Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: V. A. Pham

47 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim


This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regeneration

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46 Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Using Cu-Nano-Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Jitae Kim


In this study synthesized Cu-nano-zeolite was evaluated for its potential use in CO2 capture. The specific surface area of Cu-nano zeolite was measured as 869.32 m2/g with a pore size of 3.86 nm. The adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was decreased with increasing temperature. The identified adsorption capacity of CO2 by Cu-nano zeolite was 7.16 mmol/g at a temperature of 20 oC and at pressure of 1 atm. The adoption selectivity of CO2 over N2 strongly depend on the temperature and the highest selectivity by Cu-nano zeolite was 50.71 at 20 oC. From analysis of regeneration characteristics of CO2 loaded adsorbent, the percentage removal of CO2 was maintained at more than 78.2 % even after 10 cycles of adsorption-desorption. Based on these result, the Cu-nano zeolite can be used as an effective and economical adsorbent for CO2 capture.

Keywords: CO2 capture, selectivity, Cu-nano zeolite, regeneration.

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
45 Proposed Design of an Optimized Transient Cavity Picosecond Ultraviolet Laser

Authors: Marilou Cadatal-Raduban, Minh Hong Pham, Duong Van Pham, Tu Nguyen Xuan, Mui Viet Luong, Kohei Yamanoi, Toshihiko Shimizu, Nobuhiko Sarukura, Hung Dai Nguyen


There is a great deal of interest in developing all-solid-state tunable ultrashort pulsed lasers emitting in the ultraviolet (UV) region for applications such as micromachining, investigation of charge carrier relaxation in conductors, and probing of ultrafast chemical processes. However, direct short-pulse generation is not as straight forward in solid-state gain media as it is for near-IR tunable solid-state lasers such as Ti:sapphire due to the difficulty of obtaining continuous wave laser operation, which is required for Kerr lens mode-locking schemes utilizing spatial or temporal Kerr type nonlinearity. In this work, the transient cavity method, which was reported to generate ultrashort laser pulses in dye lasers, is extended to a solid-state gain medium. Ce:LiCAF was chosen among the rare-earth-doped fluoride laser crystals emitting in the UV region because of its broad tunability (from 280 to 325 nm) and enough bandwidth to generate 3-fs pulses, sufficiently large effective gain cross section (6.0 x10⁻¹⁸ cm²) favorable for oscillators, and a high saturation fluence (115 mJ/cm²). Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the spectro-temporal evolution of the broadband UV laser emission from Ce:LiCAF, represented as a system of two homogeneous broadened singlet states, by solving the rate equations extended to multiple wavelengths. The goal is to find the appropriate cavity length and Q-factor to achieve the optimal photon cavity decay time and pumping energy for resonator transients that will lead to ps UV laser emission from a Ce:LiCAF crystal pumped by the fourth harmonics (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser. Results show that a single ps pulse can be generated from a 1-mm, 1 mol% Ce³⁺-doped LiCAF crystal using an output coupler with 10% reflectivity (low-Q) and an oscillator cavity that is 2-mm long (short cavity). This technique can be extended to other fluoride-based solid-state laser gain media.

Keywords: rare-earth-doped fluoride gain medium, transient cavity, ultrashort laser, ultraviolet laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
44 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani


Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: dry reforming of methane, microwave discharge, plasma technology, synthesis gas production

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43 Improvement in Ni (II) Adsorption Capacity by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Jitae Kim, Chi-Hyeon Lee


Fe-nano zeolite adsorbent was used for removal of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the surface area Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) using for analysis of functional groups, morphology and surface area. Bath adsorption experiments were analyzed on the effect of pH, time, adsorbent doses and initial Ni (II) concentration. The optimum pH for Ni (II) removal using Fe-nano zeolite was found at 5.0 and 90 min of reaction time. The maximum adsorption capacity of Ni (II) was 231.68 mg/g based on the Langmuir isotherm. The kinetics data for the adsorption process was fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. The desorption of Ni (II) from Ni-loaded Fe-nano zeolite was analyzed and even after 10 cycles 72 % desorption was achieved. These finding supported that Fe-nano zeolite with high adsorption capacity, high reuse ability would be utilized for Ni (II) removal from water.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, Ni (II) removal, regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
42 Historical Landscape Affects Present Tree Density in Paddy Field

Authors: Ha T. Pham, Shuichi Miyagawa


Ongoing landscape transformation is one of the major causes behind disappearance of traditional landscapes, and lead to species and resource loss. Tree in paddy fields in the northeast of Thailand is one of those traditional landscapes. Using three different historical time layers, we acknowledged the severe deforestation and rapid urbanization happened in the region. Despite the general thinking of decline in tree density as consequences, the heterogeneous trend of changes in total tree density in three studied landscapes denied the hypothesis that number of trees in paddy field depend on the length of land use practice. On the other hand, due to selection of planting new trees on levees, existence of trees in paddy field are now rely on their values for human use. Besides, changes in land use and landscape structure had a significant impact on decision of which tree density level is considered as suitable for the landscape.

