Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Pavan Verıkıcherla

19 Predictability of Pupil Mydriasis as a Biomarker for Diabetes

Authors: Naveen Kumar Challa, Pavan Verıkıcherla, Madhubalan, Ashısh Sharma

Abstract:

Aim: Aim of the study was to find whether any difference exists in pupil mydriasis measured with Orbscan in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients at various intervals after installation of Tropicamide 0.8% and Phenylephrine 5%. Methods: the Observational study conducted at a tertiary care eye hospital during September 2014 to March 2015. 240 eyes from 120 patients (40 non-diabetic, 80 diabetic) were dilated with Tropicamide 0.8% and Phenylephrine 5%. One drop of a drug was installed twice. The second drop is installed at 20 minutes after installation of the first drop. In two groups’ pupil diameter was measured before installation of drops and also at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after installation of the first drop using both Orbscan. Result: Mean age of the non-diabetic group is 48.67 ± 7.93 years; Diabetic group is 59.97 ± 8.77 years. Mean duration of Diabetes was 7.01 ± 5.05 years. Mean pupil diameter measured with Orbscan before installation of the drops and also at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after installation of first drop in non-diabetic group was 4.18 ± 0.64mm, 6.15 ± 0.41mm, 7.76 ±0.34, 9.59 ± 0.30, and 9.97 ± 0.10 mm respectively and for the diabetic group it was 4.00 ± 0.56 mm, 5.53 ± 0.52 mm, 7.018 ± 0.58mm, 8.25±0.51mm and 9.18 ± 0.46mm respectively. The mean difference between the mean pupil diameters of the non-diabetic and diabetic group shows a significant difference (P< 0.01) at all intervals except before dilatation. There is a significant negative correlation (r = 0.78 – 0.92) between the duration of diabetes and pupil dilatation at all intervals after installation of the drops. There is also significant difference (P< 0.005) in the mean values of pupil diameter between non retinopathy diabetic subjects and diabetic retinopathy subjects at all intervals after installation of drops. Conclusion: People attending eye clinic, whose pupil mydriasis values falls below the normal may be referred for diabetic evaluation. If normative data is established for the pupil size in Indian population using Orbscan then the values fall under normative data could be a predictor for diabetes. This would in turn help ophthalmologist to detect the diabetes at an early stage and prevent the complications resulting from the diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, pupil diameter, orbscan, tropicamide

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18 Biosorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solutions by Tinospora Cordifolia Leaves

Authors: Srinivasulu Dasaiah, Kalyan Yakkala, Gangadhar Battala, Pavan Kumar Pindi, Ramakrishna Naidu Gurijala

Abstract:

Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass used for the removal fluoride from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption technique was applied, pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration was studied. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques used to study the surface characteristics and the presence of chemical functional groups on the biosorbent. Biosorption isotherm models and kinetic models were applied to understand the sorption mechanism. Results revealed that pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration played a significant effect on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. The developed biosorbent derived from Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass found to be a low-cost biosorbent and could be used for the effective removal of fluoride in synthetic as well as real water samples.

Keywords: biosorption, contact time, fluoride, isotherms

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17 A Hybrid System of Hidden Markov Models and Recurrent Neural Networks for Learning Deterministic Finite State Automata

Authors: Pavan K. Rallabandi, Kailash C. Patidar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an optimization technique or a learning algorithm using the hybrid architecture by combining the most popular sequence recognition models such as Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and Hidden Markov models (HMMs). In order to improve the sequence or pattern recognition/ classification performance by applying a hybrid/neural symbolic approach, a gradient descent learning algorithm is developed using the Real Time Recurrent Learning of Recurrent Neural Network for processing the knowledge represented in trained Hidden Markov Models. The developed hybrid algorithm is implemented on automata theory as a sample test beds and the performance of the designed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated on learning the deterministic finite state automata.

