Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13765

Search results for: ASTM Model

13765 Wear Measuring and Wear Modelling Based On Archard, ASTM, and Neural Network Models

Authors: A. Shebani, C. Pislaru


Wear of materials is an everyday experience and has been observed and studied for long time. The prediction of wear is a fundamental problem in the industrial field, mainly correlated to the planning of maintenance interventions and economy. Pin-on-disc test is the most common test which is used to study the wear behaviour. In this paper, the pin-on-disc (AEROTECH UNIDEX 11) is used for the investigation of the effects of normal load and hardness of material on the wear under dry and sliding conditions. In the pin-on-disc rig, two specimens were used; one, a pin which is made of steel with a tip, is positioned perpendicular to the disc, where the disc is made of aluminium. The pin wear and disc wear were measured by using the following instruments: The Talysurf instrument, a digital microscope, and the alicona instrument; where the Talysurf profilometer was used to measure the pin/disc wear scar depth, and the alicona was used to measure the volume loss for pin and disc. After that, the Archard model, American Society for Testing and Materials model (ASTM), and neural network model were used for pin/disc wear modelling and the simulation results are implemented by using the Matlab program. This paper focuses on how the alicona can be considered as a powerful tool for wear measurements and how the neural network is an effective algorithm for wear estimation.

Keywords: wear modelling, Archard Model, ASTM Model, Neural Networks Model, Pin-on-disc Test, Talysurf, digital microscope, Alicona

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13764 Methodology for Various Sand Cone Testing

Authors: Abel S. Huaynacho, Yoni D. Huaynacho


The improvement of procedure test ASTM D1556, plays an important role in the developing of testing in field to obtain a higher quality of data QA/QC. The traditional process takes a considerable amount of time for only one test. Even making various testing are tasks repeating and it takes a long time to obtain better results. Moreover, if the adequate tools the help these testing are not properly managed, the improvement in the development for various testing could be stooped. This paper presents an optimized process for various testing ASTM D1556 which uses an initial standard process to another one the uses a simpler and improved management tools.

Keywords: cone sand test, density bulk, ASTM D1556, QA/QC

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
13763 Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge

Authors: Aseem Rajvanshi, Pankaj Kumar Pandey


Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 °C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.

Keywords: crude oil, copper strip corrosion test, dropping point, penetration test

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
13762 Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: C. Tezara, H. Y. Lim, M. H. Yazdi, J. W. Lim, J. P. Siregar


Natural fibre has become an element in human lives. A lot of researchers have conducted research about natural fibre reinforced polymer. Malaysian government has spent a lot of money on the research funding for researchers and academician especially research on kenaf fibre due to exclusion of tobacco from AFTA (Asean Free Trade Area) list. This work is to investigate the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite where short kenaf fibre was applied and the mechanical properties of 5%, 10% and 15% wt. of kenaf fibre were added into the mixture of epoxy resin. Hand lay-up process was selected in the fabrication of the specimen for testing. The tensile, flexural and impact test were conducted following ASTM D3039, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 accordingly. From the experiment result, the effect of different fiber loading of the specimen on its mechanical properties would be analyzed and compared in the result and discussion.

Keywords: Kenaf fibre, epoxy, composite, fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
13761 Predicting Durability of Self Compacting Concrete Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: R. Boudjelthia


The aim of this study is to determine the influence of mix composition of concrete as the content of water and cement, water–binder ratio, and the replacement of fly ash on the durability of self compacting concrete (SCC) by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). To achieve this, an ANNs model is developed to predict the durability of self compacting concrete which is expressed in terms of chloride ions permeability in accordance with ASTM C1202-97 or AASHTO T277. Database gathered from the literature for the training and testing the model. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted using the trained and tested ANN model to investigate the effect of fly ash on the durability of SCC. The results indicate that the developed model is reliable and accurate. the durability of SCC expressed in terms of total charge passed over a 6-h period can be significantly improved by using at least 25% fly ash as replacement of cement. This study show that artificial neural network have strong potentialas a feasible tool for predicting accurately the durability of SCC containing fly ash.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, durability, chloride ions permeability, self compacting concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
13760 Determination of ILSS of Composite Materials Using Micromechanical FEA Analysis