Keywords: aerial photographs, land use change, traditional landscape, tree in paddy fields

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
41 Model of Optimal Centroids Approach for Multivariate Data Classification

Authors: Pham Van Nha, Le Cam Binh


Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based stochastic optimization algorithm. PSO was inspired by the natural behavior of birds and fish in migration and foraging for food. PSO is considered as a multidisciplinary optimization model that can be applied in various optimization problems. PSO’s ideas are simple and easy to understand but PSO is only applied in simple model problems. We think that in order to expand the applicability of PSO in complex problems, PSO should be described more explicitly in the form of a mathematical model. In this paper, we represent PSO in a mathematical model and apply in the multivariate data classification. First, PSOs general mathematical model (MPSO) is analyzed as a universal optimization model. Then, Model of Optimal Centroids (MOC) is proposed for the multivariate data classification. Experiments were conducted on some benchmark data sets to prove the effectiveness of MOC compared with several proposed schemes.

Keywords: analysis of optimization, artificial intelligence based optimization, optimization for learning and data analysis, global optimization

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40 Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Parametric Programming Based Cascade Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Dao Phuong Nam, Do Trong Tan, Pham Tam Thanh, Le Duy Tung, Tran Hoang Anh


This paper considers the problem of cascade control system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Due to the complicated modelling technique of UAV, it is necessary to separate them into two subsystems. The proposed cascade control structure is a hierarchical scheme including a robust control for inner subsystem based on H infinity theory and trajectory generator using genetic algorithm (GA), outer loop control law based on multi-parametric programming (MPP) technique to overcome the disadvantage of a big amount of calculations. Simulation results are presented to show that the equivalent path has been found and obtained by proposed cascade control scheme.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, GA, H infinity, multi-parametric programming, MPP, unmanned aerial vehicles, UAVs

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
39 Combination Approach Using Experiments and Optimal Experimental Design to Optimize Chemical Concentration in Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Process

Authors: H. Tai Pham, Bae Wisup, Sungmin Jung, Ivan Efriza, Ratna Widyaningsih, Byung Un Min


The middle-phase-microemulsion in Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) solution and oil play important roles in the success of an ASP flooding process. The high quality microemulsion phase has ultralow interfacial tensions and it can increase oil recovery. The research used optimal experimental design and response-surface-methodology to predict the optimum concentration of chemicals in ASP solution for maximum microemulsion quality. Secondly, this optimal ASP formulation was implemented in core flooding test to investigate the effective injection volume. As the results, the optimum concentration of surfactants in the ASP solution is 0.57 wt.% and the highest effective injection volume is 19.33% pore volume.

Keywords: optimize, ASP, response surface methodology, solubilization ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
38 Evolution of Pop Art Pattern on Modern Ao Dai

Authors: Mai Anh Pham Ho


Ao Dai is the traditional dress of Vietnamese women that consists of a long tunic with slits on either side and wide trousers. This is the Vietnamese national costume which most common worn by women in daily life. The Vietnamese men may wear Ao Dai on special occasions like New Year Eve or Wedding Ceremony. Ao Dai is one of the few Vietnamese words that appear in English language dictionaries. Nowadays, there are variations in modern Ao Dai that consist of a short tunic on knee and slim trousers with the other materials like kaki or jeans. This paper aims to apply Pop art pattern on modern Ao Dai through the image of Vietnamese women by modifying the creation process of fashion design. It reflects on how modern culture is involved in Ao Dai and how it affects on fashion design. The research method of this paper is done through surveying the various examples of technological applications to fashion design, then the pop art pattern with the image of Vietnamese women is applied on modern Ao Dai. The results of this paper have shown through the collection of modern Ao Dai with three artworks applied the pop art pattern. In conclusion, the role of fashion technology supports and evolves the traditional value in order to establish the Vietnamese national personality as well as distinguish to other cultural values in the world.

