Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: wayang artwork  

41 The Establishing Cultural Learning Center of Wayang Artwork for Creative Tourism: Challenge and Opportunities

Authors: Pornnapat Berndt

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The purpose of this research is to explore challenge and opportunities to establish cultural learning center of Wayang Artwork for creative tourism within the house of Mr. Sa-ngat Jaiprom. To accomplish the goals and objectives, qualitative research will be applied. The research instruments used are observation, questionnaires (pretest and posttest), basic interviews, in-depth interviews and interviewed of key local informants. The study also uses both primary data and secondary data. From research result, it is revealed that the sample groups more realized valuable heritage value after learning about the history of wayang and the way to practices. The sample group indicated that it not too difficult for them to carving Wayang artwork as they have knowledge about Thai art before. However, in their opinion, they comment that it might difficult for others who have no basic knowledge to learn to carve wayang artwork.

Keywords: creative tourism, local community, cultural learning center, wayang artwork  

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40 Continuity and Changes on Traditional Puppetry in Java: The Existences of Wayang Hip Hop

Authors: Taufik Hidayah

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Wayang is a traditional puppet show originated from Java. This traditional art is characterized by distinctive Hinduism influence. Wayang reflects the social life of the Javanese society. It contains Javanese philosophy, myths, magical stories, and religion, as well as educational media and transmission for noble values of Javanese society conveyed through the story. Nowadays, the performance of wayang has faced a new challenge to maintain its existence in the public life of Javanese society. Modernity has penetrated into every shape of culture. Many people consider traditional culture as old fashioned, particularly the young generation. That is one of the reasons why many people have left traditional culture. For maintaining the existence of wayang, a new art called ‘wayang hip hop’ has arisen. Wayang hip hop seeks to modify wayang show into a more modern form, but without removing any principles and main functions of wayang art. This article will discuss theoretically the changes and traditional continuity in wayang hip hop based on a literature review and qualitative approaches. Wayang hip hop uses hip-hop music as the background music in the show. It will discuss about the impact that comes with the existential strengthening of wayang hip hop especially among the Javanese society and discuss the opportunities that arise regarding the function of wayang hip-hop as a medium of education, social criticism, and cultural revitalization of the Javanese society.

Keywords: cultural revitalization, social criticism, education, continuity and change

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39 Doris Salcedo: Parameters of Political Commitment in Colombia

Authors: Diana Isabel Torres Silva

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Doris Salcedo is the most prominent sculptor from Colombia ever and currently, one of the most prestigious Latin-American artists in the world. Her artwork, intended as political art, has war as a background, in particular the Colombian civil conflict, and it addresses the way that its violence affects victims’ lives irreparably. While Salcedo is internationally recognized as a talented and a politically committed artist, some Colombian critics consider her artwork as the propagandist and influenced by the interest of multinational companies and the organizations that fund it. This paper, as part of a more extended research project, attempts to demonstrate that Doris Salcedo’s artwork makes visible the victims suffering and mourning and compels the viewers’ sympathy, although its approach is superficial. It does not achieve a complete or complex understanding of the social and historical causes underneath the war and maybe because of that has become a successful commodity for the international arts market. The paper considers, firstly, the influence that Colombian Nuevo Teatro, from the sixties, had on Salcedo’s early political perspective and, secondly, analyzes in detail the first series of her artwork (1992-1998) and how those works address grieving. The focus point of this analysis will be the domestic furniture sculptures, which are the main symbolic element of Salcedo’s oeuvre.

Keywords: Arts and politics, Doris Salcedo, Colombian art, Political Art

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38 Hackers’ Artwork in Search for a Name: An Analysis of Hackers’ Artwork

Authors: Sultana Ismet Jerin, Md. Waseq Ur Rahman

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Artworks of hacker artists are one of the new trends in the field of new media arts. When someone hears a name of hacker or anything related to hacking, what comes to one’s mind is usually not connected to art due to its divisive meaning. While it is fascinating that every year a number of hacker summits and hacker art fest are being organized among the respective community, it is at the same time true that people are yet to understand what hacker art really is. However, this new phenomenon of artwork under the title ‘hacker art’ has little been studied. Understanding this new form of art is important as the artists of hacker art belong to the era of digital revolution which is a very significant part of our history. Therefore, it is important to find out the challenges in defining them and find out solutions to preserve them. In this paper, the key question that has been addressed is why artworks of hacker artists are facing the complicacies to be defined or categorized. Content analysis of the hacker manifesto (a short historical essay written by a hacker) and two hacker art projects has been conducted to find out the issues surrounding the key research questions. The paper ends with discussing the findings and possible solutions to the challenges hacker artists facing.

Keywords: media art, hacker art, hacker artist, new media

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37 An Investigation of the Influence of the Iranian 1979 Revolution on Tehran’s Public Art

Authors: M. Sohrabi Narciss

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Urban spaces of Tehran, the capital of Iran, have witnessed many revolts, movements, and protests during the past few decades. After the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, the 1979 Revolution has had a profound impact on Tehran’s urban space. In 1979, the world watched as Iranians demonstrated en masse against the Pahlavi dynastdy which eventually led to its overthrow. Tehran’s public space is replete with images and artwork that depict the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime and the establishment of an Islamic government in Iran. The public artworks related to the 1979 Islamic Revolution reflect the riots, protests, and strikes that the Iranians underwent during the revolution. Many of these artworks try to revitalize the events that occurred in the 1970s by means of collective memory. Almost 4 decades have passed since the revolution and ever since the public artwork has been affected either directly or indirectly by the Iran-Iraq War, the Green Movement, and the rise and fall of various political forces. The present study is an attempt to investigate Tehran’s urban artwork such as urban sculptures and mural paintings organized and supervised by the government and the graffiti drawn by the critics or the opposition groups. To this end, in addition to the available documents, field research and questionnaires were used to qulaitatively analyze the data. This paper tries to address the following questions: 1) what changes have occurred in Tehran’s urban art? 2) Does the public, revolution-related artwork have an effect on people’s vitality? 3) do Iranians find these artworks appealing or not?