Authors: K. Rana, H.A.Saeed, S. Zahir


Inter Laminar Shear Stress (ILSS) is a main key parameter which quantify the properties of composite materials. These properties can ascertain the use of material for a specific purpose like aerospace, automotive etc. A modelling approach for determination of ILSS is presented in this paper. Geometric modelling of composite material is performed in TEXGEN software where reinforcement, cured matrix and their interfaces are modelled separately as per actual geometry. Mechanical properties of matrix and reinforcements are modelled separately which incorporated anisotropy in the real world composite material. ASTM D2344 is modelled in ANSYS for ILSS. In macroscopic analysis model approximates the anisotropy of the material and uses orthotropic properties by applying homogenization techniques. Shear Stress analysis in that case does not show the actual real world scenario and rather approximates it. In this paper actual geometry and properties of reinforcement and matrix are modelled to capture the actual stress state during the testing of samples as per ASTM standards. Testing of samples is also performed in order to validate the results. Fibre volume fraction of yarn is determined by image analysis of manufactured samples. Fibre volume fraction data is incorporated into the numerical model for correction of transversely isotropic properties of yarn. A comparison between experimental and simulated results is presented.

Keywords: ILSS, FEA, micromechanical, fibre volume fraction, image analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
13759 Variations of Testing Concrete Mechanical Properties by European Standard and American Code

Authors: Ahmed M. Seyam, Rita Nemes, Salem Georges Nehme


Europe and the United States have a worldwide significance in the field of concrete control and construction; according to that, a lot of countries adopted their standards and regulations in the concrete field, as proof of the Europe and US strong standards and due to lack of own regulations. The main controlled property of concrete are the compressive strength, flexure tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity as it relates both to its bearing capacity and to the durability of the elements built with it, so in this paper, ASTM standard and EN standards method of testing those properties were put under the microscope to compare the variations between them.

Keywords: concrete, ASTM, EU standards, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity

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13758 Wear and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Iron Modified with Copper

Authors: J. Ramos, V. Gil, A. F. Torres


The nodular iron is a material that has shown great advantages respect to other materials (steel and gray iron) in the production of machine elements. The engineering industry, especially automobile, are potential users of this material. As it is known, the alloying elements modify the properties of steels and castings. Copper has been investigated as a structural modifier of nodular iron, but studies of its mechanical and tribological implications still need to be addressed for industrial use. With the aim of improving the mechanical properties of nodular iron, alloying elements (Mn, Si, and Cu) are added in order to increase their pearlite (or ferrite) structure according to the percentage of the alloying element. In this research (using induction furnace process) nodular iron with three different percentages of copper (residual, 0,5% and 1,2%) was obtained. Chemical analysis was performed by optical emission spectrometry and microstructures were characterized by Optical Microscopy (ASTM E3) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The study of mechanical behavior was carried out in a mechanical test machine (ASTM E8) and a Pin on disk tribometer (ASTM G99) was used to assess wear resistance. It is observed that copper increases the pearlite structure improving the wear behavior; tension behavior. This improvement is observed in higher proportion with 0,5% due to the fact that too much increase of pearlite leads to ductility loss.

Keywords: copper, mechanical properties, nodular iron, pearlite structure, wear

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13757 Fuel Quality of Biodiesel from Chlorella protothecoides Microalgae Species

Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Mahendra Pal Sharma


Depleting fossil fuel resources coupled with serious environmental degradation has led to the search for alternative resources for biodiesel production as a substitute of Petro-diesel. Currently, edible, non-edible oils and microalgal plant species are cultivated for biodiesel production. Looking at the demerits of edible and non-edible oil resources, the focus is being given to grow microalgal species having high oil productivities, less maturity time and less land requirement. Out of various microalgal species, Chlorella protothecoides is considered as the most promising species for biodiesel production owing to high oil content (58 %), faster growth rate (24–48 h) and high biomass productivity (1214 mg/l/day). The present paper reports the results of optimization of reaction parameters of transesterification process as well as the kinetics of transesterification with 97% yield of biodiesel. The measurement of fuel quality of microalgal biodiesel shows that the biodiesel exhibit very good oxidation stability (O.S) of 7 hrs, more than ASTM D6751 (3 hrs) and EN 14112 (6 hrs) specifications. The CP and PP of 0 and -3 °C are finding as per ASTM D 2500-11 and ASTM D 97-12 standards. These results show that the microalgal biodiesel does not need any enhancement in O.S & CFP and hence can be recommended to be directly used as MB100 or its blends into diesel engine operation. Further, scope is available for the production of binary blends using poor quality biodiesel for engine operation.