Keywords: hybrid systems, hidden markov models, recurrent neural networks, deterministic finite state automata

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16 Fish Oil and Its Methyl Ester as an Alternate Fuel in the Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Authors: Pavan Pujar

Abstract:

Mackerel Fish oil was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The raw oil (RO) was collected from discarded fish products. This oil was filtered and heated to 110oC and made it moisture free. The filtered and moisture free RO was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The experimental results showed that oleic acid and lauric acid were the two major components of the fish oil biodiesel (FOB). Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were found approximately same in the quantity. The fuel properties kinematic viscosity, flash point, fire point, specific gravity, calorific value, cetane number, density, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, cloud point, pour point, ash content, Cu strip corrosion, carbon residue, API gravity were determined for FOB. A comparative study of the properties was carried out with RO and Neat diesel (ND). It was found that Cetane number was 59 for FOB which was more than RO, which showed 57. Blends (B20, B40, B60, B80: example: B20: 20% FOB + 80% ND) of FOB and ND were prepared on volume basis and comparative study was carried out with ND and FOB. Performance parameters BSFE, BSEC, A:F Ratio, Break thermal efficiency were analyzed and it was found that complete replacement of neat diesel (ND) is possible without any engine modifications.

Keywords: fish oil biodiesel, raw oil, blends, performance parameters

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15 Molecular Profiling of an Oleaginous Trebouxiophycean Alga Parachlorella kessleri Subjected to Nutrient Deprivation

Authors: Pannaga Pavan Jutur

Abstract:

Parachlorella kessleri, a marine unicellular green alga belonging to class Trebouxiophyceae, accumulates large amounts of oil, i.e., lipids under nutrient-deprived (-N, -P, and -S) conditions. Understanding their metabolic imprints is important for elucidating the physiological mechanisms of lipid accumulations in this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Metabolic and lipidomic profiles were obtained respectively using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of P. kessleri under nutrient starvation (-N, -P and -S) conditions. Relative quantities of more than 100 metabolites were systematically compared in all these three starvation conditions. Our results demonstrate that in lipid metabolism, the quantities of neutral lipids increased significantly followed by the decrease in other metabolites involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, etc. In conclusion, the metabolomics and lipidomic profiles have identified a few common metabolites such as citric acid, valine, and trehalose to play a significant role in the overproduction of oil by this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Understanding the entire system through untargeted metabolome profiling will lead to identifying relevant metabolites involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of precursor molecules that may have the potential for biofuel production, aiming towards the vision of tomorrow’s bioenergy needs.

Keywords: algae, biofuels, nutrient stress, omics

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14 Mathematical Model for Output Yield Obtained by Single Slope Solar Still

Authors: V. Nagaraju, G. Murali, Nagarjunavarma Ganna, Atluri Pavan Kalyan, N. Sree Sai Ganesh, V. S. V. S. Badrinath

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the development of a mathematical model for the yield obtained by single slope solar still incorporated with cylindrical pipes filled with sand. The mathematical results obtained were validated with the experimental results for the 3 cm of water level at the basin. The mathematical model and results obtained with the experimental investigation are within 11% of deviation. The theoretical model to predict the yield obtained due to the capillary effect was proposed first. And then, to predict the total yield obtained, the thermal effect model was integrated with the capillary effect model. With the obtained results, it is understood that the yield obtained is more in the case of solar stills with sand-filled cylindrical pipes when compared to solar stills without sand-filled cylindrical pipes. And later model was used for predicting yield for 1 cm and 2 cm of water levels at the basin. And it is observed that the maximum yield was obtained for a 1 cm water level at the basin. It means solar still produces better yield with the lower depth of water level at the basin; this may be because of the availability of more space in the sand for evaporation.

