Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Basharat Yousuf

23 Psyllium (Plantago) Gum as an Effective Edible Coating to Improve Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Papaya (Carica papaya)

Authors: Basharat Yousuf, Abhaya K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Psyllium gum alone and in combination with sunflower oil was investigated as a possible alternative edible coating for improvement of quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya. Different concentrations including 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent of psyllium gum were used for coating of fresh-cut papaya. In some samples, refined sunflower oil was used as a lipid component to increase the effectiveness of coating in terms of water barrier properties. Soya lecithin was used as an emulsifier in coatings containing oil. Pretreatment with 1% calcium chloride was given to maintain the firmness of fresh-cut papaya cubes. 1% psyllium gum coating was found to yield better results. Further, addition of oil helped to maintain the quality and acted as a barrier to water vapour, therefore, minimizing the weight loss.

Keywords: coating, fresh-cut, gum, papaya, psylllium

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22 Case Study of Child Labour in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Ali Ansari, Hassan Arshad, Basharat Hussani, Adnan Raza, Ahmad Ali Khan

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Child labor is a kind of an issue which was found all over the world, but now the first world countries like countries in Europe and America (USA) got hold of it up to a large extent but Underdeveloped or the developing countries including Pakistan are still a victim of this issue. The following attempt has been made in this research article to figure out the main reasons of child labor in underdeveloped countries especially in Pakistan and also some of the issues are discussed which are hindering the solution of child labor in Pakistan. In this research we interviewed 70 working children in the area of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Hatar who belonged to the different parts of the country and figured out the basic causes of the child labor in Pakistan, what are its bad effects on the young one who is a victim of it and we also put a light on what the government of Pakistan is doing in this context and what the government still have to do.

Keywords: child labour, Pakistan, case study, underdeveloped countries

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21 Morphological Rules of Bangla Repetition Words for UNL Based Machine Translation

Authors: Nawab Yousuf Ali, S. Golam, A. Ameer, Ashok Toru Roy

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This paper develops new morphological rules suitable for Bangla repetition words to be incorporated into an inter lingua representation called Universal Networking Language (UNL). The proposed rules are to be used to combine verb roots and their inflexions to produce words which are then combined with other similar types of words to generate repetition words. This paper outlines the format of morphological rules for different types of repetition words that come from verb roots based on the framework of UNL provided by the UNL centre of the Universal Networking Digital Language (UNDL) foundation.

Keywords: Universal Networking Language (UNL), universal word (UW), head word (HW), Bangla-UNL Dictionary, morphological rule, enconverter (EnCo)

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20 Mechanisms of O-1602 Induced Endothelium-Independent Vasorelaxation of Rat Small Mesenteric Artery

Authors: Yousuf Al Suleimani, Ahmed Al Mahruqi

Abstract:

A typical cannabinoid O-1602 induces vasorelaxation and activates the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 in human endothelial cells. The aim of this study is to characterize the mechanisms of endothelium-independent relaxation of O-1602 in the rat small mesenteric artery using wire myograph. In endothelium-denuded vessels, O-1602 partially produced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation. In vessels depleted of intracellular Ca2+ (by EGTA and methoxamine), CaCl2 produced concentration-dependent contraction. Preincubation with O-1602 (at 10 µM and 30 µM) abolished the contractile responses (P<0.01). The putative antagonist at novel “endothelial anandamide receptor” O-1918 (10 µM) significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of O-1602 on CaCl2-induced vasoconstriction. It is likely that the mechanism of endothelium-independent vasorelaxation to O-1602 is mediated by interfering with Ca2+ entry via an O-1918-sensitive pathway.

Keywords: O-1602, endothelium, vasorelaxation, calcium

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19 Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Yousuf Khan, Bhavya Alankar

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Blockchain is a promising technology with its features such as immutability and decentralized database. It has applications in various fields such as pharmaceutical, finance, & the food industry. At the core of its heart lies its feature, traceability which is the most desired key in supply chains. However, supply chains have always been hit rock bottom by scandals and controversies. In this review paper, we have explored the advancement and research gaps of blockchain technology (BT) in supply chain management (SCM). We have used the Prisma framework for systematic literature review (SLR) and included a minuscule amount of grey literature to reduce publication bias. We found that supply chain traceability and transparency is the most researched objective in SCM. There was hardly any research in supply chain resilience. Further, we found that 40 % of the papers were application based. Most articles have focused on the advantages of BT, rather than analyzing it critically. This study will help identify gaps and suitable actions to be followed for an efficient implementation of BT in SCM.

