Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 406

Search results for: tricalcium phosphate

406 Tricalcium Phosphate-Chitosan Composites for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: G. Voicu, C. D. Ghitulica, A. Cucuruz, C. Busuioc


In the field of tissue engineering, the compositional and microstructural features of the employed materials play an important role, with implications on the mechanical and biological behaviour of the medical devices. In this context, the development of calcium phosphate-natural biopolymer composites represents a choice of many scientific groups. Thus, tricalcium phosphate powders were synthesized by a wet method, namely co-precipitation, starting from high purity reagents. Moreover, the substitution of calcium with magnesium have been approached, in the 5-10 wt.% range. Afterwards, the phosphate powders were integrated into two types of composites with chitosan, different from morphological point of view. First, 3D porous scaffolds were obtained by a freeze-drying procedure. Second, uniform compact films were achieved by film casting. The influence of chitosan molecular weight (low, medium and high), as well as phosphate powder to polymer ratio (1:1 and 1:2) on the morphological properties, were analysed in detail. In conclusion, the reported biocomposites, prepared by a straightforward route are suitable for bone substitution or repairing applications.

Keywords: bone reconstruction, chitosan, composite scaffolds, tricalcium phosphate

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405 Wet Polymeric Precipitation Synthesis for Monophasic Tricalcium Phosphate

Authors: I. Grigoraviciute-Puroniene, K. Tsuru, E. Garskaite, Z. Stankeviciute, A. Beganskiene, K. Ishikawa, A. Kareiva


Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP) powders were synthesized using wet polymeric precipitation method for the first time to our best knowledge. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of almost single a Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) phase of a poor crystallinity already at room temperature. With continuously increasing the calcination temperature up to 800 °C, the crystalline β-TCP was obtained as the main phase. It was demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy is very effective method to characterize the formation of β-TCP. The SEM results showed that β-TCP solids were homogeneous having a small particle size distribution. The β-TCP powders consisted of spherical particles varying in size from 100 to 300 nm. Fabricated β-TCP specimens were placed to the bones of the rats and maintained for 1-2 months.

Keywords: Tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, bone regeneration, wet chemical processing, polymeric precipitation

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404 Cytotoxicity of Nano β–Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) on Human Osteoblast (hFOB1.19)

Authors: Jer Ping Ooi, Shah Rizal Bin Kasim, Nor Aini Saidin


The objective of this study was to synthesize nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder and assess its cytotoxic effects on human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) by using four cytotoxicity assays, namely, lactose dehydrogenase (LDHe), tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT), neutral red (NR), and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a calcium phosphate compound commonly used as an implant material. To date, bulk-sized β-TCP is reported to be readily tolerated by the osteogenic cells and body based on in vitro, in vivo experiments and clinical studies. However, to what extent of nano-sized β-TCP will react in models as compared to bulk β-TCP is yet to be investigated. Thus, in this project, the cells were treated with nano β-TCP powder within a range of concentrations from 0 to 1000 μg/mL for 24, 48, and 72 h. The cytotoxicity tests showed that loss of cell viability ( > 50%) was high for hFOB1.19 cells in all assays. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis of hFOB1.19 cells revealed that 50 μg/mL of the compound led to 30.5% of cells being apoptotic after 72 h of incubation, and the percentage was increased to 58.6% when the concentration was increased to 200 μg/mL. When the incubation time was increased from 24 to 72 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased from 17.3% to 58.6% when the hFOB1.19 were exposed with 200 μg/mL of nano β-TCP powder. Thus, both concentration and exposure duration affected the cytotoxicity effects of the nano β-TCP powder on hFOB1.19. We hypothesize that these cytotoxic effects on hFOB1.19 are related to the nano-scale size of the β-TCP.

Keywords: β-tricalcium phosphate, hFOB1.19, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, cytotoxicity

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403 Evaluation of Compressive Mechanical Properties of the Radial Bone Defect Treated with Selected Bone Graft Substitute Materials in Rabbit

Authors: Omid Gholipoor Bashiri, Ghafur Mosavi, Aliasghar Behnamghader, Seyed Mahmood Rabiee