Keywords: fuel quality, methyl ester yield, microalgae, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
13756 An Investigation of Passivation Technology in Stainless Steel Alloy

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Rick Wang, Yan-Cong Liao


Passivation is a kind of surface treatment for material to reinforce the corrosion resistance specially the stainless alloy. Passive film, is to getting more potential compared to their status before passivation. An oxidation film can be formed on the surface of stainless steel, which has a strong corrosion resistance ability after passivation treatment. In this research, a new passivation technology is proposed for a special stainless alloy which contains a 12-14% Chromium. This method includes the A-A-A (alkaline-acid-alkaline) process basically, which was developed by Carpenter that can neutralize trapped acid. Besides, a corrosion resistant coating layer was obtained by immersing the parts in a water bath of mineral oil at high temperature. Salt spray test ASTM B368 was conducted to investigated performance of corrosion resistant of the passivated stainless steel alloy parts. Results show much better corrosion resistant that followed a coating process after A-A-A Passivation process, than only using A-A-A process. The passivation time is with more than 380 hours of salt spray test ASTM B368, which is equal to 3000 hours of Salt spray test ASTM B117. Proposed passivation method of stainless steel can be completed in about 3 hours.

Keywords: passivation, alkaline-acid-alkaline, stainless steel, salt spray test

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13755 An Investigation of the Effects of Gripping Systems in Geosynthetic Shear Testing

Authors: Charles Sikwanda


The use of geosynthetic materials in geotechnical engineering projects has rapidly increased over the past several years. These materials have resulted in improved performance and cost reduction of geotechnical structures as compared to the use of conventional materials. However, working with geosynthetics requires knowledge of interface parameters for design. These parameters are typically determined by the large direct shear device in accordance with ASTM-D5321 and ASTM-D6243 standards. Although these laboratory tests are standardized, the quality of the results can be largely affected by several factors that include; the shearing rate, applied normal stress, gripping mechanism, and type of the geosynthetic specimens tested. Amongst these factors, poor surface gripping of a specimen is the major source of the discrepancy. If the specimen is inadequately secured to the shearing blocks, it experiences progressive failure and shear strength that deviates from the true field performance of the tested material. This leads to inaccurate, unsafe, and cost ineffective designs of projects. Currently, the ASTM-D5321 and ASTM-D6243 standards do not provide a standardized gripping system for geosynthetic shear strength testing. Over the years, researchers have come up with different gripping systems that can be used such as; glue, metal textured surface, sandblasting, and sandpaper. However, these gripping systems are regularly not adequate to sufficiently secure the tested specimens to the shearing device. This has led to large variability in test results and difficulties in results interpretation. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the effects of gripping systems in geosynthetic interface shear strength testing using a 300 x 300 mm direct shear box. The results of the research will contribute to easy data interpretation and increase result accuracy and reproducibility.

Keywords: geosynthetics, shear strength parameters, gripping systems, gripping

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13754 Hybrid Laser-Gas Metal Arc Welding of ASTM A106-B Steel Pipes

Authors: Masoud Mohammadpour, Nima Yazdian, Radovan Kovacevic


The Oil and Gas industries are vigorously looking for new ways to increase the efficiency of their pipeline constructions. Besides the other approaches, implementing of new welding methods for joining pipes can be the best candidate on this regard. Hybrid Laser Arc Welding (HLAW) with the capabilities of high welding speed, deep penetration, and excellent gap bridging ability can be a possible alternative method in pipeline girth welding. This paper investigates the feasibility of applying the HLAW to join ASTM A106-B as the mostly used piping material for transporting high-temperature and high-pressure fluids and gases. The experiments were carried out on six-inch diameter pipes with the wall thickness of 10mm. AWS ER 70 S6 filler wire with diameter of 1.2mm was employed. Relating to this welding procedure, characterization of welded samples such as hardness, tensile testing and Charpy V-notch testing were performed and the results will be reported in this paper. In order to have better understanding about the thermal history and the microstructural alterations caused by the welding heat cycle, a comprehensive Finite Element (FE) model was also conducted. The obtained results have shown that the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) procedure with the minimum number of 5 passes to complete the wall thickness, was reduced to only single pass by using the HLAW process with the welding time less than 15s.