Keywords: pop art pattern, Vietnamese national costume, modern ao dai, fashion design

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37 Influence of Confined Acoustic Phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Doped Semiconductor Superlattice

Authors: Pham Ngoc Thang, Le Thai Hung, Nguyen Quang Bau


The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.

Keywords: Shubnikov–de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations, quantum kinetic equation, confined acoustic phonons, laser radiation, doped semiconductor superlattices

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36 Review of K0-Factors and Related Nuclear Data of the Selected Radionuclides for Use in K0-NAA

Authors: Manh-Dung Ho, Van-Giap Pham, Van-Doanh Ho, Quang-Thien Tran, Tuan-Anh Tran


The k0-factors and related nuclear data, i.e. the Q0-factors and effective resonance energies (Ēr) of the selected radionuclides which are used in the k0-based neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA), were critically reviewed to be integrated in the “k0-DALAT” software. The k0- and Q0-factors of some short-lived radionuclides: 46mSc, 110Ag, 116m2In, 165mDy, and 183mW, were experimentally determined at the Dalat research reactor. The other radionuclides selected are: 20F, 36S, 49Ca, 60mCo, 60Co, 75Se, 77mSe, 86mRb, 115Cd, 115mIn, 131Ba, 134mCs, 134Cs, 153Gd, 153Sm, 159Gd, 170Tm, 177mYb, 192Ir, 197mHg, 239U and 239Np. The reviewed data as compared with the literature data were biased within 5.6-7.3% in which the experimental re-determined factors were within 6.1 and 7.3%. The NIST standard reference materials: Oyster Tissue (1566b), Montana II Soil (2711a) and Coal Fly Ash (1633b) were used to validate the new reviewed data showing that the new data gave an improved k0-NAA using the “k0-DALAT” software with a factor of 4.5-6.8% for the investigated radionuclides.

Keywords: neutron activation analysis, k0-based method, k0 factor, Q0 factor, effective resonance energy

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35 State Budget Accounting: Factors Affected and Basic Orientation to Vietnamese Public Sector Entities

Authors: Pham Quang Huy


State budget is considered as an effective tool for controlling, adjusting and regulating the market economy of any countries. To ensure that the activities of the state in the fields of politics, economy and society has been efficiency, it requires major sources of certain budget. These financial funds are formed from tax revenues and tax revenues beyond. Therefore, the Governments need to have an accounting regime to manage the receipt, expenditure which are suitable for recording a full range of items. From that, it can help to increase the transparency and accountability in budget system. One of the main requirements in Vietnamese policies is to improve that accounting system of revenues and expenditures which can provide many reports to meet the information required of government and users, as well as directions to the trends of international standards requirements. By using quantitative research methods and analytical models to exploring factors, the main purpose of this article is to identify the factors affecting budget accounting and providing some direction for Vietnamese public sector in the future. The results indicated that Vietnam budget accounting has been impacted by seven factors and aims to implement three main orientations in the public sector units.

Keywords: state budget, accounting, IPSAS, budget management, government, public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
34 A Unified Deep Framework for Joint 3d Pose Estimation and Action Recognition from a Single Color Camera

Authors: Huy Hieu Pham, Houssam Salmane, Louahdi Khoudour, Alain Crouzil, Pablo Zegers, Sergio Velastin


We present a deep learning-based multitask framework for joint 3D human pose estimation and action recognition from color video sequences. Our approach proceeds along two stages. In the first, we run a real-time 2D pose detector to determine the precise pixel location of important key points of the body. A two-stream neural network is then designed and trained to map detected 2D keypoints into 3D poses. In the second, we deploy the Efficient Neural Architecture Search (ENAS) algorithm to find an optimal network architecture that is used for modeling the Spatio-temporal evolution of the estimated 3D poses via an image-based intermediate representation and performing action recognition. Experiments on Human3.6M, Microsoft Research Redmond (MSR) Action3D, and Stony Brook University (SBU) Kinect Interaction datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed method on the targeted tasks. Moreover, we show that our method requires a low computational budget for training and inference.