Keywords: public space, Tehran, public art, movement, Islamic revolution

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36 Covid-19 Lockdown Experience of Elderly Female as Reflected in Their Artwork

Authors: Liat Shamri-Zeevi, Neta Ram-Vlasov

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Today the world as a whole is attempting to cope with the COVID-19, which has affected all facets of personal and social life from country-wide confinement to maintaining social distance and taking protective measures to maintain hygiene. One of the populations faced with the most severe restrictions is seniors. Various studies have shown that creativity plays a crucial role in dealing with crisis events. Painting - regardless of media - allows for emotional and cognitive processing of these situations, and enables the expression of experiences in a tangible creative way that conveys and endows meaning to the artwork. The current study was conducted in Israel immediately after a 6-week lockdown. It was designed to specifically examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life of elderly women as reflected in their artworks. The sample was composed of 21 Israeli women aged 60-90, in good mental health (without diagnosed dementia or Alzheimer's), all of whom were Hebrew-speaking, and retired with an extended family, who indicated that they painted and had engaged in artwork on an ongoing basis throughout the lockdown (from March 12 to May 30, 2020). The participants' artworks were collected, and a semi-structured in-depth interview was conducted that lasted one to two hours. The participants were asked about their feelings during the pandemic and the artworks they produced during this time, and completed a questionnaire on well-being and mental health. The initial analysis of the interviews and artworks revealed themes related to the specific role of each piece of artwork. The first theme included notions that the artwork was an activity and a framework for doing, which supported positive emotions, and provided a sense of vitality during the closure. Most of the participants painted images of nature and growth which were ascribed concrete and symbolic meaning. The second theme was that the artwork enabled the processing of difficult and /or conflicting emotions related to the situation, including anxiety about death and loneliness that were symbolically expressed in the artworks, such as images of the Corona virus and the respiratory machines. The third theme suggested that the time and space prompted by the lockdown gave the participants time for a gathering together of the self, and freed up time for creative activities. Many participants stated that they painted more and more frequently during the Corona lockdown. At the conference, additional themes and findings will be presented.

Keywords: Corona virus, artwork, quality of life of elderly

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35 Intertwined Lives: Narratives of Children with Disabilities and Their Siblings

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi

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The experiences of children with disabilities and their siblings are seldom documented in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to uncover the narratives of young children with disabilities and their siblings in Sri Lanka. Fifteen children with disabilities and fifteen siblings were included in this study. Opportunities were offered to the participants to engage in artwork and story making activities. Narratives on the artwork and stories were gathered and the data analyzed using the key principles of Framework Analysis to determine the key themes. The key themes to emerge were of love, protectiveness, insecurity and visibility. The results highlight the need to take account of the experiences of children with disabilities and their siblings to understand how they understand and cope with disability.

Keywords: art, children with disabilities, narratives, siblings, storymaking

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34 Researching and Interpreting Art: Analyzing Whose Voice Matters

Authors: Donna L. Roberts

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Beyond the fundamental question of what is (and what isn’t) art, one then moves to the question of what about art, or a specific artwork, matters. If there is an agreement that something is art, the next step is to answer the obvious, ‘So what? What does it mean?’ In answering these questions, one must decide how to focus the proverbial microscope –i.e., what level of perspective is relevant as a point of view for this analysis- the artwork itself, the artist’s intention, the viewer’s interpretation, the artwork’s reflection of the larger artistic movement, the social, political, and historical context of art? One must determine what product and what contexts are meaningful when experiencing and interpreting art. Is beauty really in the eye of the beholder? Or is it more important what the creator was trying to say than what the critic or observer heard? The fact that so many artists –from Rembrandt to Van Gogh to Picasso- include among their works at least one self-portrait seems to scream their point –I matter. But, Is a piece more impactful because of the persona behind it? Or does that persona impose limits and close one’s mind to the possibilities of interpretation? In the popular art text visual culture, Richard Howells argues against a biographical focus on the artist in the analysis of art. Similarly, abstract expressionist Mark Rothko, along with several of his contemporaries of the genre, often did not title his paintings for the express purpose of not imposing a specific meaning or interpretation on the piece. And yet, he once said, ‘The people who weep before my pictures are having the same religious experience I had when I painted them,’ thus alluding to a desire for a shared connection and revelation. This research analyzes the arguments for differing levels of interpretation and points of view when considering a work of art and/or the artist who created it.