Keywords: finite element modeling, high-temperature service, hybrid laser/arc welding, welding pipes

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13753 Finite Element Analysis of Connecting Rod

Authors: Mohammed Mohsin Ali H., Mohamed Haneef


The connecting rod transmits the piston load to the crank causing the latter to turn, thus converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion of the crankshaft. Connecting rods are subjected to forces generated by mass and fuel combustion. This study investigates and compares the fatigue behavior of forged steel, powder forged and ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched connecting rods. The objective is to suggest for a new material with reduced weight and cost with the increased fatigue life. This has entailed performing a detailed load analysis. Therefore, this study has dealt with two subjects: first, dynamic load and stress analysis of the connecting rod, and second, optimization for material, weight and cost. In the first part of the study, the loads acting on the connecting rod as a function of time were obtained. Based on the observations of the dynamic FEA, static FEA, and the load analysis results, the load for the optimization study was selected. It is the conclusion of this study that the connecting rod can be designed and optimized under a load range comprising tensile load and compressive load. Tensile load corresponds to 360o crank angle at the maximum engine speed. The compressive load is corresponding to the peak gas pressure. Furthermore, the existing connecting rod can be replaced with a new connecting rod made of ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched that is 12% lighter and 28% cheaper.

Keywords: connecting rod, ASTM a514 cold quenched material, static analysis, fatigue analysis, stress life approach

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13752 Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Mortars Manufactured from Moisture Correction Using the Halogen Light Thermogravimetric Balance as an Alternative to the Traditional ASTM C 128 Method

Authors: Diana Gomez-Cano, J. C. Ochoa-Botero, Roberto Bernal Correa, Yhan Paul Arias


To obtain high mechanical performance, the fresh conditions of a mortar are decisive. Measuring the absorption of aggregates used in mortar mixes is a fundamental requirement for proper design of the mixes prior to their placement in construction sites. In this sense, absorption is a determining factor in the design of a mix because it conditions the amount of water, which in turn affects the water/cement ratio and the final porosity of the mortar. Thus, this work focuses on the mechanical behavior of recycled mortars manufactured from moisture correction using the Thermogravimetric Balancing Halogen Light (TBHL) technique in comparison with the traditional ASTM C 128 International Standard method. The advantages of using the TBHL technique are favorable in terms of reduced consumption of resources such as materials, energy, and time. The results show that in contrast to the ASTM C 128 method, the TBHL alternative technique allows obtaining a higher precision in the absorption values of recycled aggregates, which is reflected not only in a more efficient process in terms of sustainability in the characterization of construction materials but also in an effect on the mechanical performance of recycled mortars.

Keywords: alternative raw materials, halogen light, recycled mortar, resources optimization, water absorption

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13751 Dow Polyols near Infrared Chemometric Model Reduction Based on Clustering: Reducing Thirty Global Hydroxyl Number (OH) Models to Less Than Five

Authors: Wendy Flory, Kazi Czarnecki, Matthijs Mercy, Mark Joswiak, Mary Beth Seasholtz


Polyurethane Materials are present in a wide range of industrial segments such as Furniture, Building and Construction, Composites, Automotive, Electronics, and more. Dow is one of the leaders for the manufacture of the two main raw materials, Isocyanates and Polyols used to produce polyurethane products. Dow is also a key player for the manufacture of Polyurethane Systems/Formulations designed for targeted applications. In 1990, the first analytical chemometric models were developed and deployed for use in the Dow QC labs of the polyols business for the quantification of OH, water, cloud point, and viscosity. Over the years many models have been added; there are now over 140 models for quantification and hundreds for product identification, too many to be reasonable for support. There are 29 global models alone for the quantification of OH across > 70 products at many sites. An attempt was made to consolidate these into a single model. While the consolidated model proved good statistics across the entire range of OH, several products had a bias by ASTM E1655 with individual product validation. This project summary will show the strategy for global model updates for OH, to reduce the number of models for quantification from over 140 to 5 or less using chemometric methods. In order to gain an understanding of the best product groupings, we identify clusters by reducing spectra to a few dimensions via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP). Results from these cluster analyses and a separate validation set allowed dow to reduce the number of models for predicting OH from 29 to 3 without loss of accuracy.