Keywords: solar still, cylindrical pipes, still efficiency, mathematical modeling, capillary effect model, yield, solar desalination

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13 Virtualization and Visualization Based Driver Configuration in Operating System

Authors: Pavan Shah

Abstract:

In an Embedded system, Virtualization and visualization technology can provide us an effective response and measurable work in a software development environment. In addition to work of virtualization and virtualization can be easily deserved to provide the best resource sharing between real-time hardware applications and a healthy environment. However, the virtualization is noticeable work to minimize the I/O work and utilize virtualization & virtualization technology for either a software development environment (SDE) or a runtime environment of real-time embedded systems (RTMES) or real-time operating system (RTOS) eras. In this Paper, we particularly focus on virtualization and visualization overheads data of network which generates the I/O and implementation of standardized I/O (i.e., Virto), which can work as front-end network driver in a real-time operating system (RTOS) hardware module. Even there have been several work studies are available based on the virtualization operating system environment, but for the Virto on a general-purpose OS, my implementation is on the open-source Virto for a real-time operating system (RTOS). In this paper, the measurement results show that implementation which can improve the bandwidth and latency of memory management of the real-time operating system environment (RTMES) for getting more accuracy of the trained model.

Keywords: virtualization, visualization, network driver, operating system

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12 Incorporation of Copper for Performance Enhancement in Metal-Oxides Resistive Switching Device and Its Potential Electronic Application

Authors: B. Pavan Kumar Reddy, P. Michael Preetam Raj, Souri Banerjee, Souvik Kundu

Abstract:

In this work, the fabrication and characterization of copper-doped zinc oxide (Cu:ZnO) based memristor devices with aluminum (Al) and indium tin oxide (ITO) metal electrodes are reported. The thin films of Cu:ZnO was synthesized using low-cost and low-temperature chemical process. The Cu:ZnO was then deposited onto ITO bottom electrodes using spin-coater technique, whereas the top electrode Al was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. Ellipsometer was employed in order to measure the Cu:ZnO thickness and it was found to be 50 nm. Several surface and materials characterization techniques were used to study the thin-film properties of Cu:ZnO. To ascertain the efficacy of Cu:ZnO for memristor applications, electrical characterizations such as current-voltage (I-V), data retention and endurance were obtained, all being the critical parameters for next-generation memory. The I-V characteristic exhibits switching behavior with asymmetrical hysteresis loops. This work imputes the resistance switching to the positional drift of oxygen vacancies associated with respect to the Al/Cu:ZnO junction. Further, a non-linear curve fitting regression techniques were utilized to determine the equivalent circuit for the fabricated Cu:ZnO memristors. Efforts were also devoted in order to establish its potentiality for different electronic applications.

Keywords: copper doped, metal-oxides, oxygen vacancies, resistive switching

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11 Algorithm for Quantification of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Chest X-Ray Exams

Authors: Marcela de Oliveira, Guilherme Giacomini, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Maria Eugenia Dela Rosa, Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Diana Rodrigues de Pina

Abstract:

It is estimated that each year one death every 10 seconds (about 2 million deaths) in the world is attributed to tuberculosis (TB). Even after effective treatment, TB leaves sequelae such as, for example, pulmonary fibrosis, compromising the quality of life of patients. Evaluations of the aforementioned sequel are usually performed subjectively by radiology specialists. Subjective evaluation may indicate variations inter and intra observers. The examination of x-rays is the diagnostic imaging method most accomplished in the monitoring of patients diagnosed with TB and of least cost to the institution. The application of computational algorithms is of utmost importance to make a more objective quantification of pulmonary impairment in individuals with tuberculosis. The purpose of this research is the use of computer algorithms to quantify the pulmonary impairment pre and post-treatment of patients with pulmonary TB. The x-ray images of 10 patients with TB diagnosis confirmed by examination of sputum smears were studied. Initially the segmentation of the total lung area was performed (posteroanterior and lateral views) then targeted to the compromised region by pulmonary sequel. Through morphological operators and the application of signal noise tool, it was possible to determine the compromised lung volume. The largest difference found pre- and post-treatment was 85.85% and the smallest was 54.08%.