Keywords: art analysis, art interpretation, art theory, artistic perspective

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33 The Art of Contemporary Arabic Calligraphy in Oman: Salman Alhajri as an Example

Authors: Salman Amur Alhajri

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Purpose: This paper explores the art of contemporary Arabic calligraphy in Oman. It explains the aesthetic features of Arabic calligraphy as a unique icon of Islamic art. This paper also explores the profile of one Omani artist, Salman Alhajri, as an example of Omani artists who have developed unique styles in this art stream. Methodology and approach: The paper is based on a theoretical study using a descriptive and case-study approach. Omani artists are fascinated by the art forms of Arabic calligraphy, which combine both spiritual meaning and aesthetic beauty. Artist Salman Alhajri is an example of a contemporary Arabic artist who uses Arabic calligraphy as the main theme in his art. Dr. Alhajri is trying to introduce the beauty of Arabic letters from a new aesthetic point of view. He also aims to create unusual visual effects that viewers can easily interact with. Even though words and phrases appear in Alhajri’s artwork, they are not conveying direct meanings: viewers can create their own meaning or expressions from them by appreciating the compositions of the artwork. Results: Arabic writing is directly related to the identity of Omani artists and their cultural background. This paper shows how the beauty of Arabic letters comes from its indefinite possibilities in designing calligraphic expressions, even within a single word, because letters can be stretched and transformed in various ways to create different compositions. Omani artists are interested in employing new media applications in this kind of practice to find new techniques for creating artwork based on Arabic writing. It is really important for all Omani artists to practice this art style because Arabic calligraphy and its flexibility introduce infinite possibilities that involve further exploration and investigation.

Keywords: Islamic art, contemporary Arabic calligraphy, new techniques, Omani artist

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32 Evaluating the Use of Digital Art Tools for Drawing to Enhance Artistic Ability and Improve Digital Skill among Junior School Students

Authors: Aber Salem Aboalgasm, Rupert Ward

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This study investigated some results of the use of digital art tools by junior school children in order to discover if these tools could promote artistic ability and creativity. The study considers the ease of use and usefulness of the tools as well as how to assess artwork produced by digital means. As the use of these tools is a relatively new development in Art education, this study may help educators in their choice of which tools to use and when to use them. The study also aims to present a model for the assessment of students’ artistic development and creativity by studying their artistic activity. This model can help in determining differences in students’ creative ability and could be useful both for teachers, as a means of assessing digital artwork, and for students, by providing the motivation to use the tools to their fullest extent. Sixteen students aged nine to ten years old were observed and recorded while they used the digital drawing tools. The study found that, according to the students’ own statements, it was not the ease of use but the successful effects the tools provided which motivated the children to use them.

Keywords: artistic ability, creativity, drawing digital tool, TAM model, psychomotor domain

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31 Beyond the White Cube: A Study on the Site Specific Curatorial Practice of Kochi Muziris Biennale

Authors: Girish Chandran, Milu Tigi

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Brian O'Doherty's seminal essay, Inside the white Cube theorized and named the dominant mode of display and exhibition of Modern Art museums. Ever since the advent of Biennales and other site-specific public art projects we have seen a departure from the white cube mode of exhibition. The physicality, materiality and context within which an artwork is framed has a role in the production of meaning of public art. Equally, artworks contribute to the meaning and identity of a place. This to and fro relationship between the site and artwork and its influence on the sense of place and production of meaning is being explored in this paper in the context of Kochi Muziris Biennale (KMB). Known as the Peoples biennale with over 5 lakh visitors, it is India's first Biennale and its largest art exhibition of contemporary art. The paper employs place theory and contemporary curatorial theories to present the case. The KMB has an interesting mix of exhibition spaces which includes existing galleries and halls, site-specific projects in public spaces, infill developments and adaptive reuse of heritage and other unused architecture. The biennale was envisioned as an event connecting to the history, socio-political peculiarities of the cultural landscape of Kerala and more specifically Kochi. The paper explains the role of spatial elements in forming a curatorial narrative connected to the above mentioned ambitions.The site-specific nature of exhibition and its use of unused architecture helps in the formation of exhibition spaces unique in type and materiality. The paper argues how this helps in the creation of an 'archeology of the place'. The research elucidates how a composite nature of experience helps connect with the thematic ambitions of the Biennale and how it brings about an aesthetics distinct to KMB.

Keywords: public art, curatorial practice, architecture, place, contemporary art, site specificity

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30 Experiences Using Autoethnography as a Methodology for Research in Education

Authors: Sarah Amodeo

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Drawing on the author’s research about the experiences of female immigrant students in academic Adult Education, in Montreal, Quebec, this paper deconstructs the benefits of autoethnography as a methodology for educators in Adult Education. Autoethnography is an advantageous methodology for teachers in Adult Education as it allows for deep engagement, allowing for educators to reflect on student experiences and their day-to-day realities, and in turn, allowing for professional development, improved andragogy, and changes to classroom practices. Autoethnography is a qualitative research methodology that cultivates strategies for improving adult learning. The paper begins by outlining the context that inspired autoethnography for the author’s work, highlighting the emergence of autoethnography as a method, while examining how it is evolving and drawing on foundational work that continues to inspire research. The basic autoethnographic methodologies that are explored in this paper include the use of memory work in episode formation, the use of personal photographs, and textual readings of artworks. Memory work allows for the researcher to use their professional experience and the lived/shared experiences of their students in their research, drawing on episodes from their past. Personal photographs and descriptions of artwork allow researchers to explore images of learning environments/realities in ways that compliment student experiences. Major findings of the text are examined through the analysis of categories of autoethnography. Specific categories include realism, impressionism, and conceptualism which aid in orientating the analysis and emergent themes that develop through self-study. Finally, the text presents a discussion surrounding the limitations of autoethnography, with attention to the trustworthiness and ethical issues. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of autoethnography for adult educators in juxtaposition with youth sector work.