Keywords: blockchain technology, supply chain management, supply chain transparency, supply chain resilience

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18 Characterization of Calcium-Signalling Mediated by Human GPR55 Expressed in HEK293 Cells

Authors: Yousuf M. Al Suleimani, Robin Hiley

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The endogenous phospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was recently identified as a novel ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and an inducer of intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i release. This study attempts to characterize Ca2+ signals provoked by LPI in HEK293 cells engineered to stably express human GPR55 and to test cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55. The study shows that treatment with LPI stimulates a sustained, oscillatory Ca2+ release. The response is characterized by an initial rapid rise, which is mediated by the Gαq-PLC-IP3 pathway, and this is followed by prolonged oscillations that require RhoA activation. Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by intracellular mechanisms and extracellular Ca2+ is only required to replenish Ca2+ lost from the cytoplasm. Analysis of cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55 revealed no clear effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide, however, rimonabant and the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 evoked GPR55-mediated [Ca2+]i. Thus, LPI is likely to be a key plasma membrane mediator of signaling events and changes in gene expression through GPR55 activation.

Keywords: lysophosphatidylinositol, calcium, GPR55, cannabinoid

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17 Robust Numerical Scheme for Pricing American Options under Jump Diffusion Models

Authors: Salah Alrabeei, Mohammad Yousuf

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The goal of option pricing theory is to help the investors to manage their money, enhance returns and control their financial future by theoretically valuing their options. However, most of the option pricing models have no analytical solution. Furthermore, not all the numerical methods are efficient to solve these models because they have nonsmoothing payoffs or discontinuous derivatives at the exercise price. In this paper, we solve the American option under jump diffusion models by using efficient time-dependent numerical methods. several techniques are integrated to reduced the overcome the computational complexity. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is used as a matrix-vector multiplication solver, which reduces the complexity from O(M2) into O(M logM). Partial fraction decomposition technique is applied to rational approximation schemes to overcome the complexity of inverting polynomial of matrices. The proposed method is easy to implement on serial or parallel versions. Numerical results are presented to prove the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: integral differential equations, jump–diffusion model, American options, rational approximation

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16 Inferring Human Mobility in India Using Machine Learning

Authors: Asra Yousuf, Ajaykumar Tannirkulum

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Inferring rural-urban migration trends can help design effective policies that promote better urban planning and rural development. In this paper, we describe how machine learning algorithms can be applied to predict internal migration decisions of people. We consider data collected from household surveys in Tamil Nadu to train our model. To measure the performance of the model, we use data on past migration from National Sample Survey Organisation of India. The factors for training the model include socioeconomic characteristic of each individual like age, gender, place of residence, outstanding loans, strength of the household, etc. and his past migration history. We perform a comparative analysis of the performance of a number of machine learning algorithm to determine their prediction accuracy. Our results show that machine learning algorithms provide a stronger prediction accuracy as compared to statistical models. Our goal through this research is to propose the use of data science techniques in understanding human decisions and behaviour in developing countries.

Keywords: development, migration, internal migration, machine learning, prediction

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15 Pricing European Options under Jump Diffusion Models with Fast L-stable Padé Scheme

Authors: Salah Alrabeei, Mohammad Yousuf

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The goal of option pricing theory is to help the investors to manage their money, enhance returns and control their financial future by theoretically valuing their options. Modeling option pricing by Black-School models with jumps guarantees to consider the market movement. However, only numerical methods can solve this model. Furthermore, not all the numerical methods are efficient to solve these models because they have nonsmoothing payoffs or discontinuous derivatives at the exercise price. In this paper, the exponential time differencing (ETD) method is applied for solving partial integrodifferential equations arising in pricing European options under Merton’s and Kou’s jump-diffusion models. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is used as a matrix-vector multiplication solver, which reduces the complexity from O(M2) into O(M logM). A partial fraction form of Pad`e schemes is used to overcome the complexity of inverting polynomial of matrices. These two tools guarantee to get efficient and accurate numerical solutions. We construct a parallel and easy to implement a version of the numerical scheme. Numerical experiments are given to show how fast and accurate is our scheme.

