to develop a future agenda based on innovation of its economic program, improve its legal and political compliance practices, and to regroup its electoral forces amid the social movements that supported its ascension back in the early 2000s.

Keywords: Latin America, political parties, left-wing, right-wing, pink wave

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5 Finding a Paraguayan Voice: The Indigenous Language Guarani in Performances of Paraguayan Female Singers

Authors: Romy Martinez

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the use of the indigenous language Guarani in Paraguayan popular song and on some key interpreters born between the 1930s and 1980s. It analyses two representative musical genres of Paraguay, the Polka Paraguaya and Guarania. The lyrics of these genres follow one of four poetic-linguistic forms: to be entirely in Guarani, entirely in Spanish, bilingual (alternating verses in Guarani and Spanish), or in Jopará; the last being a form where words of both languages may be mixed in a single verse. Through these forms, the lyrics alternate and combine the indigenous voice with the one introduced with colonisation, in turn reflecting how Guarani seems to constantly transit, to and from, between a position of disdain and of value within Paraguayan society. Through analysing recordings of Polkas, Paraguayas, and Guaranias, it identifies three styles of singing adopted by female singers who include these genres in their repertoires, namely Paraguayan classical folk, Paraguayan folk, and Paraguayan pop-folk. This analysis is informed by a pilot study which consisted of online interviews with several Paraguayan artists, revealing significant aspects of their backgrounds and musical influences. In addition, it draws on autoethnographic approaches, building on the experience of the music researcher and singer. From a decolonising perspective, the paper brings together the distinctive voices and sounds expressed in popular songs from a marginalised country, language, and gender.

Keywords: female singers, Guarani, Paraguayan song, performance

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4 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of the Bacteria and Yeast from the Fermented Stevia Extract

Authors: Asato Takaishi, Masashi Nasuhara, Ayuko Itsuki, Kenichi Suga

Abstract:

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a composite plant native to Paraguay. Stevia sweetener is derived from a hot water extract of Stevia (Stevia extract), which has some effects such as histamine decomposition, antioxidative effect, and blood sugar level-lowering function. The steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract are considered to contribute to these effects. In addition, these effects increase by the fermentation. However, it takes a long time for fermentation of Stevia extract and the fermentation liquid sometimes decays during the fermentation process because natural fermentation method is used. The aim of this study is to perform the fermentation of Stevia extract in a shorter period, and to produce the fermentation liquid in stable quality. From the natural fermentation liquid of Stevia extract, the four strains of useful (good taste) microorganisms were isolated using dilution plate count method and some properties were determined. The base sequences of 16S rDNA and 28S rDNA revealed three bacteria (two Lactobacillus sp. and Microbacterium sp.) and one yeast (Issatchenkia sp.). This result has corresponded that several kinds of lactic bacterium such as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus buchneri were isolated from Stevia leaves. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometory (LC/MS/MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine the contents of steviol glycosides and neutral sugars. When these strains were cultured in the sterile Stevia extract, the steviol and stevioside were increased in the fermented Stevia extract. So, it was suggested that the rebaudioside A and the mixture of steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract were decomposed into stevioside and steviol by microbial metabolism.

Keywords: fermentation, lactobacillus, Stevia, steviol glycosides, yeast

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3 The Effect of Curing Temperature and Rice Husk Ash Addition on the Behaviour of Sulfate-Rich Clay after Lime Stabilization

Authors: E. Bittar, A. Quiñonez, F. Mencia, E. Aguero, M. Delgado, V. Arriola, R. López

Abstract:

In the western region of Paraguay, the poor condition of the roads has negatively affected the development of this zone, where the absence of petrous material has led engineers to opt for the stabilization of soils with lime or cement as the main structure for bases and subbases of these roads. In several areas of this region, high sulfate contents have been found both in groundwater and in soils, which, when reacted with lime or cement, generate a new problem instead of solving it. On the other hand, the use of industrial waste as granulated slag and fly ash proved to be a sustainable practice widely used in the manufacture of cement, and now also, in the stabilization of soils worldwide. Works related to soils containing sulfates stabilized either with granulated slag or fly ash and lime shown a good performance in their mechanical behaviour. This research seeks to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of soils with high contents of sulfates stabilized with lime by curing them both, at the normalized temperature (23 ± 2 °C) and at 40 ± 2 °C. Moreover, it attempts to asses if the addition of rice husk ash has a positive influence on the new geomaterial. The 40 ± 2 °C curing temperature was selected trying to simulate the average local temperature in summer and part of spring session whereas rice husk ash is an affordable waste produced in the region. An extensive experimental work, which includes unconfined compression, durability and free swell tests were carried out considering different dry unit weights, lime content and the addition of 20% of rice husk ash. The results showed that the addition of rice husk ash increases the resistance and durability of the material and decreases the expansion of this, moreover, the specimens cured at a temperature of 40 ± 2 °C showed higher resistance, better durability and lower expansion compared to those cured at the normalized temperature of 23 ± 2 °C.