Objective: To determine the effect of selected bone graft on the compression properties of radial bone in rabbit. Design-Experimental in vivo study. Animals: A total of 45 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. Procedures: The rabbits were anesthetized and a one-cm-full thickness piece of radial bone was removed using oscillating saw in the all rabbit. The rabbits were divided into 5 groups on the basis of the material used to fill the bone defect: group 1: the paste of bone cement calcium phosphate; group II: the paste of calcium phosphate mixture with type I collagen; group III: tricalcium phosphate mixed with hydroxyapatite (TCP & HP) with 5% porosity; group IV: the same scaffold as group III with 10% porosity; and group V: the same scaffold as group III and IV with 20% porosity, with 9 rabbits in each group. Subsequently subdivided into 3 subgroups of 3 rabbits each. Results: There was a significant increase in compression properties of radial bone in the group II and V in 2nd and 3rd months as compared with groups I, III and IV. The mean endurable crack-strength in group II and V were slightly higher than that of normal radius (P<0.05). Conclusion and clinical relevance: Application of calcium phosphate paste with type I collagen and scaffold of tricalcium phosphate with hydroxyapatite having 20% porosity indicated to have positive effect in integral formation of qualitative callus at the site of fracture and early re-organization of callus to regain mechanical strength too.

Keywords: calcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, radial bone, compressive properties, porosity, type i collagen, rabbit

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402 Study of Pseudomonas as Biofertiliser in Salt-Affected Soils of the Northwestern Algeria: Solubilisation of Calcium Phosphate and Growth Promoting of Broad Bean (Vcia faba)

Authors: A. Djoudi, R. Djibaou, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad


Our study focuses on the study of a bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas solubilizing tricalcium phosphate. They were isolated from rhizosphere of a variety of broad bean grown in salt-affected soils (electrical conductivity between 4 and 8 mmhos/cm) of the irrigated perimeter of Mina in northwestern Algeria. Isolates which have advantageous results in the calcium phosphate solubilization index test were subjected to identification using API20 then used to re-inoculate the same soil in pots experimentation to assess the effects of inoculation on the growth of the broad bean (Vicia faba). Based on the results obtained from the in-vitro tests, two isolates P5 and P8 showed a significant effect on the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate with an index I estimated at 314% and 283% sequentially. According to the results of in-vivo tests, the inoculation of the soil with P5 and P8 were significantly and positively influencing the growth in biometric parameters of the broad bean. Inoculation with strain P5 has promoted the growth of the broad bean in stem height, stem fresh weight and stem dry weight of 108.59%, 115.28%, 104.33%, respectively. Inoculation with strain P8 has fostered the growth of the broad bean stem fresh weight of 112.47%. The effect of Pseudomonas on the development of Vicia faba is considered as an interesting process by which PGPR can increase biological production and crop protection.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Vicia faba, promoting of plant growth, solubilization tricalcium phosphate

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401 Comparative Study of Wear and Friction Behavior of Tricalcium Phosphate-Fluorapatite Bioceramic

Authors: Rym Taktak, Achwek Elghazel, Jamel Bouaziz


In the present work, we explored the potential of tribological behavior of tricalcium phosphate-Fluorapatite (β Tcp-Fap) bioceramic which has attracted considerable attention for orthopedics and dental applications. The approximate representatives Fap-βTcp were respectively [{13.26 wt%, 86.74 wt%} {19.9 wt%, 80.1 wt%},{ 26.52 wt%, 73.48 wt%}, {33.16 wt%, 66.84 wt%} and {40 wt%, 60 wt%}. The effects of Fluorapatite additives on friction and wear behavior were studied and discussed. The wear test was conducted using pion-disk tribometer at room temperature under dry condition using a constant sliding speed of 0,063 m/s, and three loads 3, 5 and 8 N. The wear rate and friction coefficient of β Tcp with different additive amounts were compared. An Alumina ball specimens were used as the pin and flat surface β Tcp-Fap specimens as the antagonist counterface. The results show a huge difference between the wear rate of β TCP samples and the other β TCP-Fap composites for all normal forces applied. This result shows the beneficial effect of fluorapatite on the tribological behavior of the β TCP. Moreover, we note that β Tcp-26% Fap specimens exhibit, under dry condition, the lower friction coefficient and the smaller wear rate than other biocomposites. Thereby, the friction and wear behavior is influenced by the addition of fluorapatite, the applied normal force, and the sliding velocity. To extend the understanding of the wear process, the surface topography of β Tcp-26% Fap specimens and the wear track obtained during the wear tests were studied using a surface profilometer, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: alumina, bioceramic, friction and wear test, tricalcium phosphate

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400 Synthesis of Tricalcium Phosphate Substituted with Magnesium Ions for Bone Regeneration

