Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 219

Search results for: mine

219 PM10 Concentration Emitted from Blasting and Crushing Processes of Limestone Mines in Saraburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Kanokrat Makkwao, Tassanee Prueksasit

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate PM10 emitted from different limestone mines in Saraburi province, Thailand. The blasting and crushing were the main processes selected for PM10 sampling. PM10 was collected in two mines including, a limestone mine for cement manufacturing (mine A) and a limestone mine for construction (mine B). The IMPACT samplers were used to collect PM10. At blasting, the points aligning with the upwind and downwind direction were assigned for the sampling. The ranges of PM10 concentrations at mine A and B were 0.267-5.592 and 0.130-0.325 mg/m³, respectively, and the concentration at blasting from mine A was significantly higher than mine B (p < 0.05). During crushing at mine A, the PM10 concentration with the range of 1.153-3.716 and 0.085-1.724 mg/m³ at crusher and piles in respectively were observed whereas the PM10 concentration measured at four sampling points in mine B, including secondary crusher, tertiary crusher, screening point, and piles, were ranged 1.032-16.529, 10.957-74.057, 0.655-4.956, and 0.169-1.699 mg/m³, respectively. The emission of PM10 concentration at the crushing units was different in the ranges depending on types of machine, its operation, dust collection and control system, and environmental conditions.

Keywords: PM₁₀ concentration, limestone mines, blasting, crushing

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
218 Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using Wsn

Authors: Somdatta Saha

Abstract:

The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arrive at a final design. In the Era of embedded technology, the Zigbee protocols are used in more and more applications. Because of the rapid development of sensors, microcontrollers, and network technology, a reliable technological condition has been provided for our automatic real-time monitoring of coal mine. The underground system collects temperature, humidity and methane values of coal mine through sensor nodes in the mine; it also collects the number of personnel inside the mine with the help of an IR sensor, and then transmits the data to information processing terminal based on ARM.

Keywords: ARM, embedded board, wireless sensor network (Zigbee)

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
217 Strategic Mine Planning: A SWOT Analysis Applied to KOV Open Pit Mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Authors: Patrick May Mukonki

Abstract:

KOV pit (Kamoto Oliveira Virgule) is located 10 km from Kolwezi town, one of the mineral rich town in the Lualaba province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The KOV pit is currently operating under the Katanga Mining Limited (KML), a Glencore-Gecamines (a State Owned Company) join venture. Recently, the mine optimization process provided a life of mine of approximately 10 years withnice pushbacks using the Datamine NPV Scheduler software. In previous KOV pit studies, we recently outlined the impact of the accuracy of the geological information on a long-term mine plan for a big copper mine such as KOV pit. The approach taken, discussed three main scenarios and outlined some weaknesses on the geological information side, and now, in this paper that we are going to develop here, we are going to highlight, as an overview, those weaknesses, strengths and opportunities, in a global SWOT analysis. The approach we are taking here is essentially descriptive in terms of steps taken to optimize KOV pit and, at every step, we categorized the challenges we faced to have a better tradeoff between what we called strengths and what we called weaknesses. The same logic is applied in terms of the opportunities and threats. The SWOT analysis conducted in this paper demonstrates that, despite a general poor ore body definition, and very rude ground water conditions, there is room for improvement for such high grade ore body.

Keywords: mine planning, mine optimization, mine scheduling, SWOT analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
216 Application of Remote Sensing Technique on the Monitoring of Mine Eco-Environment

Authors: Haidong Li, Weishou Shen, Guoping Lv, Tao Wang

Abstract:

Aiming to overcome the limitation of the application of traditional remote sensing (RS) technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring, in this paper, we first classified the eco-environmental damages caused by mining activities and then introduced the principle, classification and characteristics of the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technique. The potentiality of LiDAR technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring was analyzed, particularly in extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation, through comparing the feasibility and applicability of traditional RS method and LiDAR technique in monitoring different types of indicators. The application situation of LiDAR technique in extracting typical mine indicators, such as land destruction in mining areas, damage of ecological integrity and natural soil erosion. The result showed that the LiDAR technique has the ability to monitor most of the mine eco-environmental indicators, and exhibited higher accuracy comparing with traditional RS technique, specifically speaking, the applicability of LiDAR technique on each indicator depends on the accuracy requirement of mine eco-environmental monitoring. In the item of large mine, LiDAR three-dimensional point cloud data not only could be used as the complementary data source of optical RS, Airborne/Satellite LiDAR could also fulfill the demand of extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation in large areas.