Keywords: algorithm, radiology, tuberculosis, x-rays exam

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10 Contactless Attendance System along with Temperature Monitoring

Authors: Nalini C. Iyer, Shraddha H., Anagha B. Varahamurthy, Dikshith C. S., Ishwar G. Kubasad, Vinayak I. Karalatti, Pavan B. Mulimani

Abstract:

The current scenario of the pandemic due to COVID-19 has led to the awareness among the people to avoid unneces-sary contact in public places. There is a need to avoid contact with physical objects to stop the spreading of infection. The contactless feature has to be included in the systems in public places wherever possible. For example, attendance monitoring systems with fingerprint biometric can be replaced with a contactless feature. One more important protocol followed in the current situation is temperature monitoring and screening. The paper describes an attendance system with a contactless feature and temperature screening for the university. The system displays a QR code to scan, which redirects to the student login web page only if the location is valid (the location where the student scans the QR code should be the location of the display of the QR code). Once the student logs in, the temperature of the student is scanned by the contactless temperature sensor (mlx90614) with an error of 0.5°C. If the temperature falls in the range of the desired value (range of normal body temperature), then the attendance of the student is marked as present, stored in the database, and the door opens automatically. The attendance is marked as absent in the other case, alerted with the display of temperature, and the door remains closed. The door is automated with the help of a servomotor. To avoid the proxy, IR sensors are used to count the number of students in the classroom. The hardware system consisting of a contactless temperature sensor and IR sensor is implemented on the microcontroller, NodeMCU.

Keywords: NodeMCU, IR sensor, attendance monitoring, contactless, temperature

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9 An Automated Approach to the Nozzle Configuration of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Drill Bits for Effective Cuttings Removal

Authors: R. Suresh, Pavan Kumar Nimmagadda, Ming Zo Tan, Shane Hart, Sharp Ugwuocha

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are extensively used in the oil and gas industry as well as the mining industry. Industry engineers continually improve upon PDC drill bit designs and hydraulic conditions. Optimized injection nozzles play a key role in improving the drilling performance and efficiency of these ever changing PDC drill bits. In the first part of this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is performed to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of drilling fluid flow around the PDC drill bit. An Open-source CFD software – OpenFOAM simulates the flow around the drill bit, based on the field input data. A specifically developed console application integrates the entire CFD process including, domain extraction, meshing, and solving governing equations and post-processing. The results from the OpenFOAM solver are then compared with that of the ANSYS Fluent software. The data from both software programs agree. The second part of the paper describes the parametric study of the PDC drill bit nozzle to determine the effect of parameters such as number of nozzles, nozzle velocity, nozzle radial position and orientations on the flow field characteristics and bit washing patterns. After analyzing a series of nozzle configurations, the best configuration is identified and recommendations are made for modifying the PDC bit design.

Keywords: ANSYS Fluent, computational fluid dynamics, nozzle configuration, OpenFOAM, PDC dill bit

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8 Influence of Infinite Elements in Vibration Analysis of High-Speed Railway Track

Authors: Janaki Rama Raju Patchamatla, Emani Pavan Kumar

Abstract:

The idea of increasing the existing train speeds and introduction of the high-speed trains in India as a part of Vision-2020 is really challenging from both economic viability and technical feasibility. More than economic viability, technical feasibility has to be thoroughly checked for safe operation and execution. Trains moving at high speeds need a well-established firm and safe track thoroughly tested against vibration effects. With increased speeds of trains, the track structure and layered soil-structure interaction have to be critically assessed for vibration and displacements. Physical establishment of track, testing and experimentation is a costly and time taking process. Software-based modelling and simulation give relatively reliable, cost-effective means of testing effects of critical parameters like sleeper design and density, properties of track and sub-grade, etc. The present paper reports the applicability of infinite elements in reducing the unrealistic stress-wave reflections from so-called soil-structure interface. The influence of the infinite elements is quantified in terms of the displacement time histories of adjoining soil and the deformation pattern in general. In addition, the railhead response histories at various locations show that the numerical model is realistic without any aberrations at the boundaries. The numerical model is quite promising in its ability to simulate the critical parameters of track design.