Authors: Andreia Cucuruz, Cristina Daniela Ghitulica, Georgeta Voicu, Cristina Busuioc


Ceramics based on calcium phosphates have lately increased attention for tissue engineering because they can be used as substitute bones or for bone regeneration since they mimic very well the nanostructure of tough bone tissue, but also because of other advantages such as a very good biocompatibility and osseointegration. This study aims the preparation and characterization of ceramic materials on the basis of TCP (Ca₃(PO₄)₂), within which calcium ions are substituted by magnesium ions (Mg²⁺) in order to improve the regenerative properties of these materials. TCP-Mg material was synthesized by chemical precipitation method using calcium oxide (CaO) and phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) as precursors. The objective was to obtain powders with different concentrations of Mg in order to analyze the effect of magnesium ions on the physicochemical properties of phosphate ceramics and in vitro degradation in simulated biological fluid (SBF). Ceramic powders were characterized in vitro but also from the compositional and microstructural point of view. TCP_Mg powders were prepared through wet chemical method from calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide nanopowder (MgO < 50 nm particle size (BET) Sigma Aldrich), phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄ - 85 wt.% in H₂O, 99.99% trace metals basis - Sigma Aldrich). In order to determine the quantities of raw materials, calculations were performed to obtain HAp with Ca/P ratio of 1.5.

Keywords: bone regeneration, magnesium substitution, tricalcium phosphate, tissue engineering

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399 Mutagenicity Evaluation of Locally Produced Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Using Ames Test

Authors: Nur Fathin Alia Che Wahab, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Zuliani Mahmood, Ismail Ab. Rahman, Hanafi Ismail


Locally produced Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) which is a promising material for dentin and bone regeneration as well as in tissue engineering applications. The study was carried out to investigate the mutagenic effect of locally produced BCP using Ames test. Mutagenicity was evaluated with and without the addition of metabolic activation system (S9). This study was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA102, TA1537, and TA1538 strains using preincubation assay method. The doses tested were 5000, 2500, 1250, 625, 313 µg/plate. Negative and positive controls were also included. The bacteria were incubated for 48 hours at 37 ± 0.5 °C. Then, the revertant colonies were counted. Data obtained were evaluated using non-statistical method. The mean number of revertant colonies in strains with and without S9 mix treated with locally produced BCP was less than double when compared to negative control for all the tested concentrations. The results from this study indicate that the locally produced BCP is non-mutagenic under the present test conditions.

Keywords: ames test, biphasic calcium phosphate, dentin regeneration, mutagenicity

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398 Percentages of Alumina Phase and Different Ph on The Ha- Al2o3 Nano Composite

Authors: S. Tayyebi, F. Mirjalili, H. Samadi, A. Nemati


In this study, hydroxyapatite-Alumina nano composite powder, containing 15,20 and 25% weight percent of reinforced alumina were prepared by chemical precipitation from the reaction between calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate with ratio of Ca / p = 1.67 and different percentage of aluminum nitrate nona hydrate in different pH of 9,10 and 11. The microstructure and thermal stability of samples were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the presence of reinforced alumina phase reduced the degree of crystallinity of hydroxyapatite phase and increased its decomposition to tricalcium phosphate phase. Microstructural analysis showed that the hydroxyapatite-alumina nano composite powder was obtained with spherical shape and size of less than 100 nm.

Keywords: biomaterial, hydroxyapatite, alumina, nano composite, precipitation method

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397 A Ratiometric Inorganic Phosphate Sensor Based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Rhodamine 6G-Doped Nanofibers

Authors: Hong Dinh Duong, Jong Il Rhee


In this study, a ratiometric inorganic phosphate sensor was fabricated by a double layer of the rhodamine 6G-doped nanofibers and the CdSe/ZnS QDs-captured polymer. In which, CdSe/ZnS QDs with emission wavelengths of 595nm were synthesized and ligands on their surface were exchanged with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The synthesized MPA-QDs were combined with the mixture of sol-gel of 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyurethane (PU) to build a layer for sensing inorganic phosphate. Another sensing layer was of nanofibers doped R6G which were produced from poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) by electrospining. The ratio of fluorescence intensities between rhodamin 6G (R6G) and CdSe/ZnS QDs exposed at different phosphate concentrations was used for calculating a linear phosphate concentration range of 0-10mM.