Keywords: Integral differential equations, , L-stable methods, pricing European options, Jump–diffusion model

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14 An Integrated Approach of Islamic Social Financing for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) Through Crowdfunding: A Model for Sharing Economy for Community Development in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Abu Yousuf

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Islamic social financing (ISF) refers to the fair distribution of wealth and financial dealings and prevents economic exploitation at all levels. ISF instruments include Islamic institutions Zakat (obligatory charity), Sadaqah (voluntary charity) and Waqf (endowment) based on philanthropy such and Qard-al Hasan (beautiful loan), micro takaful (insurance) and social investments through Sukuk (bonds) based on cooperation. ISF contributes to socio-economic development, end poverty, protects environmental sustainability, promotes education, equality, social justice and above all, establishes social well-being since the birth of Islam. ISF tools are instrumental towards achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs) set by United Nations (UN). The present study will explore the scope of ISF for community development in Bangladesh and examine the challenges in implementing ISF tools and will provide the most practical model of ISF. The study will adopt a mixed-method (MM) design in the process of data collection and analysis. The researcher will consider all issues related to ethics, reliability, validity and feasibility while conducting the study.

Keywords: Islamic social financing, sustainable development goals, poverty eradication, zakat, waqf, sadaqah, Islamic microfinance

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13 Developing a Knowledge-Based Lean Six Sigma Model to Improve Healthcare Leadership Performance

Authors: Yousuf N. Al Khamisi, Eduardo M. Hernandez, Khurshid M. Khan

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Purpose: This paper presents a model of a Knowledge-Based (KB) using Lean Six Sigma (L6σ) principles to enhance the performance of healthcare leadership. Design/methodology/approach: Using L6σ principles to enhance healthcare leaders’ performance needs a pre-assessment of the healthcare organisation’s capabilities. The model will be developed using a rule-based approach of KB system. Thus, KB system embeds Gauging Absence of Pre-requisite (GAP) for benchmarking and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for prioritization. A comprehensive literature review will be covered for the main contents of the model with a typical output of GAP analysis and AHP. Findings: The proposed KB system benchmarks the current position of healthcare leadership with the ideal benchmark one (resulting from extensive evaluation by the KB/GAP/AHP system of international leadership concepts in healthcare environments). Research limitations/implications: Future work includes validating the implementation model in healthcare environments around the world. Originality/value: This paper presents a novel application of a hybrid KB combines of GAP and AHP methodology. It implements L6σ principles to enhance healthcare performance. This approach assists healthcare leaders’ decision making to reach performance improvement against a best practice benchmark.

Keywords: Lean Six Sigma (L6σ), Knowledge-Based System (KBS), healthcare leadership, Gauge Absence Prerequisites (GAP), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

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12 Citizens’ Expectations, Motivations, and Evaluation of Participatory Use of Social Media Tools for Civic Engagement in Oman

Authors: Ali S. Al-Aufi, Ibrahim S. Al-Harthi, Yousuf S. AlHinai, Ali H.S. Al-Badi, Zahran S. Al-Salti

Abstract:

Social media tools have currently been leading a major change in the flow and use of information for different life aspects within people and between people and their governments. They represent powerful channels for direct exchanges of information, ideas, and suggestions for purposes of civic participation. The current study aims at investigating Omani citizens’ perceptions, expectations, and motivations of their uses of social media tools to interact with the government for civic participation. A quantitative methodology was used to collect data through self-administered questionnaires from a random sample of university students and staff drawn from Sultan Qaboos University, considering them as well-informed and typically active users of social media. The literature was comprehensively reviewed to retrieve relevant empirical studies that particularly investigated the use of social media for civic engagement which provided a basis for the construct of the questionnaire; taken into consideration the delineated dimensions of perceptions, expectations, and motivations. The findings of the study offer practical and useful recommendations for governmental units in Oman and similar contexts in the region to inform better and efficient use of social media tools to interact with citizens in issues related to civic engagement; particularly to make best use of these tools for improving services and developing existing and newer initiatives, and hence, encouraging and strengthening citizens’ involvement for civic engagement.