Keywords: high speed railway track, finite element method, Infinite elements, vibration analysis, soil-structure interface

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7 Collapse Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Pile Group in Liquefying Soils under Lateral Loading

Authors: Pavan K. Emani, Shashank Kothari, V. S. Phanikanth

Abstract:

The ultimate load analysis of RC pile groups has assumed a lot of significance under liquefying soil conditions, especially due to post-earthquake studies of 1964 Niigata, 1995 Kobe and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The present study reports the results of numerical simulations on pile groups subjected to monotonically increasing lateral loads under design amounts of pile axial loading. The soil liquefaction has been considered through the non-linear p-y relationship of the soil springs, which can vary along the depth/length of the pile. This variation again is related to the liquefaction potential of the site and the magnitude of the seismic shaking. As the piles in the group can reach their extreme deflections and rotations during increased amounts of lateral loading, a precise modeling of the inelastic behavior of the pile cross-section is done, considering the complete stress-strain behavior of concrete, with and without confinement, and reinforcing steel, including the strain-hardening portion. The possibility of the inelastic buckling of the individual piles is considered in the overall collapse modes. The model is analysed using Riks analysis in finite element software to check the post buckling behavior and plastic collapse of piles. The results confirm the kinds of failure modes predicted by centrifuge test results reported by researchers on pile group, although the pile material used is significantly different from that of the simulation model. The extension of the present work promises an important contribution to the design codes for pile groups in liquefying soils.

Keywords: collapse load analysis, inelastic buckling, liquefaction, pile group

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6 Ischemic Stroke Detection in Computed Tomography Examinations

Authors: Allan F. F. Alves, Fernando A. Bacchim Neto, Guilherme Giacomini, Marcela de Oliveira, Ana L. M. Pavan, Maria E. D. Rosa, Diana R. Pina

Abstract:

Stroke is a worldwide concern, only in Brazil it accounts for 10% of all registered deaths. There are 2 stroke types, ischemic (87%) and hemorrhagic (13%). Early diagnosis is essential to avoid irreversible cerebral damage. Non-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) is one of the main diagnostic techniques used due to its wide availability and rapid diagnosis. Detection depends on the size and severity of lesions and the time spent between the first symptoms and examination. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a subjective method that increases the detection rate. The aim of this work was to implement an image segmentation system to enhance ischemic stroke and to quantify the area of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke lesions in CT scans. We evaluated 10 patients with NECT examinations diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Analyzes were performed in two axial slices, one at the level of the thalamus and basal ganglion and one adjacent to the top edge of the ganglionic structures with window width between 80 and 100 Hounsfield Units. We used different image processing techniques such as morphological filters, discrete wavelet transform and Fuzzy C-means clustering. Subjective analyzes were performed by a neuroradiologist according to the ASPECTS scale to quantify ischemic areas in the middle cerebral artery region. These subjective analysis results were compared with objective analyzes performed by the computational algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that the morphological filters actually improve the ischemic areas for subjective evaluations. The comparison in area of the ischemic region contoured by the neuroradiologist and the defined area by computational algorithm showed no deviations greater than 12% in any of the 10 examination tests. Although there is a tendency that the areas contoured by the neuroradiologist are smaller than those obtained by the algorithm. These results show the importance of a computer aided diagnosis software to assist neuroradiology decisions, especially in critical situations as the choice of treatment for ischemic stroke.