Keywords: nanofiber, QDs, ratiometric phosphate sensor, rhodamine 6G, sol-gel

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396 The Effect of Application of Biological Phosphate Fertilizer (Fertile 2) and Triple Super Phosphate Chemical Fertilizers on Some Morphological Traits of Corn (SC704)

Authors: M. Mojaddam, M. Araei, T. Saki Nejad, M. Soltani Howyzeh


In order to study the effect of different levels of triple super phosphate chemical fertilizer and biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) on some morphological traits of corn this research was carried out in Ahvaz in 2002 as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with 4 replications.) The experiment included two factors: first, biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) at three levels of 0, 100, 200 g/ha; second, triple super phosphate chemical fertilizer at three levels of 0, 60, 90 kg/ha of pure phosphorus (P2O5). The obtained results indicated that fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on some morphological traits at 1% probability level. In this regard, P2B2 treatment (100 g/ha biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) and 60 kg/ha triple super phosphate fertilizer) had the greatest plan height, stem diameter, number of leaves and ear length. It seems that in Ahvaz weather conditions, decrease of consumption of triple superphosphate chemical fertilizer to less than a half along with the consumption of biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) is highly important in order to achieve optimal results. Therefore, it can be concluded that biological fertilizers can be used as a suitable substitute for some of the chemical fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems.

Keywords: biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2), triple super phosphate, corn, morphological traits

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395 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri


Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay

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394 Using Morlet Wavelet Filter to Denoising Geoelectric ‘Disturbances’ Map of Moroccan Phosphate Deposit ‘Disturbances’

Authors: Saad Bakkali


Morocco is a major producer of phosphate, with an annual output of 19 million tons and reserves in excess of 35 billion cubic meters. This represents more than 75% of world reserves. Resistivity surveys have been successfully used in the Oulad Abdoun phosphate basin. A Schlumberger resistivity survey over an area of 50 hectares was carried out. A new field procedure based on analytic signal response of resistivity data was tested to deal with the presence of phosphate deposit disturbances. A resistivity map was expected to allow the electrical resistivity signal to be imaged in 2D. 2D wavelet is standard tool in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Wavelet transform is particularly suitable in denoising, filtering and analyzing geophysical data singularities. Wavelet transform tools are applied to analysis of a moroccan phosphate deposit ‘disturbances’. Wavelet approach applied to modeling surface phosphate “disturbances” was found to be consistently useful.

Keywords: resistivity, Schlumberger, phosphate, wavelet, Morocco

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393 The Effect of Calcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds on the Osteogenic Differentiation of Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Ling-Ling E, Lin Feng, Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Zhanping Shi, Juncheng Wang, Wei Luo, Yan Lv


The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the two calcium phosphate composite scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). One nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA), imitating the composition and the micro-structure characteristics of the natural bone, was made by Beijing Allgens Medical Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (China). The other beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), being fully interoperability globular pore structure, was provided by Shanghai Bio-lu Biomaterials Co, Ltd. (China). We compared the absorption water rate and the protein adsorption rate of two scaffolds and the characterization of DPSCs cultured on the culture plate and both scaffolds under osteogenic differentiation media (ODM) treatment. The constructs were then implanted subcutaneously into the back of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 8 and 12 weeks to compare their bone formation capacity. The results showed that the ODM-treated DPSCs expressed osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), type I collagen (COLI) and osteopontin (OPN) by immunofluorescence staining. Positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, calcium deposition and calcium nodules were also observed on the ODM-treated DPSCs. The nHAC/PLA had significantly higher absorption water rate and protein adsorption rate than ß-TCP. The initial attachment of DPSCs seeded onto nHAC/PLA was significantly higher than that onto ß-TCP; and the proliferation rate of the cells was significantly higher than that of ß-TCP on 1, 3 and 7 days of cell culture. DPSCs+ß-TCP had significantly higher ALP activity, calcium/phosphorus content and mineral formation than DPSCs+nHAC/PLA. When implanted into the back of SCID mice, nHAC/PLA alone had no new bone formation, newly formed mature bone and osteoid were only observed in β-TCP alone, DPSCs+nHAC/PLA and DPSCs+β-TCP, and this three groups displayed increased bone formation over the 12-week period. The percentage of total bone formation area had no difference between DPSCs+β-TCP and DPSCs+nHAC/PLA at each time point,but the percentage of mature bone formation area of DPSCs+β-TCP was significantly higher than that of DPSCs+nHAC/PLA. Our results demonstrated that the DPSCs on nHAC/PLA had a better proliferation and that the DPSCs on β-TCP had a more mineralization in vitro, much more newly formed mature bones in vivo were presented in DPSCs+β-TCP group. These findings have provided a further knowledge that scaffold architecture has a different influence on the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells. This study may provide insight into the clinical periodontal bone tissue repair with DPSCs+β-TCP construct.