Keywords: LiDAR, mine, ecological damage, monitoring, traditional remote sensing technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
215 Acid Mine Drainage Remediation Using Silane and Phosphate Coatings

Authors: M. Chiliza, H. P. Mbukwane, P Masita, H. Rutto

Abstract:

Acid mine drainage (AMD) one of the main pollutants of water in many countries that have mining activities. AMD results from the oxidation of pyrite and other metal sulfides. When these metals gets exposed to moisture and oxygen, leaching takes place releasing sulphate and Iron. Acid drainage is often noted by 'yellow boy,' an orange-yellow substance that occurs when the pH of acidic mine-influenced water raises above pH 3, so that the previously dissolved iron precipitates out. The possibility of using environmentally friendly silane and phosphate based coatings on pyrite to remediate acid mine drainage and prevention at source was investigated. The results showed that both coatings reduced chemical oxidation of pyrite based on Fe and sulphate release. Furthermore, it was found that silane based coating performs better when coating synthesis take place in a basic hydrolysis than in an acidic state.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, pyrite, silane, phosphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
214 The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan, K. V. Grigoryan

Abstract:

The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.

Keywords: Armenia, Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine, soil, heavy metal pollution degree

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
213 Characterization and Geochemical Modeling of Cu and Zn Sorption Using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic-Anoxic Conditions I: Case Study of Cwmheidol Mine Waste Water, Wales, United Kingdom

Authors: D. E. Egirani, J. E. Andrews, A. R. Baker

Abstract:

This study investigates sorption of Cu and Zn contained in natural mine wastewater, using mixed mineral systems in sulfidic-anoxic condition. The mine wastewater was obtained from disused mine workings at Cwmheidol in Wales, United Kingdom. These contaminants flow into water courses. These water courses include River Rheidol. In this River fishing activities exist. In an attempt to reduce Cu-Zn levels of fish intake in the watercourses, single mineral systems and 1:1 mixed mineral systems of clay and goethite were tested with the mine waste water for copper and zinc removal at variable pH. Modelling of hydroxyl complexes was carried out using phreeqc method. Reactions using batch mode technique was conducted at room temperature. There was significant differences in the behaviour of copper and zinc removal using mixed mineral systems when compared  to single mineral systems. All mixed mineral systems sorb more Cu than Zn when tested with mine wastewater.

Keywords: Cu- Zn, hydroxyl complexes, kinetics, mixed mineral systems, reactivity

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212 Determination of the Optimum Size of Building Stone Blocks: Case Study of Delichai Travertine Mine

Authors: Hesam Sedaghat Nejad, Navid Hosseini, Arash Nikvar Hassani

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Determination of the optimum block size with high profitability is one of the significant parameters in designation of the building stone mines. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of building stone blocks in Delichai travertine mine of Damavand in Tehran province through combining the effective parameters proven in determination of the optimum dimensions in building stones such as the spacing of joints and gaps, extraction tools constraints with the help of modeling by Gemcom software. To this end, following simulation of the topography of the mine, the block model was prepared and then in order to use spacing joints and discontinuities as a limiting factor, the existing joints set was added to the model. Since only one almost horizontal joint set with a slope of 5 degrees was available, this factor was effective only in determining the optimum height of the block, and thus to determine the longitudinal and transverse optimum dimensions of the extracted block, the power of available loader in the mine was considered as the secondary limiting factor. According to the aforementioned factors, the optimal block size in this mine was measured as 3.4×4×7 meter.