Keywords: human action recognition, pose estimation, D-CNN, deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
33 An Evaluation Model for Automatic Map Generalization

Authors: Quynhan Tran, Hong Fan, Quockhanh Pham


Automatic map generalization is a well-known problem in cartography. The development of map generalization research accompanied the development of cartography. The traditional map is plotted manually by cartographic experts. The paper studies none-scale automation generalization of resident polygons and house marker symbol, proposes methodology to evaluate the result maps based on minimal spanning tree. In this paper, the minimal spanning tree before and after map generalization is compared to evaluate whether the generalization result maintain the geographical distribution of features. The minimal spanning tree in vector format is firstly converted into a raster format and the grid size is 2mm (distance on the map). The statistical number of matching grid before and after map generalization and the ratio of overlapping grid to the total grids is calculated. Evaluation experiments are conduct to verify the results. Experiments show that this methodology can give an objective evaluation for the feature distribution and give specialist an hand while they evaluate result maps of none-scale automation generalization with their eyes.

Keywords: automatic cartography generalization, evaluation model, geographic feature distribution, minimal spanning tree

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32 Factors Influencing the Voluntary Disclosure of Vietnamese Listed Companies

Authors: Pham Duc Hieu, Do Thi Huong Lan


The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting the extent of voluntary disclosure by examining the annual reports of 205 industrial and manufacturing companies listing on Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HSX) and Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX) for the year end of 2012. Those factors include company size, profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, and foreign ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors. Evidence from this study suggests two main findings. (1) Companies with high foreign ownership have a high level of voluntary disclosure. (2) The company size is an important factor related to the increased level of voluntary disclosure in annual reports made by Vietnamese listed companies. The larger the company, the higher the information is disclosed. However, no significant associations are found between profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors as hypothesized in this study.

Keywords: voluntary disclosure, Vietnamese listed companies, voluntary, duality

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
31 Content Based Video Retrieval System Using Principal Object Analysis

Authors: Van Thinh Bui, Anh Tuan Tran, Quoc Viet Ngo, The Bao Pham


Video retrieval is a searching problem on videos or clips based on content in which they are relatively close to an input image or video. The application of this retrieval consists of selecting video in a folder or recognizing a human in security camera. However, some recent approaches have been in challenging problem due to the diversity of video types, frame transitions and camera positions. Besides, that an appropriate measures is selected for the problem is a question. In order to overcome all obstacles, we propose a content-based video retrieval system in some main steps resulting in a good performance. From a main video, we process extracting keyframes and principal objects using Segmentation of Aggregating Superpixels (SAS) algorithm. After that, Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) are selected from those principal objects. Then, the model “Bag-of-words” in accompanied by SVM classification are applied to obtain the retrieval result. Our system is performed on over 300 videos in diversity from music, history, movie, sports, and natural scene to TV program show. The performance is evaluated in promising comparison to the other approaches.

Keywords: video retrieval, principal objects, keyframe, segmentation of aggregating superpixels, speeded up robust features, bag-of-words, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
30 Understanding Health-Related Properties of Grapes by Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Intestinal Absorption

Authors: Sophie N. Selby-Pham, Yudie Wang, Louise Bennett


Consumption of grapes promotes health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases due to the action of grape phytochemicals in regulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation (OSI). The bioefficacy of phytochemicals depends on their absorption in the human body. The time required for phytochemicals to achieve maximal plasma concentration (Tₘₐₓ) after oral intake reflects the time window of maximal bioefficacy of phytochemicals, with Tₘₐₓ dependent on physicochemical properties of phytochemicals. This research collated physicochemical properties of grape phytochemicals from white and red grapes to predict their Tₘₐₓ using pharmacokinetic modelling. The predicted values of Tₘₐₓ were then compared to the measured Tₘₐₓ collected from clinical studies to determine the accuracy of prediction. In both liquid and solid intake forms, white grapes exhibit a shorter Tₘₐₓ range (0.5-2.5 h) versus red grapes (1.5-5h). The prediction accuracy of Tₘₐₓ for grape phytochemicals was 33.3% total error of prediction compared to the mean, indicating high prediction accuracy. Pharmacokinetic modelling allows prediction of Tₘₐₓ without costly clinical trials, informing dosing frequency for sustained presence of phytochemicals in the body to optimize the health benefits of phytochemicals.