Keywords: dental pulp stem cells, nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide), beta-tricalcium phosphate, periodontal tissue engineering, bone regeneration

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392 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen


Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50 oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic co-precipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during co-precipitation (1, 10, and 100 microgram/ml). From X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: biomimetic, Calcium Phosphate Coating, protein, titanium

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391 Effects of Bacteria on Levels of AFM1 in Phosphate Buffer at Different Level of Energy Source

Authors: Ali M. Elgerbi, Obied A. Alwan, Al-Taher O. Alzwei, Abdurrahim A. Elouzi


The binding of AFM1 to bacteria in phosphate buffer solution depended on many factors such as: availability of energy, incubation period, species and strain of bacteria. Increase in concentration of sugar showed higher removal of AFM1 and faster than in phosphate buffer alone. With 1.0% glucose lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria showed toxin removal ranging from 7.7 to 39.7% whereas with 10.0% glucose the percentage removal was 21.8 to 45.4% at 96 hours of incubation.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria , binding, phosphate buffer

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390 The Hydrolysis of Phosphate Esters Can Be Enhanced by Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding

Authors: Mohamed S. Sasi


The research project aim is to study the hydrolysis of 8-diethylphosphate-1-naphthalenol with hydroxylamine in water. 8-diethylphosphate-1-naphthalenol, 1 was successfully synthesized and its rate of reaction with hydroxylamine was studied at 60°C. Pseudo first order behavior was observed. The rate of P-O cleavage of 1 at 60°C (7.43 x 10-3 M-1s-1) was found to be 178 fold and 7 fold slower than diethyl 8-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl phosphate, 3 at 60°C (1.32 M-1s-1) and diethyl 8-amino-1-naphthyl phosphate, 2 at 90 °C (5.5 x 10-2 M-1s-1) respectively. The rate of P-O cleavage of 1 with hydroxylamine was found to be faster than that of 4-chlorophenyl-1-cyclopropylphosphate triester, 5 where the reaction was too slow to observe at 60°C.

Keywords: phosphate esters, intramolecular hydrogen bonding

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389 High Phosphate-Containing Foods and Beverages: Perceptions of the Future Healthcare Providers on Their Harmful Effect in Excessive Consumption

Authors: ATM Emdadul Haque


Phosphorus is an essential nutrient which is regularly consumed with food and exists in the body as phosphate. Phosphate is an important component of cellular structures and needed for bone mineralization. Excessive accumulation of phosphate is an important driving factor of mortality in chronic renal failure patients; of relevance, these patients are usually provided health care by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. Hence, this study was planned to determine the level of awareness of the future healthcare providers about the phosphate-containing foods and beverages and to access their knowledge on the harmful effects of excess phosphate consumption. A questionnaire was developed and distributed among the year-1 medical, nursing and pharmacy students. 432 medical, nursing and pharmacy students responded with age ranging from 18-24 years. About 70% of the respondents were female with a majority (90.7%) from Malay ethnicity. Among the respondents, 29.9% were medical, 35.4% were the pharmacy and 34.7% were nursing students. 79.2% students knew that phosphate was an important component of the body, but only 61.8% knew that consuming too much phosphate could be harmful to the body. Despite 97% of the students knew that carbonated soda contained high sugar, surprisingly 77% of them did not know the presence of high phosphate in the same soda drinks; in the similar line of observation, 67% did not know the presence of it in the fast food. However, it was encouraging that 94% of the students wanted to know more about the effects of phosphate consumption, 74.3% were willing to give up drinking soda and eating fast food, and 52% considered taking green coconut water instead of soda drinks. It is, therefore, central to take an educational initiative to increase the awareness of the future healthcare providers about phosphate-containing food and its harmful effects in excessive consumptions.