Keywords: hydroxyl, global model, model maintenance, near infrared, polyol

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13750 A New Nonlinear State-Space Model and Its Application

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei


In this work, a new nonlinear model will be introduced. The model is in the state-space form. The nonlinearity of this model is in the state equation where the state vector is multiplied by its self. This technique makes our model generalizes many famous models as Lotka-Volterra model and Lorenz model which have many applications in the real life. We will apply our new model to estimate the wind speed by using a new nonlinear estimator which suitable to work with our model.

Keywords: nonlinear systems, state-space model, Kronecker product, nonlinear estimator

Procedia PDF Downloads 565
13749 Fracture Properties Investigation of Artocarpus odoratissimus Composite with Polypropylene (PP)

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Al Fareez Bin Aslie, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari


Wood plastic composites (WPC) were made using matrix of polypropylene (PP) thermoplastic resin with wood fiber from Artocarpus Odoratissimus as filler. The purpose of this project is to investigate the fracture properties of Artocarpus odoratissimus composite with PP. The WPC were manufactured by hot-press technique with varying formulations which are 10:0 (100% pure PP), 50:50 (40 g of wood fiber and 40 g of PP) and 60:40 (48 g of wood fiber and 32 g of PP). The mechanical properties were investigated. Tensile and flexural were carried out according to ASTM D 638 and ASTM D 790. The results were analysed to calculate the tensile strength. Tensile strength at break is ranged from 13.2 N/mm2 to 21.7 N/mm2 while, the flexural strength obtained is varying from 14.7 N/mm2 to 31.1 N/mm2. The results of the experiment showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composite were increased with the adding of wood fiber material. Finally, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), have been done to study the fracture behavior of the WPC specimens.

Keywords: Artocarpus odoratissimus, polypropylene thermoplastic, wood fiber, WPC

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13748 Experimental Chip/Tool Temperature FEM Model Calibration by Infrared Thermography: A Case Study

Authors: Riccardo Angiuli, Michele Giannuzzi, Rodolfo Franchi, Gabriele Papadia


Temperature knowledge in machining is fundamental to improve the numerical and FEM models used for the study of some critical process aspects, such as the behavior of the worked material and tool. The extreme conditions in which they operate make it impossible to use traditional measuring instruments; infrared thermography can be used as a valid measuring instrument for temperature measurement during metal cutting. In the study, a large experimental program on superduplex steel (ASTM A995 gr. 5A) cutting was carried out, the relevant cutting temperatures were measured by infrared thermography when certain cutting parameters changed, from traditional values to extreme ones. The values identified were used to calibrate a FEM model for the prediction of residual life of the tools. During the study, the problems related to the detection of cutting temperatures by infrared thermography were analyzed, and a dedicated procedure was developed that could be used during similar processing.

Keywords: machining, infrared thermography, FEM, temperature measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
13747 Analysis of Stress Concentration of a Hybrid Composite Material with Centre Circular Hole Subjected to Tensile Loading

Authors: C. Shalini Devi


This work describes the stress concentration in a rectangular specimen with a circular hole made up of hybrid composite material with the combination of glass/carbon with epoxy. The arrangements of cross ply lamina in the sequence of alternative carbon and glass, using carbon fiber in panel, gives more strength to the structure as the carbon properties are higher when compared to glass. Typical aircraft and automobile components are with cut-outs, and such cut-outs reduce the weight of the aircraft according to the weight reduction law and also they reduce the bulking load carrying capacity. Experimental investigations were carried out using three specimens as per ASTM D5766 and three specimens as per ASTM D3039 in the Universal Testing Machine. Stress concentration in the rectangular specimen with a hole is also analysed using FEA and comparing the results.