Keywords: ischemic stroke, image processing, CT scans, Fuzzy C-means

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5 Dogs Chest Homogeneous Phantom for Image Optimization

Authors: Maris Eugênia Dela Rosa, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Marcela De Oliveira, Diana Rodrigues De Pina, Luis Carlos Vulcano

Abstract:

In medical veterinary as well as in human medicine, radiological study is essential for a safe diagnosis in clinical practice. Thus, the quality of radiographic image is crucial. In last year’s there has been an increasing substitution of image acquisition screen-film systems for computed radiology equipment (CR) without technical charts adequacy. Furthermore, to carry out a radiographic examination in veterinary patient is required human assistance for restraint this, which can compromise image quality by generating dose increasing to the animal, for Occupationally Exposed and also the increased cost to the institution. The image optimization procedure and construction of radiographic techniques are performed with the use of homogeneous phantoms. In this study, we sought to develop a homogeneous phantom of canine chest to be applied to the optimization of these images for the CR system. In carrying out the simulator was created a database with retrospectives chest images of computed tomography (CT) of the Veterinary Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - UNESP (FMVZ / Botucatu). Images were divided into four groups according to the animal weight employing classification by sizes proposed by Hoskins & Goldston. The thickness of biological tissues were quantified in a 80 animals, separated in groups of 20 animals according to their weights: (S) Small - equal to or less than 9.0 kg, (M) Medium - between 9.0 and 23.0 kg, (L) Large – between 23.1 and 40.0kg and (G) Giant – over 40.1 kg. Mean weight for group (S) was 6.5±2.0 kg, (M) 15.0±5.0 kg, (L) 32.0±5.5 kg and (G) 50.0 ±12.0 kg. An algorithm was developed in Matlab in order to classify and quantify biological tissues present in CT images and convert them in simulator materials. To classify tissues presents, the membership functions were created from the retrospective CT scans according to the type of tissue (adipose, muscle, bone trabecular or cortical and lung tissue). After conversion of the biologic tissue thickness in equivalent material thicknesses (acrylic simulating soft tissues, bone tissues simulated by aluminum and air to the lung) were obtained four different homogeneous phantoms, with (S) 5 cm of acrylic, 0,14 cm of aluminum and 1,8 cm of air; (M) 8,7 cm of acrylic, 0,2 cm of aluminum and 2,4 cm of air; (L) 10,6 cm of acrylic, 0,27 cm of aluminum and 3,1 cm of air and (G) 14,8 cm of acrylic, 0,33 cm of aluminum and 3,8 cm of air. The developed canine homogeneous phantom is a practical tool, which will be employed in future, works to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures.

Keywords: radiation protection, phantom, veterinary radiology, computed radiography

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4 Green Organic Chemistry, a New Paradigm in Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Pesaru Vigneshwar Reddy, Parvathaneni Pavan

Abstract:

Green organic chemistry which is the latest and one of the most researched topics now-a- days has been in demand since 1990’s. Majority of the research in green organic chemistry chemicals are some of the important starting materials for greater number of major chemical industries. The production of organic chemicals has raw materials (or) reagents for other application is major sector of manufacturing polymers, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paints, artificial fibers, food additives etc. organic synthesis on a large scale compound to the labratory scale, involves the use of energy, basic chemical ingredients from the petro chemical sectors, catalyst and after the end of the reaction, seperation, purification, storage, packing distribution etc. During these processes there are many problems of health and safety for workers in addition to the environmental problems caused there by use and deposition as waste. Green chemistry with its 12 principles would like to see changes in conventional way that were used for decades to make synthetic organic chemical and the use of less toxic starting materials. Green chemistry would like to increase the efficiency of synthetic methods, to use less toxic solvents, reduce the stage of synthetic routes and minimize waste as far as practically possible. In this way, organic synthesis will be part of the effort for sustainable development Green chemistry is also interested for research and alternatives innovations on many practical aspects of organic synthesis in the university and research labaratory of institutions. By changing the methodologies of organic synthesis, health and safety will be advanced in the small scale laboratory level but also will be extended to the industrial large scale production a process through new techniques. The three key developments in green chemistry include the use of super critical carbondioxide as green solvent, aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidising agent and use of hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis. It also focuses on replacing traditional methods of heating with that of modern methods of heating like microwaves traditions, so that carbon foot print should reduces as far as possible. Another beneficiary of this green chemistry is that it will reduce environmental pollution through the use of less toxic reagents, minimizing of waste and more bio-degradable biproducts. In this present paper some of the basic principles, approaches, and early achievements of green chemistry has a branch of chemistry that studies the laws of passing of chemical reactions is also considered, with the summarization of green chemistry principles. A discussion about E-factor, old and new synthesis of ibuprofen, microwave techniques, and some of the recent advancements also considered.