Keywords: artwork, autoethnography, conceptualism, episode formation, impressionism, memory work, personal photographs, and realism, realism

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29 Using Arts in ESL Classroom

Authors: Nazia Shehzad

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Language and art can supplement and correlate each other. Through the ages art has been a means of visual expression used to convey a wide series of incarnated ideas. Art can take the perceiver into different times and into different worlds. It can also be used to introduce different levels of vocabulary to the learners of a second language. Learning a second language for most students is a very difficult and strenuous experience. They are not only trying to accommodate to a new language but are also trying to adjust to themselves and a new environment. They are anxious about almost everything, but they are especially self-conscious about their performance in the classroom. By relocating the focus from the student to an object, everyone participates, thus waiving a certain degree of self-consciousness. The experience, a student has with art in the classroom has to be gratifying for both the student and the teacher. If the atmosphere in the classroom is too grave it will not serve any useful purpose. Art is an excellent way to teach English and encourage collaboration and interaction between students of all ages. As making art involves many different processes, it is wonderful for classification and following/giving instructions. It is also an effective way to achieve and implement language of characterization and comparison and vocabulary acquirement for the elements of design (shape, size, color, texture, tone etc.) is so much more entertaining if done in a practical and hands-on way. Expressing ideas and feelings through art is also of immeasurable value where students are at the beginning stages of English language acquisition and for many of my Saudi students it was a form of therapy. It is also a way to respect, search, examine and share the cultural traditions of different cultures, and of the students themselves. Art not only provides a field for ideas to keep aimless, meandering minds of students' busy but is also a productive tool to analyze English language in a new order. As an ESL teacher, using art is a highly compelling way to bridge the gap between student and teacher. It’s difficult to keep students concentrated, especially when they speak a different language. To get students to actually learn and explore something in your foreign language lesson, artwork is your best friend. Many teachers feel that through amalgamation of the arts into their academic lessons students are able to learn more profoundly because they use diverse ways of thinking and problem solving. Teachers observe that drawing often retains students who might otherwise be dispassionate and can help students move ahead simple recall when they are asked to make connections and come up with an exclusive interpretation through an artwork or drawing. Students use observation skills when they are drawing, and this can help to persuade students who might otherwise remain silent or need more time to process information.

Keywords: amalgamation of arts, expressing ideas and feelings through arts, effective way to achieve and implement language, language and art can supplement and correlate each other

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28 Popularization of the Communist Manifesto in 19th Century Europe

Authors: Xuanyu Bai

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“The Communist Manifesto”, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is one of the most significant documents throughout the whole history which covers across different fields including Economic, Politic, Sociology and Philosophy. Instead of discussing the Communist ideas presented in the Communist Manifesto, the essay focuses on exploring the reasons that contributed to the popularization of the document and its influence on political revolutions in 19th century Europe by concentrating on the document itself along with other primary and secondary sources and temporal artwork. Combining the details from the Communist Manifesto and other documents, Marx’s writing style and word choice, his convincible notions about a new society dominated by proletariats, and the revolutionary idea of class destruction has led to the popularization of the Communist Manifesto and influenced the latter political revolutions.

Keywords: communist manifesto, Marx, Engels, capitalism

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27 Of Love and Isolation: Narratives of Siblings of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Sri Lanka

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi

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Aim: Siblings of children with cerebral palsy are often in the periphery of discussions; their views not always taken into account. The aim of this study was to uncover the narratives of young siblings of children with cerebral palsy in Sri Lanka. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and artwork were gathered from 10 children who have siblings diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The data was analyzed using the key principles of Framework Analysis to determine the key themes within the narratives. Results: The key themes to emerge were complex and nuanced. These included themes of love and feeling of protectiveness; jealousy and uncertainly; guilt and hope. Conclusions: The results highlight the need to take document the views of siblings who are often on the margins of the family and of family decisions and discussions. It also supports the need to offer safe spaces and opportunities for siblings of children with disabilities to express their feelings and to receive support where required.

Keywords: disability, grandmothers, mothers, narratives, women

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26 Migrant Women English Instructors' Transformative Workplace Learning Experiences in Post-Secondary English Language Programs in Ontario, Canada

Authors: Justine Jun

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This study aims to reveal migrant women English instructors' workplace learning experiences in Canadian post-secondary institutions in Ontario. Although many scholars have conducted research studies on internationally educated teachers and their professional and employment challenges, few studies have recorded migrant women English language instructors’ professional learning and support experiences in post-secondary English language programs in Canada. This study employs a qualitative research paradigm. Mezirow’s Transformative Learning Theory is an essential lens for the researcher to explain, analyze, and interpret the research data. It is a collaborative research project. The researcher and participants cooperatively create photographic or other artwork data responding to the research questions. Photovoice and arts-informed data collection methodology are the main methods. Research participants engage in the study as co-researchers and inquire about their own workplace learning experiences, actively utilizing their critical self-reflective and dialogic skills. Co-researchers individually select the forms of artwork they prefer to engage with to represent their transformative workplace learning experiences about the Canadian workplace cultures that they underwent while working with colleagues and administrators in the workplace. Once the co-researchers generate their cultural artifacts as research data, they collaboratively interpret their artworks with the researcher and other volunteer co-researchers. Co-researchers jointly investigate the themes emerging from the artworks. They also interpret the meanings of their own and others’ workplace learning experiences embedded in the artworks through interactive one-on-one or group interviews. The following are the research questions that the migrant women English instructor participants examine and answer: (1) What have they learned about their workplace culture and how do they explain their learning experiences?; (2) How transformative have their learning experiences been at work?; (3) How have their colleagues and administrators influenced their transformative learning?; (4) What kind of support have they received? What supports have been valuable to them and what changes would they like to see?; (5) What have their learning experiences transformed?; (6) What has this arts-informed research process transformed? The study findings implicate English language instructor support currently practiced in post-secondary English language programs in Ontario, Canada, especially for migrant women English instructors. This research is a doctoral empirical study in progress. This research has the urgency to address the research problem that few studies have investigated migrant English instructors’ professional learning and support issues in the workplace, precisely that of English instructors working with adult learners in Canada. While appropriate social and professional support for migrant English instructors is required throughout the country, the present workplace realities in Ontario's English language programs need to be heard soon. For that purpose, the conceptualization of this study is crucial. It makes the investigation of under-represented instructors’ under-researched social phenomena, workplace learning and support, viable and rigorous. This paper demonstrates the robust theorization of English instructors’ workplace experiences using Mezirow’s Transformative Learning Theory in the English language teacher education field.