Keywords: social media, social networking sites, web 2.0, civic engagement, civic participation, oman

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
11 A Retrospective Study of Suicidal Deaths in Madinah for Ten Years

Authors: Radah Yousuf, Ashraf Shebl

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Suicide is a tragic event with strong emotional repercussions for its survivors and for families of its victims. There were thousands of cases all over the world. There are many risk factors include mental disorders such as depression, and substance abuse, including alcoholism and use of benzodiazepines. Other suicides are impulsive acts due to stress such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or from bullying. The aim of work in this study is making a survey from archives of the suicidal cases, which had a medicolegal examination, in forensic medicine center in Al Madinah Almunawarah-KSA, for ten years in the period between 1428-1438h. In each case, some data are collected such as age, sex, time and place of an act, method of suicide, the presence of the witness, medical history. This study demonstrates that suicide is more common in male than female, and the 4th decade was the most period of age. The most common method of suicide was hanging followed by falling from the height. These results indicated that cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation instinct, and suicide education programs provide information to students in high school, builds awareness, one of the most important issues in solving that problem. From the forensic view, circumstantial evidence of every forensic case must take and record, full history about the social, medical and psychological problems, attend the scene of death is a very important, complete medicolegal investigation for every case, and full autopsy with very skilled techniques and facilities can help in diagnosing what type of crimes.

Keywords: suicide, age, sex, hanging

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
10 Innovation and Economic Growth Model of East Asian Countries: The Adaptability of the Model in Ethiopia

Authors: Khalid Yousuf Ahmed

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At the beginning of growth period, East Asian countries achieved impressive economic growth for the decades. They transformed from agricultural economy toward industrialization and contributed to dynamic structural transformation. The achievements were driven by government-led development policies that implemented effective innovation policy to boost technological capability of local firms. Recently, most Sub-Saharan African have been showing sustainable growth. Exceptionally, Ethiopia has been recording double-digit growth for a decade. Hence, Ethiopia has claimed to follow the footstep of East Asia development model. The study is going to examine whether Ethiopia can replicate innovation and economic growth model of East Asia by using Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and China as a case to illustrate their model of growth. This research will be based on empirical data gathering and extended theory of national innovation system and economic growth theory. Moreover, the methodology is based on Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) and also employing cross-countries regression analysis. The results explained that there is a significant relationship between innovation indicators and economic growth in East Asian countries while the relationship is non-existing for Ethiopia except implementing similar policies and achieving similar growth trend. Therefore, Ethiopia needs to introduce inclusive policies that give priority to improving human capital and invest on the knowledge-based economy to replicate East Asian Model.

Keywords: economic growth, FDI, endogenous growth theory, East Asia model

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9 Identifying Enablers and Barriers of Healthcare Knowledge Transfer: A Systematic Review

Authors: Yousuf Nasser Al Khamisi

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Purpose: This paper presents a Knowledge Transfer (KT) Framework in healthcare sectors by applying a systematic literature review process to the healthcare organizations domain to identify enablers and barriers of KT in Healthcare. Methods: The paper conducted a systematic literature search of peer-reviewed papers that described key elements of KT using four databases (Medline, Cinahl, Scopus, and Proquest) for a 10-year period (1/1/2008–16/10/2017). The results of the literature review were used to build a conceptual framework of KT in healthcare organizations. The author used a systematic review of the literature, as described by Barbara Kitchenham in Procedures for Performing Systematic Reviews. Findings: The paper highlighted the impacts of using Knowledge Management (KM) concept at a healthcare organization in controlling infectious diseases in hospitals, improving family medicine performance and enhancing quality improvement practices. Moreover, it found that good-coding performance is analytically linked with a knowledge sharing network structure rich in brokerage and hierarchy rather than in density. The unavailability or ignored of the latest evidence on more cost-effective or more efficient delivery approaches leads to increase the healthcare costs and may lead to unintended results. Originality: Search procedure produced 12,093 results, of which 3523 were general articles about KM and KT. The titles and abstracts of these articles had been screened to segregate what is related and what is not. 94 articles identified by the researchers for full-text assessment. The total number of eligible articles after removing un-related articles was 22 articles.

Keywords: healthcare organisation, knowledge management, knowledge transfer, KT framework

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8 Effect of Ausubel's Advance Organizer Model to Enhancing Meta-Cognition of Students at Secondary Level

Authors: Qaisara Parveen, M. Imran Yousuf

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The purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of the use of advance organizer model for enhancing meta-cognition of students in the subject of science. It was hypothesized that the students of experimental group taught through advance organizer model would show the better cognition than the students of control group taught through traditional teaching. The population of the study consisted of all secondary school students studying in government high school located in Rawalpindi. The sample of the study consisted of 50 students of 9th class of humanities group. The sample was selected on the basis of their pretest scores through matching, and the groups were randomly assigned for the treatment. The experimental group was taught through advance organizer model while the control group was taught through traditional teaching. The self-developed achievement test was used for the purpose of pretest and posttest. After collecting the pre-test score and post-test score, the data was analyzed and interpreted by use of descriptive statistics as mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics t-test. The findings indicate that students taught using advance organizers had a higher level of meta-cognition as compared to control group. Further, meta cognition level of boys was found higher than that of girls students. This study also revealed the fact that though the students at different meta-cognition level approached learning situations in a different manner, Advance organizer model is far superior to Traditional method of teaching.