Keywords: energy, e-factor, carbon foot print, micro-wave, sono-chemistry, advancement

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3 The Advancement of Smart Cushion Product and System Design Enhancing Public Health and Well-Being at Workplace

Authors: Dosun Shin, Assegid Kidane, Pavan Turaga

Abstract:

According to the National Institute of Health, living a sedentary lifestyle leads to a number of health issues, including increased risk of cardiovascular dis-ease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and certain types of cancers. This project brings together experts in multiple disciplines to bring product design, sensor design, algorithms, and health intervention studies to develop a product and system that helps reduce the amount of time sitting at the workplace. This paper illustrates ongoing improvements to prototypes the research team developed in initial research; including working prototypes with a software application, which were developed and demonstrated for users. Additional modifications were made to improve functionality, aesthetics, and ease of use, which will be discussed in this paper. Extending on the foundations created in the initial phase, our approach sought to further improve the product by conducting additional human factor research, studying deficiencies in competitive products, testing various materials/forms, developing working prototypes, and obtaining feedback from additional potential users. The solution consisted of an aesthetically pleasing seat cover cushion that easily attaches to common office chairs found in most workplaces, ensuring a wide variety of people can use the product. The product discreetly contains sensors that track when the user sits on their chair, sending information to a phone app that triggers reminders for users to stand up and move around after sitting for a set amount of time. This paper also presents the analyzed typical office aesthetics and selected materials, colors, and forms that complimented the working environment. Comfort and ease of use remained a high priority as the design team sought to provide a product and system that integrated into the workplace. As the research team continues to test, improve, and implement this solution for the sedentary workplace, the team seeks to create a viable product that acts as an impetus for a more active workday and lifestyle, further decreasing the proliferation of chronic disease and health issues for sedentary working people. This paper illustrates in detail the processes of engineering, product design, methodology, and testing results.

Keywords: anti-sedentary work behavior, new product development, sensor design, health intervention studies

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2 Automatic Identification of Pectoral Muscle

Authors: Ana L. M. Pavan, Guilherme Giacomini, Allan F. F. Alves, Marcela De Oliveira, Fernando A. B. Neto, Maria E. D. Rosa, Andre P. Trindade, Diana R. De Pina

Abstract:

Mammography is a worldwide image modality used to diagnose breast cancer, even in asymptomatic women. Due to its large availability, mammograms can be used to measure breast density and to predict cancer development. Women with increased mammographic density have a four- to sixfold increase in their risk of developing breast cancer. Therefore, studies have been made to accurately quantify mammographic breast density. In clinical routine, radiologists perform image evaluations through BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) assessment. However, this method has inter and intraindividual variability. An automatic objective method to measure breast density could relieve radiologist’s workload by providing a first aid opinion. However, pectoral muscle is a high density tissue, with similar characteristics of fibroglandular tissues. It is consequently hard to automatically quantify mammographic breast density. Therefore, a pre-processing is needed to segment the pectoral muscle which may erroneously be quantified as fibroglandular tissue. The aim of this work was to develop an automatic algorithm to segment and extract pectoral muscle in digital mammograms. The database consisted of thirty medio-lateral oblique incidence digital mammography from São Paulo Medical School. This study was developed with ethical approval from the authors’ institutions and national review panels under protocol number 3720-2010. An algorithm was developed, in Matlab® platform, for the pre-processing of images. The algorithm uses image processing tools to automatically segment and extract the pectoral muscle of mammograms. Firstly, it was applied thresholding technique to remove non-biological information from image. Then, the Hough transform is applied, to find the limit of the pectoral muscle, followed by active contour method. Seed of active contour is applied in the limit of pectoral muscle found by Hough transform. An experienced radiologist also manually performed the pectoral muscle segmentation. Both methods, manual and automatic, were compared using the Jaccard index and Bland-Altman statistics. The comparison between manual and the developed automatic method presented a Jaccard similarity coefficient greater than 90% for all analyzed images, showing the efficiency and accuracy of segmentation of the proposed method. The Bland-Altman statistics compared both methods in relation to area (mm²) of segmented pectoral muscle. The statistic showed data within the 95% confidence interval, enhancing the accuracy of segmentation compared to the manual method. Thus, the method proved to be accurate and robust, segmenting rapidly and freely from intra and inter-observer variability. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used reliably to segment pectoral muscle in digital mammography in clinical routine. The segmentation of the pectoral muscle is very important for further quantifications of fibroglandular tissue volume present in the breast.