Keywords: absorption kinetics, phytochemical, phytochemical absorption prediction model, Vitis vinifera

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29 Sustainable Use of Fresh Groundwater Lens of Pleistocene Aquifer in Nam Dinh, Vietnam

Authors: Tran Thanh Le, Pham Trong Duc


The fresh groundwater lens of the Pleistocene aquifer in Nam Dinh was formed since 12,900 years ago. Currently, the Pleistocene aquifer has been continuously exploited on average of 154,163m3/day, distributed mainly in the districts of Nghia Hung, Hai Hau, a part of Truc Ninh, Y Yen, Nam Truc and Giao Thuy. The groundwater level is still on a declining trend, saltwater intrusion in this freshwater lens can occur if the growth rate in exploitation is maintained. This study focused on groundwater sustainable use by means of 4 groups of criteria including: Groundwater quality and pollution; Aquifers’ productivity and capacity; Environment impacts due to exploitation (groundwater level decline, land subsidence due to water exploitation); Social and economic impacts. Using a combination of methods including field surveys, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, isotope and numerical models to determine safe groundwater exploitation thresholds for the whole study area has been determined to be 544,314m3/day and the actual exploitation amount is currently about 30% compared to the safe exploitation threshold. However, it should also be noted that the current groundwater exploitation threshold and level of its exploitation compared to the safe exploitation threshold of each locality are not the same. From this result, the groundwater exploitation threshold map of the study area was established to serve the management, licensing and orientation of groundwater exploitation.

Keywords: criteria, groundwater, fresh groundwater lens, pleistocene, Nam Dinh

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
28 Tackling the Value-Action-Gap: Improving Civic Participation Using a Holistic Behavioral Model Approach

Authors: Long Pham, Julia Blanke


An increasingly popular way of establishing citizen engagement within communities is through ‘city apps’. Currently, most of these mobile applications seem to be extensions of the existing communication media, sometimes merely replicating the information available on the classical city web sites, and therefore provide minimal additional impact on citizen behavior and engagement. In order to overcome this challenge, we propose to use a holistic behavioral model to generate dynamic and contextualized app content based on optimizing well defined city-related performance goals constrained by the proposed behavioral model. In this paper, we will show how the data collected by the CorkCitiEngage project in the Irish city of Cork can be utilized to calibrate aspects of the proposed model enabling the design of a personalized citizen engagement app aiming at positively influencing people’s behavior towards more active participation in their communities. We will focus on the important aspect of intentions to act, which is essential for understanding the reasons behind the common value-action-gap being responsible for the mismatch between good intentions and actual observable behavior, and will discuss how customized app design can be based on a rigorous model of behavior optimized towards maximizing well defined city-related performance goals.

Keywords: city apps, holistic behaviour model, intention to act, value-action-gap, citizen engagement

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
27 Accessing the 'No-Harm' Principle of Protection of the Mekong River’s Environment

Authors: Hang Thuy Tran, Hanh Hong Pham, Ha Thanh Hoa


From 2009 up to now, the water quantity and water quality of the Mekong River, located in the South of Vietnam, have been significantly reduced. The phenomenon happened as a result of climate change and human activities. The Mekong River is an international source of water, flowing across the borders of 6 countries, with Vietnam downstream. Activities to block the flow or build dams to construct hydroelectricity or diversion in upstream countries are either the direct cause or the risk of further deterioration of the water quality and quantity of the Mekong River, as evidenced by two phenomena which are a saline intrusion and transboundary water pollution. The protection of the crucial source of water is done through bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms, notably the Mekong River Commission, established by members of the Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin 1995. In this document, under Article 7, the 'no-harm' principle requires member states to take appropriate measures to prevent causing substantial damage to other member states. This principle has been practiced through the work of a number of committees established by the commission. However, the content of the rules is undetailed, lacks an implementation monitoring mechanism, and has an unreasonable dispute solution. With such difficulties, the provisions in the principle of no-harm are not adequate to protect the Mekong River's water resources in the current context.

Keywords: no-harm principle, transboundary water pollution, Mekong Commission, international source of water

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26 Modeling and Simulation of Pad Surface Topography by Diamond Dressing in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Process

Authors: A.Chen Chao-Chang, Phong Pham-Quoc


Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process has been widely applied on fabricating integrated circuits (IC) with a soft polishing pad combined with slurry composed of micron or nano-scaled abrasives for generating chemical reaction to remove substrate or film materials from wafer. During CMP process, pad uniformity usually works as a datum surface of wafer planarization and pad asperities can dominate the microscopic pad-slurry-wafer interaction. However, pad topography can be changed by related mechanism factors of CMP and it needs to be re-conditioned or dressed by a diamond dresser of well-distributed diamond grits on a disc surface. It is still very complicated to analyze and understand kinematic of diamond dressing process under the effects of input variables including oscillatory of diamond dresser and rotation speed ratio between the pad and the diamond dresser. This paper has developed a generic geometric model to clarify the kinematic modeling of diamond dressing processes such as dresser/pad motion, pad cutting locus, the relative velocity of the diamond abrasive grits on pad surface, and overlap of cutting for prediction of pad surface topography. Simulation results focus on comparing and analysis kinematics of the diamond dressing on certain CMP tools. Results have shown the significant parameters for diamond dressing process and also discussed. Future study can apply on diamond dresser design and experimental verification of pad dressing process.