Keywords: building stone, optimum block size, Delichay travertine mine, loader power

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
211 Adsorptive Performance of Surface Modified Montmorillonite in Vanadium Removal from Real Mine Water

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Taile Y. Leswfi, Maurice S. Onyango, Christian Wolkersdorfer

Abstract:

This paper describes the preparation of surface modified montmorillonite using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) for the removal of vanadium from mine water. The adsorbent before and after adsorption was characterised by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the amount of vanadium adsorbed was determined by ICP-OES. The batch adsorption method was employed using vanadium concentrations in solution ranging from 50 to 320 mg/L and vanadium tailings seepage water from a South African mine. Also, solution pH, temperature and sorbent mass were varied. Results show that the adsorption capacity was affected by solution pH, temperature, sorbent mass and the initial concentration. Electrical conductivity of the mine water before and after adsorption was measured to estimate the total dissolved solids in the mine water. Equilibrium isotherm results revealed that vanadium sorption follows the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that the surface of the sorbent was heterogeneous. The pseudo-second order kinetic model gave the best fit to the kinetic experimental data compared to the first order and Elovich models. The results of this study may be used to predict the uptake efficiency of South Africa montmorillonite in view of its application for the removal of vanadium from mine water. However, the choice of this adsorbent for the uptake of vanadium or other contaminants will depend on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

Keywords: adsorption, vanadium, modified montmorillonite, equilibrium, kinetics, mine water

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
210 Water Management of Erdenet Mining Company

Authors: K. H. Oyuntungalag, Scott Kenner, O. Erdenetuya

Abstract:

The life cycle phases of mining projects are described in this guidance document, and includes initial phases (exploration, feasibility and planning), mine development (construction and operations), closure and reclamation. Initial phases relate to field programs and desktop studies intended to build the data and knowledge base, including the design of water management infrastructure and development during these initial phases. Such a model is essential to demonstrate that the water management plan (WMP) will provide adequate water for the mine operations and sufficient capacity for anticipated flows and volumes, and minimize environmental impacts on the receiving environment. The water and mass balance model must cover the whole mine life cycle, from the start of mine development to a date sufficiently far in the future where the reclaimed landscape is considered self- sustaining following complete closure of the mine (i.e., post- closure). The model simulates the movement of water within the components of the water management infrastructure and project operating areas, and calculates chemical loadings to each mine component. At Erdenet Mining company an initial water balance model reflecting the tailings dam, groundwater seepage and mine process water was developed in collaboration with Dr. Scott Kenner (visiting Fulbright scholar). From this preliminary study the following recommendations were made: 1. Develop a detailed groundwater model to simulate seepage from the tailings dam, 2. Establish an evaporation pan for improving evapotranspiration estimates, and 3. Measure changes in storage of water within the tailings dam and other water storage components within the mine processing.

Keywords: evapotranspiration , monitoring program, Erdenet mining, tailings dam

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
209 Mine Production Index (MPi): New Method to Evaluate Effectiveness of Mining Machinery

Authors: Amol Lanke, Hadi Hoseinie, Behzad Ghodrati

Abstract:

OEE has been used in many industries as measure of performance. However due to limitations of original OEE, it has been modified by various researchers. OEE for mining application is special version of classic equation, carries these limitation over. In this paper it has been aimed to modify the OEE for mining application by introducing the weights to the elements of it and termed as Mine Production index (MPi). As a special application of new index MPi shovel has been developed by team of experts and researchers for evaluating the shovel effectiveness. Based on analysis, utilization followed by performance and availability were ranked in this order. To check the applicability of this index, a case study was done on four electrical and one hydraulic shovel in a Swedish mine. The results shows that MPishovelcan properly evaluate production effectiveness of shovels and determine effectiveness values in optimistic view compared to OEE. MPi with calculation not only give the effectiveness but also can predict which elements should be focused for improving the productivity.

Keywords: mining, overall equipment efficiency (OEE), mine production index, shovels

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
208 A Case Study: Remediation of Abandoned Mines for Residential Development

Authors: Issa S. Oweis, Gary Gartenberg, Luma J. Oweis

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The site for a residential apartment building overlies an abandoned iron mine in granitic gneiss in northern New Jersey. The mine stope is about 137 m (450 long) and dipping over 344m (800 feet) at 450 to 500. As the building footprint straddles, the mine site needed remediation. The remediation scheme consisted of compaction grouting a minimum 10 m (30 ft.) depth of the mine stope in rock to establish a buttress for the hanging wall and allow support of the building foundation. The rock strength parameters (friction and cohesion) were established based on Hoek Geologic Strength Index (GSI). The derived strength parameters were used in the wedge analysis to simulate rock cave-in. It was concluded that a cave-in would be unlikely. Verification holes confirmed the effectiveness of grouting. Although post grouting micro gravity survey depicted a few anomalies, no anomalies were found to exist by further drilling and excavation.