Keywords: active contour, fibroglandular tissue, hough transform, pectoral muscle

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1 Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography of the Hepatic Tissue of Canine Brachycephalic Patients

Authors: A. C. Facin, M. C. Maronezi , M. P. Menezes, G. L. Montanhim, L. Pavan, M. A. R. Feliciano, R. P. Nociti, R. A. R. Uscategui, P. C. Moraes

Abstract:

The incidence of brachycephalic syndrome (BS) in the clinical routine of small animals has increased significantly giving the higher proportion of brachycephalic pets in the last years and has been considered as an animal welfare problem. The treatment of BS is surgical and the clinical signs related can be considerably attenuated. Nevertheless, the systemic effects of the BS are still poorly reported and little is known about these when the surgical correction is not performed early. Affected dogs are more likely to develop cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders in which the chronic hypoxemia plays a major role. This syndrome is compared with the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in humans, both considered as causes of systemic and metabolic dysfunction. Among the several consequences of the BS little is known if the syndrome also affects the hepatic tissue of brachycephalic patients. Elastography is a promising ultrasound technique that evaluates tissue elasticity and has been recently used with the purpose of diagnosis of liver fibrosis. In medicine, it is a growing concern regarding the hepatic injury of patients affected by OSA. This prospective study hypothesizes if there is any consequence of BS in the hepatic parenchyma of brachycephalic dogs that don’t receive any surgical treatment. This study was conducted following the approval of the Animal Ethics and Welfare Committee of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, UNESP, Campus Jaboticabal, Brazil (protocol no 17944/2017) and funded by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, process no 2017/24809-4). The methodology was based in ARFI elastography using the ACUSON S2000/SIEMENS device, with convex multifrequential transducer and specific software as well as clinical evaluation of the syndrome, in order to determine if they can be used as a prognostic non-invasive tool. On quantitative elastography, it was collected three measures of shear wave velocity (meters per second) and depth in centimeters in the left lateral, left medial, right lateral, right medial and caudate lobe of the liver. The brachycephalic patients, 16 pugs and 30 french bulldogs, were classified using a previously established 4-point functional grading system based on clinical evaluation before and after a 3-minute exercise tolerance test already established and validated. The control group was based on the same features collected in 22 beagles. The software R version 3.3.0 was used for the analysis and the significance level was set at 0.05. The data were analysed for normality of residuals and homogeneity of variances by Shapiro-Wilks test. Comparisons of parametric continuous variables between breeds were performed by using ANOVA with a post hoc test for pair wise comparison. The preliminary results show significant statistic differences between the brachycephalic groups and the control group in all lobes analysed (p ≤ 0,05), with higher values of shear wave velocities in the hepatic tissue of brachycephalic dogs. In this context, the results obtained in this study contributes to the understanding of BS as well as its consequences in our patients, reflecting in evidence that one more systemic consequence of the syndrome may occur in brachycephalic patients, which was not related in the veterinary literature yet.

Keywords: airway obstruction, brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome, hepatic injury, obstructive sleep apnea

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