Keywords: English teacher education, professional learning, transformative learning theory, workplace learning

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25 Equality, Friendship, and Violence in Slash or Yaoi Fan Art

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed

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Slash or Yaoi fan art is the artwork that contains a homosexual relationship between fictional male characters, which were heterosexual in the original media. Previous belief about Slash or Yaoi fan art is that the fan fiction writers and the fan artists need to see the equality in romantic relationship. They do not prefer the pairing of man and woman, since both genders are not equal. The objectives of the current study are to confirm this belief, and to examine the relationship between equality found in Slash fan art, friendship in original media, and violence contained in fan art. Mean comparisons show that equality could be found in the pairing of hero and hero, but rarely found in the pairing of hero and villain. Regression analysis shows that the level of equality in fan art and friendship in original media are significant predictors of violence contained in fan art. Since villain-related pairings yield a high level of violence in fan art and a low level of equality, researchers of future studies should find the strategies to prevent fans to include villains in their Slash or Yaoi fan art.

Keywords: equality, fan art, slash, violence, yaoi

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24 Communicating Through Symbolisms in Anthropoligical Medicine with Reference to Traditional Performances of Wayang Kulit, Main Puteri and Kuda Kepang

Authors: M. G. Nasuruddin, S. Ishak

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In anthropological medicine (traditional therapeutic healing) symbolic interface are used to connect with the cognitive and metacognitive mechanisms to activate conscious and unconscious response of patients or other recipients. At the same time they are used to communicate with the inhabitants of the nether world to whom are ascribed almost all cases of psychosomatic illness. The symbols, which are cultural specific, are divided into verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. The verbal forms are chanting of mantra and doa and the invocation to invoke the spirits while the non-verbal ones are the physical materials such as the offerings, props and decorative elements, music, movements, olfactory sensation and the performance space. The process of communication through these symbols is affected by the Shaman who is a link or intermediary between the healer (Shaman) and the patients and between the healer and the spirits of the nether world. The paper also examines the scientific perspective of the traditional healing through the use of these symbols. The response to these symbols as external stimuli is embedded in the genes that are linked to the hereditary factor in the person’s DNA. When the patients are tuned in to external stimuli such as music, chanting and singing (sonic orders), it can triggers a response from the brain, which may activate its inner pharmacy by releasing drugs such as dopamine and/or opiodsto ameliorate pain and counter depression, anxiety and create a feel good feeling. These symbols act like placebo, evoking the power of the mind over the body and triggering the innate self-healing energy. At the same time they could also be used as nocebo, for example black magic, which has the opposite effect of placebo. In whatever capacity they operate these symbols, which are either visual or auditory, is an integral part of anthropological medicine. For they communicate and conjure emotional responses that are conducive to healing by activating the internal brain pharmacy.

Keywords: communication, healing, placebo, nacebo, symbol

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23 RE:SOUNDING a 2000-Year-Old Vietnamese Dong Son Bronze Drum; Artist-Led Collaborations outside the Museum to Challenge the Impasse of Repatriating and Rematriating Cultural Instruments

Authors: H. A. J. Nguyen, V. A. Pham

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RE:SOUNDING is an ongoing research project and artwork seeking to return the sound and knowledge of Dong Son bronze drums back to contemporary musicians. Colonial collections of ethnographic instruments are problematic in how they commit acts of conceptual, cultural, and acoustic silencing. The collection (or more honestly), the plagiarism, and pillaging of these instruments have systemically separated them from living and breathing cultures. This includes diasporic communities, who have come to resettle in close proximity - but still have little access - to the museums and galleries that display their cultural objects. Despite recent attempts to 'open up' and 'recognise' the tensions and violence of these ethnographic collections, many museums continue to structurally organize and reproduce knowledge with the same procedural distance and limitations of imperial condescension. Impatient with the slowness of these museums, our diaspora led collaborations participated in the opaque economy of the auction market to gain access and begin the process of digitally recording and archiving the actual sounds of the ancient Dong Son drum. This self-directed, self-initiated artwork not only acoustically reinvigorated an ancient instrument but redistributed these sonic materials back to contemporary musicians, composers, and their diasporic communities throughout Vietnam, South East Asia, and Australia. Our methodologies not only highlight the persistent inflexibility of museum infrastructures but demand that museums refrain from their paternalistic practice of risk-averse ownership, to seriously engage with new technologies and political formations that require all public institutions to be held accountable for the ethical and intellectual viability of their colonial collections. The integrated and practical resolve of diasporic artists and their communities are more than capable of working with new technologies to reclaim and reinvigorate what is culturally and spiritually theirs. The motivation to rematriate – as opposed to merely repatriate – the acoustic legacies of these instruments to contemporary musicians and artists is a new model for decolonial and restorative practices. Exposing the inadequacies of western scholarship that continues to treat these instruments as discreet, disembodied, and detached artifacts, these collaborative strategies have thus far produced a wealth of new knowledge – new to the west perhaps – but not that new to these, our own communities. This includes the little-acknowledged fact that the Dong Son drum were political instruments of war and technology, rather than their simplistic description in the museum and western academia as agrarian instruments of fertility and harvest. Through the collective and continued sharing of knowledge and sound materials produced from this research, these drums are gaining a contemporary relevance beyond the cultural silencing of the museum display cabinet. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge the Wurundjeri and Boon Wurrung of the Kulin Nation and the Gadigal of the Eora Nation where we began this project. We pay our respects to the Peoples, Lands, Traditional Custodians, Practices, and Creator Ancestors of these Great Nations, as well as those First Nations peoples throughout Australia, Vietnam, and Indonesia, where this research continues, and upon whose stolen lands and waterways were never ceded.