Keywords: descriptive, experimental, humanities, meta-cognition, statistics, science

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7 MnO₂-Carbon Nanotubes Catalyst for Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Abidullah, Basharat Hussain, Jong Seok Kim

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Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an electrochemical cell, which undergoes an oxygen reduction reaction to produce electrical energy. Platinum (Pt) metal has been used as a catalyst since its inception, but expensiveness is the major obstacle in the commercialization of fuel cells. Herein a non-precious group metal (NPGM) is employed instead of Pt to reduce the cost of PEMFCs. Manganese dioxide impregnated carbon nanotubes (MnO₂-CNTs composite) is a catalyst having excellent electrochemical properties and offers a better alternative to the Platinum-based PEMFC. The catalyst is synthesized by impregnating the transition metal on large surface carbonaceous CNTs by hydrothermal synthesis techniques. To enhance the catalytic activity and increase the volumetric current density, the sample was pyrolyzed at 800ᵒC under a nitrogen atmosphere. During pyrolysis, the nitrogen was doped in the framework of CNTs. Then the material was treated with acid for removing the unreacted metals and adding oxygen functional group to the CNT framework. This process ameliorates the catalytic activity of the manganese-based catalyst. The catalyst has been characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the catalyst activity has been examined by rotating disc electrode (RDE) experiment. The catalyst was strong enough to withstand an austere alkaline environment in experimental conditions and had a high electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) depicts an excellent current density of -4.0 mA/cm² and an overpotential of -0.3V vs. standard calomel electrode (SCE) in 0.1M KOH electrolyte. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) was conducted at 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 rpm. The catalyst exhibited a higher methanol tolerance and long term durability with respect to commercial Pt/C. The results for MnO₂-CNT show that the low-cost catalyst will supplant the expensive Pt/C catalyst in the fuel cell.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, methanol fuel cell, oxygen reduction reaction, MnO₂-CNTs

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6 Theoretical Analysis of Mechanical Vibration for Offshore Platform Structures

Authors: Saeed Asiri, Yousuf Z. AL-Zahrani

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A new class of support structures, called periodic structures, is introduced in this paper as a viable means for isolating the vibration transmitted from the sea waves to offshore platform structures through its legs. A passive approach to reduce transmitted vibration generated by waves is presented. The approach utilizes the property of periodic structural components that creates stop and pass bands. The stop band regions can be tailored to correspond to regions of the frequency spectra that contain harmonics of the wave frequency, attenuating the response in those regions. A periodic structural component is comprised of a repeating array of cells, which are themselves an assembly of elements. The elements may have differing material properties as well as geometric variations. For the purpose of this research, only geometric and material variations are considered and each cell is assumed to be identical. A periodic leg is designed in order to reduce transmitted vibration of sea waves. The effectiveness of the periodicity on the vibration levels of platform will be demonstrated theoretically. The theory governing the operation of this class of periodic structures is introduced using the transfer matrix method. The unique filtering characteristics of periodic structures are demonstrated as functions of their design parameters for structures with geometrical and material discontinuities; and determine the propagation factor by using the spectral finite element analysis and the effectiveness of design on the leg structure by changing the ratio of step length and area interface between the materials is demonstrated in order to find the propagation factor and frequency response.

Keywords: vibrations, periodic structures, offshore, platforms, transfer matrix method

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
5 Audit of TPS photon beam dataset for small field output factors using OSLDs against RPC standard dataset