Keywords: grout, stope, rock, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
207 Assessment for the Backfill Using the Run of the Mine Tailings and Portland Cement

Authors: Javad Someehneshin, Weizhou Quan, Abdelsalam Abugharara, Stephen Butt

Abstract:

Narrow vein mining (NVM) is exploiting very thin but valuable ore bodies that are uneconomical to extract by conventional mining methods. NVM applies the technique of Sustainable Mining by Drilling (SMD). The SMD method is used to mine stranded, steeply dipping ore veins, which are too small or isolated to mine economically using conventional methods since the dilution is minimized. This novel mining technique uses drilling rigs to extract the ore through directional drilling surgically. This paper is focusing on utilizing the run of the mine tailings and Portland cement as backfill material to support the hanging wall for providing safe mine operation. Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is designed by mixing waste tailings, water, and cement of the precise percentage for optimal outcomes. It is a non-homogenous material that contains 70-85% solids. Usually, a hydraulic binder is added to the mixture to increase the strength of the CPB. The binder fraction mostly accounts for 2–10% of the total weight. In the mining industry, CPB has been improved and expanded gradually because it provides safety and support for the mines. Furthermore, CPB helps manage the waste tailings in an economical method and plays a significant role in environmental protection.

Keywords: backfilling, cement backfill, tailings, Portland cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
206 Cooperative Robot Application in a Never Explored or an Abandoned Sub-Surface Mine

Authors: Michael K. O. Ayomoh, Oyindamola A. Omotuyi

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Autonomous mobile robots deployed to explore or operate in a never explored or an abandoned sub-surface mine requires extreme effectiveness in coordination and communication. In a bid to transmit information from the depth of the mine to the external surface in real-time and amidst diverse physical, chemical and virtual impediments, the concept of unified cooperative robots is seen to be a proficient approach. This paper presents an effective [human → robot → task] coordination framework for effective exploration of an abandoned underground mine. The problem addressed in this research is basically the development of a globalized optimization model premised on time series differentiation and geometrical configurations for effective positioning of the two classes of robots in the cooperation namely the outermost stationary master (OSM) robots and the innermost dynamic task (IDT) robots for effective bi-directional signal transmission. In addition, the synchronization of a vision system and wireless communication system for both categories of robots, fiber optics system for the OSM robots in cases of highly sloppy or vertical mine channels and an autonomous battery recharging capability for the IDT robots further enhanced the proposed concept. The OSM robots are the master robots which are positioned at strategic locations starting from the mine open surface down to its base using a fiber-optic cable or a wireless communication medium all subject to the identified mine geometrical configuration. The OSM robots are usually stationary and function by coordinating the transmission of signals from the IDT robots at the base of the mine to the surface and in a reverse order based on human decisions at the surface control station. The proposed scheme also presents an optimized number of robots required to form the cooperation in a bid to reduce overall operational cost and system complexity.

Keywords: sub-surface mine, wireless communication, outermost stationary master robots, inner-most dynamic robots, fiber optic

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
205 Analysis of Changes Being Done of the Mine Legislation of Turkey: Mining Operation Activity Process

Authors: Taşkın Deniz Yıldız, Mustafa Topaloğlu, Orhan Kural

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The right to operate a fairly long periods of prior periods and after the 3213 Mining Law has been observed to be shortened in Turkey. Permit the realization of business activities (or concession) requested the purchase of the mine operated "found mine" position, as well as the financial and technical capability to have the owner of the right to operate the mines as well as the principle of equality is important in terms of assessing the best way be. In particular, in this context, license fields "negligence" (downsizing) have noted that the current arrangement for all periods. However, in the period after 3213 Mining Act and a permit to operate more effectively within the framework of implementation of negligence is laid down.