Keywords: acoustic archaeology, decolonisation, museum collections, rematriation, repatriation, Dong Son, experimental music, digital recording

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22 Meditation Based Brain Painting Promotes Foreign Language Memory through Establishing a Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Zhepeng Rui, Zhenyu Gu, Caitilin de Bérigny

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In the current study, we designed an interactive meditation and brain painting application to cultivate users’ creativity, promote meditation, reduce stress, and improve cognition while attempting to learn a foreign language. User tests and data analyses were conducted on 42 male and 42 female participants to better understand sex-associated psychological and aesthetic differences. Our method utilized brain-computer interfaces to import meditation and attention data to create artwork in meditation-based applications. Female participants showed statistically significantly different language learning outcomes following three meditation paradigms. The art style of brain painting helped females with language memory. Our results suggest that the most ideal methods for promoting memory attention were meditation methods and brain painting exercises contributing to language learning, memory concentration promotion, and foreign word memorization. We conclude that a short period of meditation practice can help in learning a foreign language. These findings provide new insights into meditation, creative language education, brain-computer interface, and human-computer interactions.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, creative thinking, meditation, mental health

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21 Digital Art Fabric Prints: Procedure, Process and Progress

Authors: Tripti Singh

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Digital tools are merging boundaries of different mediums as endeavoured artists exploring new areas. Digital fabric printing has motivated artists to create prints by combining images acquired by photograph, scanned images, computer graphics and microscopic imaginary etc to name few, with traditional media such as hand drawing, weaving, hand printed patterns, printing making techniques and so on. It opened whole new world of possibilities for artists to search, research and combine old and contemporary mediums for their unique art prints. As artistic medium digital art fabrics have aesthetic values which have impact and influence on not only on a personality but also interiors of a living or work space. In this way it can be worn, as fashion statement and also an interior decoration. Digital art fabric prints gives opportunity to print almost everything on any fabric with long lasting prints quality. Single edition and limited editions are possible for maintaining scarcity and uniqueness of an art form. These fabric prints fulfill today’s need, as they are eco-friendly in nature and they produce less wastage compared to traditional fabric printing techniques. These prints can be used to make unique and customized curtains, quilts, clothes, bags, furniture, dolls, pillows, framed artwork, costumes, banners and much, much more. This paper will explore the procedure, process, and progress techniques of digital art fabric printing in depth with suitable pictorial examples.

Keywords: digital art, fabric prints, digital fabric prints, new media

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20 Costume Design Influenced by Seventeenth Century Color Palettes on a Contemporary Stage

Authors: Michele L. Dormaier

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to design costumes based on historic colors used by artists during the seventeenth century. The researcher investigated European art, primarily paintings and portraiture, as well as the color palettes used by the artists. The methodology examined the artists, their work, the color palettes used in their work, and the practices of color usage within their palettes. By examining portraits of historic figures, as well as paintings of ordinary scenes, subjects, and people, further information about color palettes was revealed. Related to the color palettes, was the use of ‘broken colors’ which was a relatively new practice, dating from the sixteenth century. The color palettes used by the artists of the seventeenth century had their limitations due to available pigments. With an examination of not only their artwork, and with a closer look at their palettes, the researcher discovered the exciting choices they made, despite those restrictions. The research was also initiated with the historical elements of the era’s clothing, as well as that of available materials and dyes. These dyes were also limited in much the same manner as the pigments which the artist had at their disposal. The color palettes of the paintings have much to tell us about the lives, status, conditions, and relationships from the past. From this research, informed decisions regarding color choices for a production on a contemporary stage of a period piece could then be made. The designer’s choices were a historic gesture to the colors which might have been worn by the character’s real-life counterparts of the era.

Keywords: broken color palette, costume color research, costume design, costume history, seventeenth century color palette, sixteenth century color palette

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19 The Effects of Scientific Studies on the Future Fashion Trends

Authors: Basak Ozkendirci

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The discovery of chemical dyes, the development of regenerated fibers, and warp knitting technology have enormous effects on the fashion world. The trends created by the information obtained in the context of various studies today shape the fashion world. Trend analysts must follow scientific developments as well as sociological events, political developments and artwork to obtain healthy data on trends. Digital printing technologies have changed the dynamics of textile printing production and also the style of printed designs. Fashion designers already have started design 3D printed accessories and garments. The research fields like the internet of things, artificial intelligence, hologram technologies, mechatronics, energy storage systems, nanotechnology are seen as the technologies that will change the social life and economy of the future. It is clear that research carried out in these areas will affect the textiles of the future and whereat the trends of fashion. The article aims to create a future vision for trend researchers and designers by giving clues about the changes to be experienced in the fashion world. In the first part of the article, information about the scientific studies that are thought to shape the future is given, and the forecasting about how the inventions that can be obtained from these studies can be adapted at the textile are presented. In the second part of the article, examples of how the new generation of innovative textiles will affect the daily life experience of the user are given.