Keywords: durability, expansion, lime stabilization, rice husk ash, sulfate

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2 Trace Elements in Yerba Mate from Brazil and Argentina by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

Authors: F. V. Matta, C. M. Donnelly, M. B. Jaafar, N. I. Ward

Abstract:

‘Yerba Mate’ (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native plant from South America with the main producers being Argentina and Brazil. ‘Mate’ is widely consumed in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay. The most popular format is as an infusion made from dried leaves of a traditional cup, roasted material in tea bags or iced tea infusions. There are many alleged health benefits resulted from mate consumption, even though there is a lack of conclusive research published in the international literature. The main objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the sample preparation and instrumental analysis stages involved in the determination of trace elements in yerba mate using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Specific details on the methods of sample digestion, validation of the ICP-MS analysis especially for polyatomic ion correction and matrix effects associated with the complex medium of mate will be presented. More importantly, mate produced in Brazil and Argentina, is subject to different soil conditions, methods of cultivation and production, especially for loose leaves and tea bags. The highest concentrations for loose mate leaf were for (mg/kg, dry weight): aluminium (253.6 – 506.9 for Brazil (Bra), 230.0 – 541.8 for Argentina (Arg), respectively), manganese (378.3 – 762.6 Bra; 440.8 – 879.9 Arg), iron (32.5 – 85.7 Bra; 28.2 – 132.9 Arg), zinc (28.2 – 91.1 Bra; 39.1 – 92.3 Arg), nickel (2.2 – 4.3 Bra; 2.9 – 10.8 Arg) and copper (4.8 – 9.1 Bra; 4.3 – 9.2 Arg), with lower levels of chromium, cobalt, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, lead and arsenic. Elemental levels of mate leaf consumed in tea bags were found to be higher, mainly due to only using leaf material (as opposed to leaf and twig for loose packed product). Further implications of the way of consuming yerba mate will be presented, including different infusion methods in Brazil and Argentina. This research provides for the first time an extensive evaluation of mate products from both countries and the possible implications of specific trace elements, especially Mn, Fe, Se, Cu and Zn and the various health claims of consuming yerba mate.

Keywords: beverage analysis, ICP-MS, trace elements, yerba mate

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1 Hydrological Benefits Sharing Concepts in Constructing Friendship Dams on Transboundary Tigris River Between Iraq and Turkey

Authors: Thair Mahmood Altaiee

Abstract:

Because of the increasing population and the growing water requirements from the transboundary water resources within riparian countries in addition to un-proper management of these transboundary water resources, it is likely that a conflicts on the water will be occurred. So it is mandatory to search solutions to mitigate the action and probabilities of these undesired conflicts. One of the solutions for these crises may be sharing the riparian countries in the management of their transboundary water resources and share benefit. Effective cooperation on a transboundary river is any action by the riparian countries that lead to improve management of the river to their mutual acceptance. In principle, friendship dams constructed by riparian countries may play an important role in preventing conflicts like the Turkish-Syrian friendship dam on Asi river (Orontes), Iranian-Tukmenistan dam on Hariroud river, Bulgarian-Turkish dam on Tundzha river, Brazil-Paraguay dam on Parana river, and Aras dam between Iran and Azerbaijan. The objective of this study is to focus the light on the hydrological aspects of cooperation in constructing dams on the transboundary rivers, which may consider an option to prevent conflicts on water between the riparian countries. The various kinds of benefits and external impacts associated with cooperation in dams construction on the transboundary rivers with a real examples will be presented and analyzed. The hydrological benefit sharing from cooperation in dams construction, which type of benefit sharing mechanisms are applicable to dams, and how they vary were discussed. The study considered the cooperative applicability to dams on shared rivers according to selected case study of friendship dams in the world to illustrate the relevance of the cooperation concepts and the feasibility of such propose cooperation between Turkey and Iraq within the Tigris river. It is found that the opportunities of getting benefit from cooperation depend mainly on the hydrological boundary and location of the dam in relation to them. The desire to cooperate on dams construction on transboundary rivers exists if the location of a dam upstream will increase aggregate net benefits. The case studies show that various benefit sharing mechanisms due to cooperation in constructing friendship dams on the riparian countries border are possible for example when the downstream state (Iraq) convinces the upstream state (Turkey) to share building a dam on Tigris river across the Iraqi –Turkish border covering the cost and sharing the net benefit derived from this dam. These initial findings may provide guidance for riparian states engaged in and donors facilitating negotiation on dam projects on transboundary rivers.

Keywords: friendship dams, transboundary rivers, water cooperation, benefit sharing

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