Keywords: kinematic modeling, diamond dresser, pad cutting locus, CMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
25 Distribution and Taxonomy of Marine Fungi in Nha Trang Bay and Van Phong Bay, Vietnam

Authors: Thu Thuy Pham, Thi Chau Loan Tran, Van Duy Nguyen


Marine fungi play an important role in the marine ecosystems. Marine fungi also supply biomass and metabolic products of industrial value. Currently, the biodiversity of marine fungi along the coastal areas of Vietnam has not yet been studied fully. The objective of this study is to assess the spatial and temporal diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal waters of Nha Trang Bay and Van Phong Bay in Central Vietnam using culture-dependent and independent approach. Using culture-dependent approach, filamentous fungi and yeasts were isolated on selective media and then classified by phenotype and genotype based on the sequencing of ITS (internal transcribed spacers) regions of rDNA with two primer pairs (ITS1F_KYO2 and ITS4; NS1 and NS8). Using culture-independent approach, environmental DNA samples were isolated and amplified using fungal-specific ITS primer pairs. A total of over 160 strains were isolated from 10 seawater sampling stations at 50 cm depth. They were classified into diverse genera and species of both yeast and mold. At least 5 strains could be potentially novel species. Our results also revealed that planktonic fungi were molecularly diverse with hundreds of phylotypes recovered across these two bays. The results of the study provide data about the distribution and taxonomy of mycoplankton in this area, thereby allowing assessment of their positive role in the biogeochemical cycle of coastal ecosystems and the development of new bioactive compounds for industrial applications.

Keywords: biodiversity, ITS, marine fungi, Nha Trang Bay, Van Phong Bay

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24 Virtual Customer Integration in Innovation Development: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Chau Nguyen Pham Minh


The aim of this study is to answer the following research question: What do we know about virtual customer integration in innovation development based on existing empirical research? The paper is based on a systematic review of 136 articles which were published in the past 16 years. The analysis focuses on three areas: what forms of virtual customer integration (e.g. netnography, online co-creation, virtual experience) have been applied in innovation development; how have virtual customer integration methods effectively been utilized by firms; and what are the influences of virtual customer integration on innovation development activities? Through the detailed analysis, the study provides researchers with broad understanding about virtual customer integration in innovation development. The study shows that practitioners and researchers increasingly pay attention on using virtual customer integration methods in developing innovation since those methods have dominant advantages in interact with customers in order to generate the best ideas for innovation development. Additionally, the findings indicate that netnography has been the most common method in integrating with customers for idea generation; while virtual product experience has been mainly used in product testing. Moreover, the analysis also reveals the positive and negative influences of virtual customer integration in innovation development from both process and strategic perspectives. Most of the review studies examined the phenomenon from company’s perspectives to understand the process of applying virtual customer integration methods and their impacts; however, the customers’ perspective on participating in the virtual interaction has been inadequately studied; therefore, it creates many potential interesting research paths for future studies.

Keywords: innovation, virtual customer integration, co-creation, netnography, new product development

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
23 Neural Changes Associated with Successful Antidepressant Treatment in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: Dung V. H. Pham, Kathryn Cullen