Keywords: biotextiles, fashion trends, nanotextiles, new materials, smart textiles, techno textiles

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18 Society and Cinema in Iran

Authors: Seyedeh Rozhano Azimi Hashemi

Abstract:

There is no doubt that ‘Art’ is a social phenomena and cinema is the most social kind of art. Hence, it’s clear that we can analyze the relation’s of cinema and art from different aspects. In this paper sociological cinema will be investigated which, is a subdivision of sociological art. This term will be discussed by two main approaches. One of these approaches is focused on the effects of cinema on the society, which is known as “Effects Theory” and the second one, which is dealing with the reflection of social issues in cinema is called ” Reflection Theory”. "Reflect theory" approach, unlike "Effects theory" is considering movies as documents, in which social life is reflected, and by analyzing them, the changes and tendencies of a society are understood. Criticizing these approaches to cinema and society doesn’t mean that they are not real. Conversely, it proves the fact that for better understanding of cinema and society’s relation, more complicated models are required, which should consider two aspects. First, they should be bilinear and they should provide a dynamic and active relation between cinema and society, as for the current concept social life and cinema have bi-linear effects on each other, and that’s how they fit in a dialectic and dynamic process. Second, it should pay attention to the role of inductor elements such as small social institutions, marketing, advertisements, cultural pattern, art’s genres and popular cinema in society. In the current study, image of middle class in cinema of Iran and changing the role of women in cinema and society which were two bold issue that cinema and society faced since 1979 revolution till 80s are analyzed. Films as an artwork on one hand, are reflections of social changes and with their effects on the society on the other hand, are trying to speed up the trends of these changes. Cinema by the illustration of changes in ideologies and approaches in exaggerated ways and through it’s normalizing functions, is preparing the audiences and public opinions for the acceptance of these changes. Consequently, audience takes effect from this process, which is a bi-linear and interactive process.

Keywords: Iranian Cinema, Cinema and Society, Middle Class, Woman’s Role

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17 An Investigation of Suppression in Mid-19th Century Japan: Case Study of the 1855 Catfish Prints as a Product of Censorship

Authors: Vasanth Narayanan

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The mid-nineteenth century saw the Japanese elite and townsfolk alike undergo the now-infamous Ansei Edo earthquakes. The quakes decimated Japan in the final decades of the Tokugawa Era and, perhaps more consequentially, birthed a new genre of politically inspired artwork, the most notable of which are the namazu-e. This essay advocates an understanding of the 1855 Catfish Prints (namazu-e) that prioritizes the function of iconography and anthropomorphic deity in shaping the namazu-e into a wholly political experience that makes the censorship of the time part of its argument. The visual program is defined as the creation of a politically profitable experience, crafted through the union of explicit religion, highly masked commentary, and the impositions of censorship. The strategies by which the works are designed, in the face of censorship, to engage a less educated, pedestrian audience with its theme, including considerations of iconography, depictions of the working class, anthropomorphism, and the relationship between textual and visual elements, are discussed herein. The essay then takes up the question of the role of tense Japan–United States relations in fostering censorship and as a driver of the production of namazu-e. It is ultimately understood that the marriage of hefty censorship protocol, the explicitly religious medium, and inimical sentiment towards United States efforts at diplomacy renders the production of namazu-e an offspring of the censorship and deeply held frustrations of the time, cementing its status as a primitive form of peaceful protest against a seemingly apathetic government.

Keywords: Japan, Ansei Earthquake, Namazu, prints, censorship, religion

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16 Forensic Methods Used for the Verification of the Authenticity of Prints

Authors: Olivia Rybak-Karkosz

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This paper aims to present the results of scientific research on methods of forging art prints and their elements, such as signature or provenance and forensic science methods that might be used to verify their authenticity. In the last decades, the art market has observed significant interest in purchasing prints. They are considered an economical alternative to paintings and a considerable investment. However, the authenticity of an art print is difficult to establish as similar visual effects might be achieved with drawings or xerox. The latter is easy to make using a home printer. They are then offered on flea markets or internet auctions as genuine prints. This probable ease of forgery and, at the same time, the difficulty of distinguishing art print techniques were the main reasons why this research was undertaken. A lack of scientific methods dedicated to disclosing a forgery encouraged the author to verify the possibility of using forensic science's methods known and used in other fields of expertise. This research methodology consisted of completing representative forgery samples collected in selected museums based in Poland and a few in Germany and Austria. That allowed the author to present a typology of methods used to forge art prints. Given that one of the most famous graphic design examples is bills and securities, it seems only appropriate to propose in print verification the usage of methods of detecting counterfeit currency. These methods contain an examination of ink, paper, and watermarks. On prints, additionally, signatures and imprints of stamps, etc., are forged as well. So the examination should be completed with handwriting examination and forensic sphragistics. The paper contains a stipulation to conduct a complex analysis of authenticity with the participation of an art restorer, art historian, and forensic expert as head of this team.

Keywords: art forgery, examination of an artwork, handwriting analysis, prints

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15 Digitizing Masterpieces in Italian Museums: Techniques, Challenges and Consequences from Giotto to Caravaggio

Authors: Ginevra Addis

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The possibility of reproducing physical artifacts in a digital format is one of the opportunities offered by the technological advancements in information and communication most frequently promoted by museums. Indeed, the study and conservation of our cultural heritage have seen significant advancement due to the three-dimensional acquisition and modeling technology. A variety of laser scanning systems has been developed, based either on optical triangulation or on time-of-flight measurement, capable of producing digital 3D images of complex structures with high resolution and accuracy. It is necessary, however, to explore the challenges and opportunities that this practice brings within museums. The purpose of this paper is to understand what change is introduced by digital techniques in those museums that are hosting digital masterpieces. The methodology used will investigate three distinguished Italian exhibitions, related to the territory of Milan, trying to analyze the following issues about museum practices: 1) how digitizing art masterpieces increases the number of visitors; 2) what the need that calls for the digitization of artworks; 3) which techniques are most used; 4) what the setting is; 5) the consequences of a non-publication of hard copies of catalogues; 6) envision of these practices in the future. Findings will show how interconnection plays an important role in rebuilding a collection spread all over the world. Secondly how digital artwork duplication and extension of reality entail new forms of accessibility. Thirdly, that collection and preservation through digitization of images have both a social and educational mission. Fourthly, that convergence of the properties of different media (such as web, radio) is key to encourage people to get actively involved in digital exhibitions. The present analysis will suggest further research that should create museum models and interaction spaces that act as catalysts for innovation.