Keywords: mining legislation, operation, permit, Turkey

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204 Hazardous Gas Detection Robot in Coal Mines

Authors: Kanchan J. Kakade, S. A. Annadate

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This paper presents design and development of underground coal mine monitoring using mbed arm cortex controller and ZigBee communication. Coal mine is a special type of mine which is dangerous in nature. Safety is the most important feature of a coal industry for proper functioning. It’s not only for employees and workers but also for environment and nation. Many coal producing countries in the world face phenomenal frequently occurred accidents in coal mines viz, gas explosion, flood, and fire breaking out during coal mines exploitation. Thus, such emissions of various gases from coal mines are necessary to detect with the help of robot. Coal is a combustible, sedimentary, organic rock, which is made up of mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Coal Mine Detection Robot mainly detects mash gas and carbon monoxide. The mash gas is the kind of the mixed gas which mainly make up of methane in the underground of the coal mine shaft, and sometimes it abbreviate to methane. It is formed from vegetation, which has been fused between other rock layers and altered by the combined effects of heat and pressure over millions of years to form coal beds. Coal has many important uses worldwide. The most significant uses of coal are in electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel.

Keywords: Zigbee communication, various sensors, hazardous gases, mbed arm cortex M3 core controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
203 Groundwater Treatment of Thailand's Mae Moh Lignite Mine

Authors: A. Laksanayothin, W. Ariyawong

Abstract:

Mae Moh Lignite Mine is the largest open-pit mine in Thailand. The mine serves coal to the power plant about 16 million tons per year. This amount of coal can produce electricity accounting for about 10% of Nation’s electric power generation. The mining area of Mae Moh Mine is about 28 km2. At present, the deepest area of the pit is about 280 m from ground level (+40 m. MSL) and in the future the depth of the pit can reach 520 m from ground level (-200 m.MSL). As the size of the pit is quite large, the stability of the pit is seriously important. Furthermore, the preliminary drilling and extended drilling in year 1989-1996 had found high pressure aquifer under the pit. As a result, the pressure of the underground water has to be released in order to control mine pit stability. The study by the consulting experts later found that 3-5 million m3 per year of the underground water is needed to be de-watered for the safety of mining. However, the quality of this discharged water should meet the standard. Therefore, the ground water treatment facility has been implemented, aiming to reduce the amount of naturally contaminated Arsenic (As) in discharged water lower than the standard limit of 10 ppb. The treatment system consists of coagulation and filtration process. The main components include rapid mixing tanks, slow mixing tanks, sedimentation tank, thickener tank and sludge drying bed. The treatment process uses 40% FeCl3 as a coagulant. The FeCl3 will adsorb with As(V), forming floc particles and separating from the water as precipitate. After that, the sludge is dried in the sand bed and then be disposed in the secured land fill. Since 2011, the treatment plant of 12,000 m3/day has been efficiently operated. The average removal efficiency of the process is about 95%.

Keywords: arsenic, coagulant, ferric chloride, groundwater, lignite, coal mine

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
202 In-Situ Determination of Radioactivity Levels and Radiological Hazards in and around the Gold Mine Tailings of the West Rand Area, South Africa

Authors: Paballo M. Moshupya, Tamiru A. Abiye, Ian Korir

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Mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials could result in elevated levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioactivity levels on a large scale in the West Rand District in South Africa, which is dominated by abandoned gold mine tailings and the consequential radiological exposures to members of the public. The activity concentrations of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and 40K in mine tailings, soil and rocks were assessed using the BGO Super-Spec (RS-230) gamma spectrometer. The measured activity concentrations for ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and 40K in the studied mine tailings were found to range from 209.95 to 2578.68 Bq/kg, 19.49 to 108.00 Bq/kg and 31.30 to 626.00 Bq/kg, respectively. In surface soils, the overall average activity concentrations were found to be 59.15 Bq/kg, 34.91 and 245.64 Bq/kg for 238U, ²³²Th and 40K, respectively. For the rock samples analyzed, the mean activity concentrations were 32.97 Bq/kg, 32.26 Bq/kg and 351.52 Bg/kg for ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and 40K, respectively. High radioactivity levels were found in mine tailings, with ²³⁸U contributing significantly to the overall activity concentration. The external gamma radiation received from surface soil in the area is generally low, with an average of 0.07 mSv/y. The highest annual effective doses were estimated from the tailings dams and the levels varied between 0.14 mSv/y and 1.09 mSv/y, with an average of 0.51 mSv/y. In certain locations, the recommended dose constraint of 0.25 mSv/y from a single source to the average member of the public within the exposed population was exceeded, indicating the need for further monitoring and regulatory control measures specific to these areas to ensure the protection of resident members of the public.