Keywords: composite, stress concentration, finite element analysis, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
13746 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu


Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: residual stress, fatigue crack growth, R260, SEM, ASTM E647

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
13745 Logistic Regression Model versus Additive Model for Recurrent Event Data

Authors: Entisar A. Elgmati


Recurrent infant diarrhea is studied using daily data collected in Salvador, Brazil over one year and three months. A logistic regression model is fitted instead of Aalen's additive model using the same covariates that were used in the analysis with the additive model. The model gives reasonably similar results to that using additive regression model. In addition, the problem with the estimated conditional probabilities not being constrained between zero and one in additive model is solved here. Also martingale residuals that have been used to judge the goodness of fit for the additive model are shown to be useful for judging the goodness of fit of the logistic model.

Keywords: additive model, cumulative probabilities, infant diarrhoea, recurrent event

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
13744 The Optimum Biodiesel Blend in Low Sulfur Diesel and Its Physico-Chemical Properties and Economic Aspect

Authors: Ketsada Sutthiumporn, Sittichot Thongkaw, Malee Santikunaporn


In Thailand, biodiesel has been utilized as an attractive substitute for petroleum diesel, and the government imposes a mandatory biodiesel blending requirement in the transport sector to improve energy security, support the agricultural sector and reduce emissions. Though biodiesel blend has many advantages over diesel fuel, such as improved lubricity, low sulfur content, and higher flash point, there are still some technical problems such as oxidative stability, poor cold-flow properties, and impurity. Such problems were related to the fatty acid composition in the feedstock. Moreover, Thailand has announced the use of low sulfur diesel as a base diesel and will be continually upgrading to EURO 5 in 2023. With ultra-low sulfur content, it may affect the diesel fuel properties, especially lubricity as well. Therefore, in this study, the physical and chemical properties of palm oil-based biodiesel in low sulfur diesel blends from different producers will be investigated by standard methods per ASTM and EN. Also, its economic benefits based on the diesel price structure in Thailand will be highlighted. The appropriate biodiesel blend ratio can affect the physicochemical properties and reasonable prices in the country. Properties of biodiesel, including iodine value, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, FAME composition, flash point, water content, and oxidation stability, were measured by standard methods; EN14111, ASTM D1298, ASTM D445, EN14103, ASTM D93, EN ISO 12937 and EN 15751 respectively. The results show that the FAME composition of biodiesel samples from different sources has the fatty acid of C12:0 to C20:1, mostly in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C18:2, which were the main characteristic compositions of palm biodiesel. There was no evidently significant correlation between the amount of methyl ester and the properties. In contrast, there were some properties strongly relative to double bond on unsaturated fatty acid. The various properties of each biodiesel blend were plotted to determine the appropriate proportional range of biodiesel-blended diesel. Meanwhile, the equation of fuel and biodiesel price is plotted and used to simultaneously evaluate the optimum fuel price range related to the optimum lower biodiesel-blended diesel range.

Keywords: fatty acid methyl ester, biodiesel, fuel price structure, palm oil in Thailand

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13743 Composite Materials from Beer Bran Fibers and Polylactic Acid: Characterization and Properties

Authors: Camila Hurtado, Maria A. Morales, Diego Torres, L.H. Reyes, Alejandro Maranon, Alicia Porras