Authors: Asad Yousuf

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to audit treatment planning system beam dataset for small field output factors against standard dataset produced by radiological physics center (RPC) from a multicenter study. Such data are crucial for validity of special techniques, i.e., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery. Materials/Method: In this study, multiple small field size output factor datasets were measured and calculated for 6 to 18 MV x-ray beams using the RPC recommend methods. These beam datasets were measured at 10 cm depth for 10 × 10 cm2 to 2 × 2 cm2 field sizes, defined by collimator jaws at 100 cm. The measurements were made with a Landauer’s nanoDot OSLDs whose volume is small enough to gather a full ionization reading even for the 1×1 cm2 field size. At our institute the beam data including output factors have been commissioned at 5 cm depth with an SAD setup. For comparison with the RPC data, the output factors were converted to an SSD setup using tissue phantom ratios. SSD setup also enables coverage of the ion chamber in 2×2 cm2 field size. The measured output factors were also compared with those calculated by Eclipse™ treatment planning software. Result: The measured and calculated output factors are in agreement with RPC dataset within 1% and 4% respectively. The large discrepancies in TPS reflect the increased challenge in converting measured data into a commissioned beam model for very small fields. Conclusion: OSLDs are simple, durable, and accurate tool to verify doses that delivered using small photon beam fields down to a 1x1 cm2 field sizes. The study emphasizes that the treatment planning system should always be evaluated for small field out factors for the accurate dose delivery in clinical setting.

Keywords: small field dosimetry, optically stimulated luminescence, audit treatment, radiological physics center

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4 Preparation and Characterization of CuFe2O4/TiO2 Photocatalyst for the Conversion of CO2 into Methanol under Visible Light

Authors: Md. Maksudur Rahman Khan, M. Rahim Uddin, Hamidah Abdullah, Kaykobad Md. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yousuf, Chin Kui Cheng, Huei Ruey Ong

Abstract:

A systematic study was conducted to explore the photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into methanol on TiO2 loaded copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. The phases and crystallite size of the photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it indicates CuFe2O4 as tetragonal phase incorporation with anatase TiO2 in CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The XRD results confirmed the formation of spinel type tetragonal CuFe2O4 phases along with predominantly anatase phase of TiO2 in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. UV-Vis absorption spectrum suggested the formation of the hetero-junction with relatively lower band gap than that of TiO2. Photoluminescence (PL) technique was used to study the electron–hole (e/h+) recombination process. PL spectra analysis confirmed the slow-down of the recombination of electron–hole (e/h+) pairs in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The photocatalytic performance of CuFe2O4/TiO2 was evaluated based on the methanol yield with varying amount of TiO2 over CuFe2O4 (0.5:1, 1:1, and 2:1) and changing light intensity. The mechanism of the photocatalysis was proposed based on the fact that the predominant species of CO2 in aqueous phase were dissolved CO2 and HCO3- at pH ~5.9. It was evident that the CuFe2O4 could harvest the electrons under visible light irradiation, which could further be injected to the conduction band of TiO2 to increase the life time of the electron and facilitating the reactions of CO2 to methanol. The developed catalyst showed good recycle ability up to four cycles where the loss of activity was ~25%. Methanol was observed as the main product over CuFe2O4, but loading with TiO2 remarkably increased the methanol yield. Methanol yield over CuFe2O4/TiO2 was found to be about three times higher (651 μmol/gcat L) than that of CuFe2O4 photocatalyst. This occurs because the energy of the band excited electrons lies above the redox potentials of the reaction products CO2/CH3OH.

Keywords: photocatalysis, CuFe2O4/TiO2, band-gap energy, methanol

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3 Lipid Extraction from Microbial Cell by Electroporation Technique and Its Influence on Direct Transesterification for Biodiesel Synthesis

Authors: Abu Yousuf, Maksudur Rahman Khan, Ahasanul Karim, Amirul Islam, Minhaj Uddin Monir, Sharmin Sultana, Domenico Pirozzi

Abstract:

Traditional biodiesel feedstock like edible oils or plant oils, animal fats and cooking waste oil have been replaced by microbial oil in recent research of biodiesel synthesis. The well-known community of microbial oil producers includes microalgae, oleaginous yeast and seaweeds. Conventional transesterification of microbial oil to produce biodiesel is lethargic, energy consuming, cost-ineffective and environmentally unhealthy. This process follows several steps such as microbial biomass drying, cell disruption, oil extraction, solvent recovery, oil separation and transesterification. Therefore, direct transesterification of biodiesel synthesis has been studying for last few years. It combines all the steps in a single reactor and it eliminates the steps of biomass drying, oil extraction and separation from solvent. Apparently, it seems to be cost-effective and faster process but number of difficulties need to be solved to make it large scale applicable. The main challenges are microbial cell disruption in bulk volume and make faster the esterification reaction, because water contents of the medium sluggish the reaction rate. Several methods have been proposed but none of them is up to the level to implement in large scale. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae) investing minimum energy. Electroporation technique results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. Electroporation is required to alter the size and structure of the cells to increase their porosity as well as to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to leak out the intracellular lipid to the solution. Therefore, incorporation of electroporation techniques contributed in direct transesterification of microbial lipids by increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production rate.