Keywords: digital masterpieces, education, interconnection, Italian museums, preservation

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14 Non-Invasive Techniques of Analysis of Painting in Forensic Fields

Authors: Radka Sefcu, Vaclava Antuskova, Ivana Turkova

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A growing market with modern artworks of a high price leads to the creation and selling of artwork counterfeits. Material analysis is an important part of the process of assessment of authenticity. Knowledge of materials and techniques used by original authors is also necessary. The contribution presents possibilities of non-invasive methods of structural analysis in research on paintings. It was proved that unambiguous identification of many art materials is feasible without sampling. The combination of Raman spectroscopy with FTIR-external reflection enabled the identification of pigments and binders on selected artworks of prominent Czech painters from the first half of the 20th century – Josef Čapek, Emil Filla, Václav Špála and Jan Zrzavý. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of a wide range of white pigments - lead white, zinc white, titanium white, barium white and also Freeman's white as a special white pigment of painting. Good results were obtained for red, blue and most of the yellow areas. Identification of green pigments was often impossible due to strong fluorescence. Oil was confirmed as a binding medium on most of the analyzed artworks via FTIR - external reflection. Collected data present the valuable background for the determination of art materials characteristic for each painter (his palette) and its development over time. Obtained results will further serve as comparative material for the authentication of artworks. This work has been financially supported by the project of the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic: The Development of a Strategic Cluster for Effective Instrumental Technological Methods of Forensic Authentication of Modern Artworks (VJ01010004).

Keywords: non-invasive analysis, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR-external reflection, forgeries

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13 Ironic Historiography: On Art, Nationality and In-Between Identities

Authors: Sigal Barkai

Abstract:

'Ironic Historiography' is a hybrid notion combining criticism of historical narratives concerning the Israeli state with ironic artistic expression. The paper will deal with questions of identities of native Israeli visual artists who chose to live out of the country, or to move back and forth to and from it. It will examine the ways these wanderings are reflected in their work. The paper discusses the work of 4 contemporary artists who produce artworks in diverse techniques and media, such as video, performance and installation art. Yael Bartana, Erez Israeli and Tamir Zadok are artists who constantly deal with Israeli nationality and history in their artwork, using ironic components. In comparison, the paper will review the works of Mika Rottenberg, who is now a New York based artist. She is concerned with global social issues and neglected specific national identity altogether. All of them use visual irony as a means of reflecting and criticizing society. The analysis was done in awareness of the life stories of the artists, in an attempt to trace the ways they establish their identities through their art. It was pre-supposed that these identities will be shaped in the in-between space of being an Israeli citizen and a citizen of the world. The study asks how ironic expression appears in their work, what kind of irony do they use and in what ways does it serves them. The methodology combined visual analysis, interviews with the artists, and analyzation of secondary discourses in the media. As theoretical background various fields of knowledge were used, such as literature and language studies, Sociology, and Visual Culture studies. The findings point out that visual and artistic irony has many different goals in the use of historiographic fiction. It can bind an artist to his homeland and native society, or it can help her to detach. It helps healing breaches in the in-between space, or it can be used as a means to completely detach from any identification with a native origin.

Keywords: visual art, irony, identities, Israel

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12 Exploring the Visual Representations of Neon Signs and Its Vernacular Tacit Knowledge of Neon Making

Authors: Brian Kwok

Abstract:

Hong Kong is well-known for its name as "the Pearl of the Orient", due to its spectacular night-view with vast amount of decorative neon lights on the streets. Neon signs are first used as the pervasive media of communication for all kinds of commercial advertising, ranging from movie theatres to nightclubs and department stores, and later appropriated by artists as medium of artwork. As a well-established visual language, it displays texts in bilingual format due to British's colonial influence, which are sometimes arranged in an opposite reading order. Research on neon signs as a visual representation is rare but significant because they are part of people’s collective memories of the unique cityscapes which associate the shifting values of people's daily lives and culture identity. Nevertheless, with the current policy to remove abandoned neon signs, their total number dramatically declines recently. The Buildings Department found an estimation of 120,000 unauthorized signboards (including neon signs) in Hong Kong in 2013, and the removal of such is at a rate of estimated 1,600 per year since 2006. In other words, the vernacular cultural values and historical continuity of neon signs will gradually be vanished if no immediate action is taken in documenting them for the purpose of research and cultural preservation. Therefore, the Hong Kong Neon Signs Archive project was established in June of 2015, and over 100 neon signs are photo-documented so far. By content analysis, this project will explore the two components of neon signs – the use of visual languages and vernacular tacit knowledge of neon makers. It attempts to answer these questions about Hong Kong's neon signs: 'What are the ways in which visual representations are used to produce our cityscapes and streetscapes?'; 'What are the visual languages and conventions of usage in different business types?'; 'What the intact knowledge are applied when producing these visual forms of neon signs?'

Keywords: cityscapes, neon signs, tacit knowledge, visual representation

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