Introduction: 40% of adolescents with major depression (MDD) are unresponsive to 1st line antidepressant treatment. The neural mechanism underlying treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant depression in adolescent are unclear. Amygdala is important for emotion processing and has been implicated in mood disorders. Past research has shown abnormal amygdala connectivity in adolescents with MDD. This research study changes in amygdala resting-state functional connectivity to find neural correlates of successful antidepressant treatment. Methods: Thirteen adolescents aged 12-19 underwent rfMRI before and after 8-week antidepressant treatment and completed BDI-II at each scan. A whole-brain approach, using anatomically defined amygdala ROIs (1) identified brain regions that are highly synchronous with the amygdala, (2) correlated neural changes with changes in overall depression and specific symptom clusters within depression. Results: Some neural correlates were common across domains: (1) decreased amygdala RSFC with the default mode network (posterior cingulate, precuneus) is associated with improvement in overall depression and many symptom clusters, (2) increased amygdala RSFC with fusiform gyrus is associated with symptom improvement across many symptom clusters. We also found unique neural changes associated with symptom improvement in each symptom cluster. Conclusion: This is the first preliminary study that looks at neural correlates of antidepressant treatment response to overall depression as well as different clusters of symptoms of depression. The finding suggests both overlapping and distinct neural mechanisms underlying improvement in each symptom clusters within depression. Some brain regions found are also implicated in MDD among adults in previous literature.

Keywords: depression, adolescents, fMRI, antidepressants

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22 Fuzzy Optimization Multi-Objective Clustering Ensemble Model for Multi-Source Data Analysis

Authors: C. B. Le, V. N. Pham


In modern data analysis, multi-source data appears more and more in real applications. Multi-source data clustering has emerged as a important issue in the data mining and machine learning community. Different data sources provide information about different data. Therefore, multi-source data linking is essential to improve clustering performance. However, in practice multi-source data is often heterogeneous, uncertain, and large. This issue is considered a major challenge from multi-source data. Ensemble is a versatile machine learning model in which learning techniques can work in parallel, with big data. Clustering ensemble has been shown to outperform any standard clustering algorithm in terms of accuracy and robustness. However, most of the traditional clustering ensemble approaches are based on single-objective function and single-source data. This paper proposes a new clustering ensemble method for multi-source data analysis. The fuzzy optimized multi-objective clustering ensemble method is called FOMOCE. Firstly, a clustering ensemble mathematical model based on the structure of multi-objective clustering function, multi-source data, and dark knowledge is introduced. Then, rules for extracting dark knowledge from the input data, clustering algorithms, and base clusterings are designed and applied. Finally, a clustering ensemble algorithm is proposed for multi-source data analysis. The experiments were performed on the standard sample data set. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the FOMOCE method compared to the existing clustering ensemble methods and multi-source clustering methods.

Keywords: clustering ensemble, multi-source, multi-objective, fuzzy clustering

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21 A Study and Design Scarf Collection Applied Vietnamese Traditional Patterns by Using Printing Method on Fabric

Authors: Mai Anh Pham Ho


Scarf products today is a symbol of fashion to decorate, to make our life more beautiful and bring new features to our living space. It also shows the cultural identity by using the traditional patterns that make easily to introduce the image of Vietnam to other nations all over the world. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to classify Vietnamese traditional patterns according to the era and dynasties. Vietnamese traditional patterns through the dynasties of Vietnamese history are done and classified by five groups of patterns including the geometric patterns, the natural patterns, the animal patterns, the floral patterns, and the character patterns in the Prehistoric times, the Bronze and Iron age, the Chinese domination, the Ngo-Dinh-TienLe-Ly-Tran-Ho dynasty, and the LeSo-Mac-LeTrinh-TaySon-Nguyen dynasty. Besides, there are some special kinds of Vietnamese traditional patterns like buffalo, lotus, bronze-drum, Phuc Loc Tho character, and so on. Extensive research was conducted for modernizing scarf collection applied Vietnamese traditional patterns which the fashion trend is used on creating works. The concept, target, image map, lifestyle map, motif, colours, arrangement and completion of patterns on scarf were set up. The scarf collection is designed and developed by the Adobe Illustrator program with three colour ways for each scarf. Upon completion of the research, digital printing technology is chosen for using on scarf collection which Vietnamese traditional patterns were researched deeply and widely with the purpose of establishment the basic background for Vietnamese culture in order to identify Vietnamese national personality as well as establish and preserve the cultural heritage.