Keywords: biodiesel, electroporation, microbial lipids, transesterification

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2 Women Right to Land Entitlement for Gender Equality: Critical Review

Authors: A. Yousuf, M. Iqbal, A. Mir, S. Aziz

Abstract:

This study deals with the women’s right to land for gender equality. Economic Transformation Initiative, Gilgit-Baltistan (ETI-GB), an ambitious program supported by International Fund for Agricultural Development United Nation (IFAD, UN), aims to strengthen land reforms process in disputed area of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) Pakistan, that is taking place first time in the history. This project is a brick to build the foundation of land reforms and land policies in GB. The ETI-GB provides substantive support to government of GB in developing policy measures and initiatives to promote women’s right to have and to own land is kind of unconventional step in a very traditional society. It would be interesting to have discussion and document the people’s response regarding this project. The study has used mixed method for data collection. For qualitative data, content analysis is used to have a thorough understanding of different types of land reforms across the globe particularly in South Asia. Theoretical understanding of the literature is essential which provides the basis why land reforms are important and how far it plays an important role when it comes to eliminating inequality. Focused group discussion was carried out for verification and triangulation of data. For quantitative, survey was conducted to take responses from the people of the region and analyzed. The program is implemented in Ghizer district of GB. 2340 households were identified as beneficiaries of newly developed land. Among them, 2285 were men households, and 55 were women households. There is a significant difference between men and women households. In spite of great difference, it is a great achievement of the donor that in history of GB, first time women are going to be entitled to land ownership. GB is a patriarchal society, many social factors like cultural, religious play role for gender inequality. In developing countries, such as Pakistan, the awareness of land property rights has not been given proper attention to gender equality development frameworks. It is argued that land property rights of women have not been taken into mainstream policymaking in the development of nation building process. Consequently, this has generated deprivation of women’s property rights, low income level, lack of education and poor health. This paper emphasises that there should have proper land property right of women in Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan, provided that the gender empowerment could be increased in terms of women’s property rights.

Keywords: gender equality, women right to land ownership, property rights, women empowerment

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1 Building a Framework for Digital Emergency Response System for Aged, Long Term Care and Chronic Disease Patients in Asia Pacific Region

Authors: Nadeem Yousuf Khan

Abstract:

This paper proposes the formation of a digital emergency response system (dERS) in the aged, long-term care, and chronic disease setups in the post-COVID healthcare ecosystem, focusing on the Asia Pacific market where the aging population is increasing significantly. It focuses on the use of digital technologies such as wearables, a global positioning system (GPS), and mobile applications to build an integrated care system for old folks with co-morbidities and other chronic diseases. The paper presents a conceptual framework of a connected digital health ecosystem that not only provides proactive care to registered patients but also prevents the damages due to sudden conditions such as strokes by alerting and treating the patients in a digitally connected and coordinated manner. A detailed review of existing digital health technologies such as wearables, GPS, and mobile apps was conducted in context with the new post-COVID healthcare paradigm, along with a detailed literature review on the digital health policies and usability. A good amount of research papers is available in the application of digital health, but very few of them discuss the formation of a new framework for a connected digital ecosystem for the aged care population, which is increasing around the globe. A connected digital emergency response system has been proposed by the author whereby all registered patients (chronic disease and aged/long term care) will be connected to the proposed digital emergency response system (dERS). In the proposed ecosystem, patients will be provided with a tracking wrist band and a mobile app through which the control room will be monitoring the mobility and vitals such as atrial fibrillation (AF), blood sugar, blood pressure, and other vital signs. In addition to that, an alert in case if the patient falls down will add value to this system. In case of any variation in the vitals, an alert is sent to the dERS 24/7, and dERS clinical staff immediately trigger that alert which goes to the connected hospital and the adulatory service providers, and the patient is escorted to the nearest connected tertiary care hospital. By the time, the patient reaches the hospital, dERS team is ready to take appropriate clinical action to save the life of the patient. Strokes or myocardial infarction patients can be prevented from disaster if they are accessible to engagement healthcare. This dERS will play an effective role in saving the lives of aged patients or patients with chronic co-morbidities.

Keywords: aged care, atrial fibrillation, digital health, digital emergency response system, digital technology

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