This work presents the physical and chemical characterization of beer brand fibers and the properties of novel composite materials made of these fibers and polylactic acid (PLA). Treated and untreated fibers were physically characterized in terms of their moisture content (ASTM D1348), density, and particle size (ASAE S319.2). A chemical analysis following TAPPI standards was performed to determine ash, extractives, lignin, and cellulose content on fibers. Thermal stability was determined by TGA analysis, and an FTIR was carried out to check the influence of the alkali treatment in fiber composition. An alkali treatment with NaOH (5%) of fibers was performed for 90 min, with the objective to improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix in composites. Composite materials based on either treated or untreated beer brand fibers and polylactic acid (PLA) were developed characterized in tension (ASTM D638), bending (ASTM D790) and impact (ASTM D256). Before composites manufacturing, PLA and brand beer fibers (10 wt.%) were mixed in a twin extruder with a temperature profile between 155°C and 180°C. Coupons were manufactured by compression molding (110 bar) at 190°C. Physical characterization showed that alkali treatment does not affect the moisture content (6.9%) and the density (0.48 g/cm³ for untreated fiber and 0.46 g/cm³ for the treated one). Chemical and FTIR analysis showed a slight decrease in ash and extractives. Also, a decrease of 47% and 50% for lignin and hemicellulose content was observed, coupled with an increase of 71% for cellulose content. Fiber thermal stability was improved with the alkali treatment at about 10°C. Tensile strength of composites was found to be between 42 and 44 MPa with no significant statistical difference between coupons with either treated or untreated fibers. However, compared to neat PLA, composites with beer bran fibers present a decrease in tensile strength of 27%. Young modulus increases by 10% with treated fiber, compared to neat PLA. Flexural strength decreases in coupons with treated fiber (67.7 MPa), while flexural modulus increases (3.2 GPa) compared to neat PLA (83.3 MPa and 2.8 GPa, respectively). Izod impact test results showed an improvement of 99.4% in coupons with treated fibers - compared with neat PLA.

Keywords: beer bran, characterization, green composite, polylactic acid, surface treatment

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13742 Mathematical Model to Quantify the Phenomenon of Democracy

Authors: Mechlouch Ridha Fethi


This paper presents a recent mathematical model in political sciences concerning democracy. The model is represented by a logarithmic equation linking the Relative Index of Democracy (RID) to Participation Ratio (PR). Firstly the meanings of the different parameters of the model were presented; and the variation curve of the RID according to PR with different critical areas was discussed. Secondly, the model was applied to a virtual group where we show that the model can be applied depending on the gender. Thirdly, it was observed that the model can be extended to different language models of democracy and that little use to assess the state of democracy for some International organizations like UNO.

Keywords: democracy, mathematic, modelization, quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
13741 The Achievement Model of University Social Responsibility

Authors: Le Kang


On the research question of 'how to achieve USR', this contribution reflects the concept of university social responsibility, identify three achievement models of USR as the society - diversified model, the university-cooperation model, the government - compound model, also conduct a case study to explore characteristics of Chinese achievement model of USR. The contribution concludes with discussion of how the university, government and society balance demands and roles, make necessarily strategic adjustment and innovative approach to repair the shortcomings of each achievement model.

Keywords: modern university, USR, achievement model, compound model

Procedia PDF Downloads 526
13740 Blending Effects on Crude Oil Stability: An Experimental Study

Authors: Muheddin Hamza, Entisar Etter


This study is a part of investigating the possibility of blending two crude oils obtained from Libyan oil fields, namely crude oil (A) and crude oil (B) with different ratios, prior to blending the crude oils have to be compatible in order to avoid phase out and precipitation of asphaltene from the bulk of crude. The physical properties of both crudes such as density, viscosity, pour point and sulphur content were measured according to (ASTM) method. To examine the stability of both crudes and their blends, the oil compatibility model using microscopic, colloidal instability index (CII) using SARA analysis and asphaltene stabilization test using Turbiscan tests were conducted in the Libyan Petroleum Institute laboratories. Compatibility tests were carried out with both crude oils, the insolubility number (IN), and the solubility blending number (SBN), for both crude oils and their blends were calculated. The criteria for compatibility of any blend is that the volume average solubility blending number (SBN) is greater than the insolubility number (IN) of any component in the blend, the results indicated that both crudes were compatible. To support the results of compatibility tests the SARA analysis was done for the fractional determination of (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) content. From this result, the colloidal Instability index (CII) and resin to asphaltenes ratio (R/A) were calculated for crudes and their blends. The results show that crude oil (B) which has higher (R/A) and lower (CII) is more stable than crude oil (A) and as the ratio of crude (B) increases in the blend the (CII) and (R/A) were improved, and the blends becomes more stable. Asphaltene stabilization test was also conducted for the crudes and their blends using Turbiscan MA200 according to the standard test method ASTM D7061-04, the Turbiscan shows that the crude (B) is more stable than crude (A) which shows a fair tendency. The (CII) and (R/A) were compared with the solubility number (SBN) for each crude and the blends along with Turbiscan results. The solubility blending number (SBN) of the crudes and their blends show that the crudes are compatible, also by comparing (R/A) and (SBN) values of the blends, it can be seen that they are complements of each other. All the experimental results show that the blends of both crudes are more stability.