Keywords: high phosphate containing foods and beverages, excessive consumption, future health care providers, phosphorus

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388 Sintered Phosphate Cement for HLW Encapsulation

Authors: S. M. M. Nelwamondo, W. C. M. H. Meyer, H. Krieg


The presence of volatile radionuclides in high level waste (HLW) in the nuclear industry limits the use of high temperature encapsulation technologies (glass and ceramic). Chemically bonded phosphate cement (CBPC) matrixes can be used for encapsulation of low level waste. This waste form is however not suitable for high level waste due to the radiolysis of water in these matrixes. In this research, the sintering behavior of the magnesium potassium phosphate cement waste forms was investigated. The addition of sintering aids resulted in the sintering of these phosphate cement matrixes into dense monoliths containing no water. Experimental evidence will be presented that this waste form can now be considered as a waste form for volatile radionuclides and high level waste as radiation studies indicated no chemical phase transition or physical degradation of this waste form.

Keywords: chemically bonded phosphate cements, HLW encapsulation, thermal stability, radiation stability

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387 The Effects and Interactions of Synthesis Parameters on Properties of Mg Substituted Hydroxyapatite

Authors: S. Sharma, U. Batra, S. Kapoor, A. Dua


In this study, the effects and interactions of reaction time and capping agent assistance during sol-gel synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowder (MgHA) on hydroxyapatite (HA) to β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratio, Ca/P ratio and mean crystallite size was examined experimentally as well as through statistical analysis. MgHA nanopowders were synthesized by sol-gel technique at room temperature using aqueous solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as starting materials. The reaction time for sol-gel synthesis was varied between 15 to 60 minutes. Two process routes were followed with and without addition of triethanolamine (TEA) in the solutions. The elemental compositions of as-synthesized powders were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The functional groups present in the as-synthesized MgHA nanopowders were established through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The amounts of phases present, Ca/P ratio and mean crystallite sizes of MgHA nanopowders were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The HA content in biphasic mixture of HA and β-TCP and Ca/P ratio in as-synthesized MgHA nanopowders increased effectively with reaction time of sols (p < 0.0001, two way Anova), however, these were independent of TEA addition (p > 0.15, two way Anova). The MgHA nanopowders synthesized with TEA assistance exhibited 14 nm lower crystallite size (p < 0.018, 2 sample t-test) compared to the powder synthesized without TEA assistance.

Keywords: capping agent, hydroxyapatite, regression analysis, sol-gel, 2- sample t-test, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

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386 Phosphate Capture from Sewage by Hafnium-Modified Fe₃O₄@SiO₂ Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: Adsorption Capacity, Selectivity, Reusability Analysis and Mechanistic Insights

Authors: Qian Zhao


With global increasing demand for phosphorus and intensively depleting reserves, it is urgent need to explore innovative approaches towards capturing phosphate from sewage, which is also an effective way to reduce phosphate contamination and avoid eutrophication of water bodies. In the present article, the superparamagnetic nano-sorbents containing Fe₃O₄ core and hafnium-modified MgAl/MgFe layered double hydroxides shell (abbreviated as MgAlHf-NP and MgFeHf-NP) was developed using a simple and low-cost synthesis protocol. The obtained Hf-coated nano-materials showed well-defined crystal structure and sufficient saturation magnetization and exhibited higher adsorption capacity for phosphate. Meanwhile, high selectivity was also confirmed since coexisting foreign anions and biomacromolecules showed little competitive effect on phosphate adsorption. The enhancement via doping with Hf should be explained by the stronger ligand complexation built by the pair of hard acid Hf ion and hard base phosphate that matched up the bonding preferences. Sufficient OH⁻ concentration and clear pH shift during the desorption/regeneration allowed for regeneration rate of higher than 90% after 5 cycles of adsorption desorption. This article attempts to provide a competitive candidate for phosphate-capture, which is highly effective, easily separable and repeatedly usable.

Keywords: phosphate recovery, nanoparticles, superparamagnetic, adsorption, reusability

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385 Investigation of Dissolution in Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate Solutions of Gypsum

Authors: Turan Çalban, Nursel Keskin, Sabri Çolak, Soner Kuşlu


Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a mineral that is found in large quantities in the Turkey and in the World. The dissolution of this mineral in the diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions has not been studied so far. Investigation of the dissolution and dissolution kinetics gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions will be useful for evaluating of solid wastes containing gypsum. In this study, parameters such as diammonium hydrogen phosphate concentration, temperature and stirring speed affecting on the dissolution rate of the gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions were investigated. In experimental studies have researched effectiveness of the selected parameters. The dissolution of gypsum were examined in two parts at low and high temperatures. The experimental results were successfully correlated by linear regression using Statistica program. Dissolution curves were evaluated shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. The activation energy was found to be 34.58 kJ/mol and 44.45 kJ/mol for the low and the high temperatures. The dissolution of gypsum was controlled by chemical reaction both low temperatures and high temperatures. Reaction rate expressions of dissolution of gypsum at the low temperatures and the high temperatures controlled by chemical reaction are as follows, respectively. = k1.e-5159.5/T.t = k2.e-5346.8/T.t Where k1 and k2 are constants depending on the diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution concentration, the solid/liquid ratio, the stirring speed and the particle size.