Keywords: scarf collection, Vietnamese traditional patterns, printing methods, fabric design

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20 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) Fruits

Authors: Ngoc Minh Quynh Pham, Quan V. Vuong, Michael C. Bowyer, Christopher J. Scarlett


Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) is an Australian native plant and is grown in the coastal regions in New South Wales, Queensland and Northern Australia. Its fruits have been eaten by birds; however there is no information on phytochemical and antioxidant capacity of these fruits. This study aimed to determine the phenolic compounds (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPro) and antioxidant capacity in the whole or different parts of tuckeroo fruit including skin, flesh and seed. Whole and partly tuckeroo fruits were collected and immediately freeze dried to constant weight and then ground to small particle sizes (<1mm mesh). Samples were extracted in 50% methanol using an ultrasonic bath set at temperature 40 °C for 30 minutes. TPC, TFC, TPro and antioxidant capacity were measured by spectrophotometric analysis. The results showed that the whole fruits contained 106.23 mg GAE/g of TPC, 67.67 mg CAE/g of TFC and 56.74 mg CAE/g of TPro. These fruits also possessed high antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 263.78 mg TroE/g, ABTS: 346.98 mg TroE/g, CUPRAC: 370.12 mg TroE/g and FRAP: 176.30 mg TroE/g), revealing that these fruits are rich source of antioxidants. The results also showed that distribution of the antioxidants was varied in different parts of the fruits. Skin had the highest levels of TPC, TFC, and TPro as well as antioxidant properties, followed by the seed and flesh had the lowest levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Of note, levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of the skin were significantly higher than those of the whole fruits. Therefore, the skin of tuckeroo fruits is recommended as a starting material for extraction and purification of phenolic compounds as potential antioxidants for further utilisation in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, Cupaniopsis anacardioides, phenolic compounds, tuckeroo fruit

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19 Hybrid Graphene Based Nanomaterial as Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Electrochemical Determination of Ciprofloxacin

Authors: Tien S. H. Pham, Peter J. Mahon, Aimin Yu


The detection of drug molecules by voltammetry has attracted great interest over the past years. However, many drug molecules exhibit poor electrochemical signals at common electrodes which result in low sensitivity in detection. An efficient way to overcome this problem is to modify electrodes with functional materials. Since discovered in 2004, graphene (or reduced graphene oxide) has emerged as one of the most studied two-dimensional carbon materials in condensed matter physics, electrochemistry, and so on due to its exceptional physicochemical properties. Additionally, the continuous development of technology has opened the new window for the successful fabrications of many novel graphene-based nanomaterials to serve in electrochemical analysis. This research aims to synthesize and characterize gold nanoparticle coated beta-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide (Au NP–β-CD–RGO) nanocomposites with highly conductive and strongly electro-catalytic properties as well as excellent supramolecular recognition abilities for the modification of electrodes. The electrochemical responses of ciprofloxacin at the as-prepared nanocomposite modified electrode was effectively amplified was much higher in comparison with that at the bare electrode. The linear concentration range was from 0.01 to 120 µM, with a detection limit of 2.7 nM using differential pulse voltammetry. Thus, Au NP–β-CD–RGO nanocomposite has great potential as an ideal material to construct sensitive sensors for the electrochemical determination of ciprofloxacin or similar antibacterial drugs in the future based on its excellent stability, selectivity, and reproducibility.

Keywords: Au nanoparticles, β-CD, ciprofloxacin, electrochemical determination, graphene based nanomaterials

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18 A Study from Language and Culture Perspective of Human Needs in Chinese and Vietnamese Euphemism Languages

Authors: Quoc Hung Le Pham


Human beings are motivated to satisfy the physiological needs and psychological needs. In the fundamental needs, bodily excretion is the most basic one, while physiological excretion refers to the final products produced in the process of discharging the body. This physiological process is a common human phenomenon. For instance, bodily secretion is totally natural, but people of various nationalities through the times avoid saying it directly. Terms like ‘shit’ are often negatively regarded as dirty, smelly and vulgar; it will lead people to negative thinking. In fact, it is in the psychology of human beings to avoid such unsightly terms. Especially in social situations where you have to take care of your image, and you have to release. The best way to solve this is to approach the use of euphemism. People prefer to say it as ‘answering nature's call’ or ‘to pass a motion’ instead. Chinese and Vietnamese nations are referring to use euphemisms to replace bodily secretions, so this research will take this phenomenon as the object aims to explore the similarities and dissimilarities between two languages euphemism. The basic of the niche of this paper is human physiological phenomenon excretion. As the preliminary results show, in expressing bodily secretions the deeply impacting factor is language and cultural factors. On language factor terms, two languages are using assonance to replace human nature discharge, whilst the dissimilarities are metonymy, loan word and personification. On culture factor terms, the convergences are metonymy and application of the semantically-contrary-word-euphemism, whilst the difference is Chinese euphemism using allusion but Vietnamese euphemism does not.

Keywords: cultural factors, euphemism, human needs, language factors

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