Keywords: asphaltene, crude oil, compatibility, oil blends, resin, SARA

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13739 Optimization of Bio-Based Mixture of Canarium Luzonicum and Calcium Oxide as Coating Material for Reinforcing Steel Bars

Authors: Charizza D. Montarin, Daryl Jae S. Sigue, Gilford Estores


Philippines was moderately vulnerable to corrosion and to prevent this problem, surface coating should be applied. The main objective of this research was to develop and optimize a bio-based mixture of Pili Resin and Lime as Coating Materials. There are three (3) factors to be considered in choosing the best coating material such as chemical adhesion, friction, and the bearing/shear against the steel bar-concrete interface. Fortunately, both proportions of the Bio-based coating materials (50:50 and 65:35) do not have red rust formation complying with ASTM B117 but failed in terms of ASTM D 3359. Splitting failures of concrete were observed in the Unconfined Reinforced Concrete Samples. All of the steel bars (uncoated and coated) surpassed the Minimum Bond strength (NSCP 2015) about 203% to 285%. The experiments were about 1% to 3% of the results from the ANSYS Simulations with and without Salt Spray Test. Using the bio-based and epoxy coatings, normal splitting strengths were declined. However, there has no significant difference between the results. Thus, the bio-based coating materials can be used as an alternative for the epoxy coating materials and it was highly recommended for Low – Rise Building only.

Keywords: Canarium luzonicum, calcium oxide, corrosion, finite element simulations

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13738 Application of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems Technique for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process of Pressure Vessel Steel AASTM A516 Grade 70

Authors: Omar Al Denali, Abdelaziz Badi


The ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel is a suitable material used for the fabrication of boiler pressure vessels working in moderate and lower temperature services, and it has good weldability and excellent notch toughness. The post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) or stress-relieving heat treatment has significant effects on avoiding the martensite transformation and resulting in high hardness, which can lead to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was implemented to predict the material tensile strength of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) experiments. The ANFIS models presented excellent predictions, and the comparison was carried out based on the mean absolute percentage error between the predicted values and the experimental values. The ANFIS model gave a Mean Absolute Percentage Error of 0.556 %, which confirms the high accuracy of the model.

Keywords: prediction, post-weld heat treatment, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, mean absolute percentage error

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13737 Model Averaging for Poisson Regression

Authors: Zhou Jianhong


Model averaging is a desirable approach to deal with model uncertainty, which, however, has rarely been explored for Poisson regression. In this paper, we propose a model averaging procedure based on an unbiased estimator of the expected Kullback-Leibler distance for the Poisson regression. Simulation study shows that the proposed model average estimator outperforms some other commonly used model selection and model average estimators in some situations. Our proposed methods are further applied to a real data example and the advantage of this method is demonstrated again.

Keywords: model averaging, poission regression, Kullback-Leibler distance, statistics

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13736 Failure Analysis of Laminated Veneer Bamboo Dowel Connections

Authors: Niloufar Khoshbakht, Peggi L. Clouston, Sanjay R. Arwade, Alexander C. Schreyer


Laminated veneer bamboo (LVB) is a structural engineered composite made from glued layers of bamboo. A relatively new building product, LVB is currently employed in similar sizes and applications as dimensional lumber. This study describes the results of a 3D elastic Finite Element model for halfhole specimens when loaded in compression parallel-to-grain per ASTM 5764. The model simulates LVB fracture initiation due to shear stresses in the dowel joint and predicts displacement at failure validated through comparison with experimental results. The material fails at 1mm displacement due to in-plane shear stresses. The paper clarifies the complex interactive state of in-plane shear, tension perpendicular-to-grain, and compression parallel-to-grain stresses that form different distributions in the critical zone beneath the bolt hole for half-hole specimens. These findings are instrumental in understanding key factors and fundamental failure mechanisms that occur in LVB dowel connections to help devise safe standards and further LVB product adoption and design.

Keywords: composite, dowel connection, embedment strength, failure behavior, finite element analysis, Moso bamboo

Procedia PDF Downloads 203