Keywords: diammonium hydrogen phosphate, dissolution kinetics, gypsum, kinetics.

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384 Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi, Alireza Baghbanan


Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.

Keywords: bacteria, biosynthesis, silver-phosphate, Sporosarcina pasteurii, nanoparticle

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383 Effect of Phosphate and Zinc Biofertilizers on Seed Yield and Molar Ratio of Phytic Acid to Zinc in Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Authors: M. Mohammadi


In order to evaluate the effect of phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers on the yield, phytic acid (PA), Zn concentration and PA/Zn molar ratio in bean, a field experiment was carried out for two years. The treatments included two cultivars of bean (Talash and Sadri), four levels of P (P0, P1: 100 kg ha-1 triple super phosphate (TSP), P2: 50 kg ha-1 TSP + phosphate bio-fertilizer, P3: phosphate bio-fertilizer), three levels of Zn (Zn0, Zn1: 50 kg ha-1 ZnSO4, Zn2: Zn bio-fertilizer). Phosphate bio-fertilizer consisted of inoculum of mycorrhizal fungus and Azotobacter and Zn bio-fertilizer consisted of Pseudomonas bacteria. The results revealed that there was significant difference between yield and Zn concentration between years. The effect of cultivar was significant on studied parameters. The lowest content of PA and PA/Zn were obtained from Talash. P treatment caused to significant difference on parameters in which P2 caused to increase yield, P and Zn concentration, and decrease PA and PA/Zn by 21.8%, 38.2%, 33.4%, 17.4% and 38.6% respectively. Zn treatment caused to significant difference on studied parameters. The maximum number of parameters were obtained from Zn1 and Zn2. The higher Zn concentration led to lower content of PA and PA/Zn. Using of P and Zn bio–fertilizers were caused to increasing nutrient uptake, improving growth condition and reducing PA and PA/Zn molar ratio.

Keywords: mycorrhizae, phosphorus, pseudomonas, zinc

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382 Removal and/or Recovery of Phosphates by Precipitation as Ferric Phosphate from the Effluent of a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Kyriaki Kalaitzidou, Athanasia Tolkou, Christina Raptopoulou, Manassis Mitrakas, Anastasios Zouboulis


Phosphate rock is the main source of phosphorous (P) in fertilizers and is essential for high crop yield in agriculture; currently, it is considered as a critical element, phasing scarcity. Chemical precipitation, which is a commonly used method of phosphorous removal from wastewaters, finds its significance in that phosphates may be precipitated in appropriate chemical forms that can be reused-recovered. Most often phosphorous is removed from wastewaters in the form of insoluble phosphate salts, by using salts (coagulants) of multivalent metal ions, most frequently iron, aluminum, calcium, or magnesium. The removal degree is affected by various factors, such as pH, chemical agent dose, temperature, etc. In this study, phosphate precipitation from the secondary (biologically treated) effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant is examined. Using chlorosulfate (FeClSO4) it was attempted to either remove and/or recover PO43-. Results showed that the use of Fe3+ can achieve residual concentrations lower than the commonly applied legislation limit of PO43- (i.e. 3 mg PO43-/L) by adding 7.5 mg/L Fe3+ in the secondary effluent with an initial concentration of about 10 mg PO43-/L and at pH range between 6 to 9. In addition, the formed sediment has a percentage of almost 24% PO43- content. Therefore, simultaneous removal and recovery of PO43- as ferric phosphate can be achieved, making it possible for the ferric phosphate to be re-used as a possible (secondary) fertilizer source.

Keywords: ferric phosphate, phosphorus recovery, phosphorus removal, wastewater treatment

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381 Study of Divalent Phosphate Iron-Oxide Precursor Recycling Technology

Authors: Shinn-Dar Wu


This study aims to synthesize lithium iron phosphate cathode material using a recycling technology involving non-protective gas calcination. The advantages include lower cost and easier production than traditional methods that require a large amount of protective gas. The novel technology may have extensive industrial applications. Given that the traditional gas calcination has a large number of protection free Fe3+ production, this study developed a precursor iron phosphate (Fe2+) material recycling technology and conducted related tests and analyses. It focused on flow field design of calcination and new technology as well as analyzed the best conditions for powder calcination combination. The electrical properties were determined by button batteries and exhibited a capacity of 118 mAh/g (The use of new materials synthesis, capacitance is about 122 mAh/g). The cost reduced to 50% of the original.

Keywords: lithium battery, lithium iron phosphate, calcined technology, recycling technology

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380 Dissolution Leaching Kinetics of Ulexite in Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Solutions

Authors: Betül Özgenç, Soner Kuşlu, Sabri Çolak, Turan Çalban


The aim of this study was investigate the leaching kinetics of ulexite in disodium hydrogen phosphate solutions in a mechanical agitation system. Reaction temperature, concentration of disodium hydrogen phosphate solutions, stirring speed, solid/liquid ratio and ulexite particle size were selected as parameters. The experimental results were successfully correlated by linear regression using Statistica program. Dissolution curves were evaluated shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. It was observed that increase in the reaction temperature and decrease in the solid/liquid ratio causes an increase the dissolution rate of ulexite. The activation energy was found to be 63.4 kJ/mol. The leaching of ulexite was controlled by chemical reaction.

Keywords: ulexite, disodium hydrogen phosphate, leaching kinetics

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379 Studies on Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice Husk Ash under Sodium Phosphate Medium

Authors: Dharmana Pradeep, Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni, N. V. S. Venugopal


Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a green product contains carbon and also loaded with silica. For the development of durability and strength of any concrete, curing phenomenon shall be very important. In this communication, we reported the exposure of partial replacement of cement with RHA at different percentages of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight under sodium phosphate curing atmosphere. The mix is designed for M40 grade concrete with the proportions of 1:2.2:3.72. The tests conducted on concrete was a compressive strength, and the specimens were cured in normal water & exposed to the chemical solution for 7, 28 & 56 days. For chemical curing 0.5% & 1% concentrated sodium phosphates were used and were compared with normal concrete strength results. The strength of specimens of 1% sodium phosphate exposure showed that the compressive strength decreased with increase in RHA percentages.

Keywords: rice husk ash, compressive strength, sodium phosphate, curing

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378 Injectable Polysaccharide-based Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Abdullah Baawad, Dong-Shik Kim


Biomaterials are increasingly used in tissue engineering for their desired properties such as, biocompatibility, biodegradability, porosity and injectability. Low-acyl gellan gum (LA-GAGR) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were ionically crosslinked by tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and an injectable gel composite that slowly decomposes over time was fabricated. The gel offers the advantage of combining shear thinning property and a primarily solid phase under static or small deformation oscillatory conditions. Additionally, the diffusion of LA-GAGR and mini-GAGR (a fragment oligomer of gellan gum) through bone was studied to obtain diffusion coefficients. To investigate how LA-GAGR and mini-GAGR interact with bone marrow stem cells after diffusion, the osteodifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells was investigated, as well as collagen type I production. LA-GAGR/HA gel shows great potential as an injectable low-cost biomaterial for bone regeneration strategies.

Keywords: bone, gellan gum, hyaluronic acid, tissue engineering, polysaccharides

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377 Dissolution Leaching Kinetics of Ulexite in Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate Solutions

Authors: Emine Teke, Soner Kuşlu, Sabri Çolak, Turan Çalban


The aim of the present study was to investigate the dissolution kinetics of ulexite in sodium dihydrogen phosphate in a mechanical agitation system and also to declare an alternative reactant to produce the boric acid. Reaction temperature, concentration of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, stirring speed, solid-liquid ratio, and ulexite particle size were selected as parameters. The experimental results were successfully correlated by using linear regression and a statistical program. Dissolution curves were evaluated in order to test the shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. It was observed that increase in the reaction temperature and decrease in the solid/liquid ratio causes an increase in the dissolution rate of ulexite. The activation energy was found to be 36.4 kJ/mol. The leaching of ulexite was controlled by diffusion through the ash (or product) layer.

Keywords: ulexite, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, leaching kinetics, boron

Procedia PDF Downloads 207