Keywords: activity concentration, gold mine tailings, in-situ gamma spectrometry, radiological exposures

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
201 Treatment of Acid Mine Lake by Ultrasonically Modified Fly Ash at Different Frequencies

Authors: Burcu Ileri, Deniz Sanliyuksel Yucel, Onder Ayyildiz

Abstract:

The oxidation of pyrite in water results in the formation of acid mine drainage, which typically forms extremely acid mine lake (AML) in the depression areas of abandoned Etili open-pit coal mine site, Northwest Turkey. Nine acid mine lakes of various sizes have been located in the Etili coal mine site. Hayirtepe AML is one of the oldest lake having a mean pH value of 2.9 and conductivity of 4550 μS/cm, and containing elevated concentrations of Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The water quality of the lake has been deteriorated due to its high chemical composition, in particular, increasing heavy metal pollution. In this study, fly ash (FA), a coal combustion by-product from fluidized bed thermal power plant in the northwestern part of Turkey, was used as an adsorbent for the treatment of Hayirtepe AML. The FA is a relatively abundant and cost effective material, but its use in adsorption processes usually require excessive adsorbent doses. To increase adsorption efficiency and lower the adsorbent dose, we modified the FA by means of ultrasonic treatment (20 kHz and 40 kHz). The images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have demonstrated that ultrasonic treatment not only decreased the size of ash particles but also created pits and cracks on their surfaces which in turn led to a significant increase in the BET surface area. Both FA and modified fly ash were later tested for the removal of heavy metals from the AML. The effect of various operating parameters such as ultrasonic power, pH, ash dose, and adsorption contact time were examined to obtain the optimum conditions for the treatment process. The results have demonstrated that removal of heavy metals by ultrasound-modified fly ash requires much shorter treatment times and lower adsorbent doses than those attained by the unmodified fly ash. This research was financially supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), (Project no: 116Y510).

Keywords: acid mine lake, heavy metal, modified fly ash, ultrasonic treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
200 The Benefits of End-To-End Integrated Planning from the Mine to Client Supply for Minimizing Penalties

Authors: G. Martino, F. Silva, E. Marchal

Abstract:

The control over delivered iron ore blend characteristics is one of the most important aspects of the mining business. The iron ore price is a function of its composition, which is the outcome of the beneficiation process. So, end-to-end integrated planning of mine operations can reduce risks of penalties on the iron ore price. In a standard iron mining company, the production chain is composed of mining, ore beneficiation, and client supply. When mine planning and client supply decisions are made uncoordinated, the beneficiation plant struggles to deliver the best blend possible. Technological improvements in several fields allowed bridging the gap between departments and boosting integrated decision-making processes. Clusterization and classification algorithms over historical production data generate reasonable previsions for quality and volume of iron ore produced for each pile of run-of-mine (ROM) processed. Mathematical modeling can use those deterministic relations to propose iron ore blends that better-fit specifications within a delivery schedule. Additionally, a model capable of representing the whole production chain can clearly compare the overall impact of different decisions in the process. This study shows how flexibilization combined with a planning optimization model between the mine and the ore beneficiation processes can reduce risks of out of specification deliveries. The model capabilities are illustrated on a hypothetical iron ore mine with magnetic separation process. Finally, this study shows ways of cost reduction or profit increase by optimizing process indicators across the production chain and integrating the different plannings with the sales decisions.

Keywords: clusterization and classification algorithms, integrated planning, mathematical modeling, optimization, penalty minimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
199 Feasibility Study of Mine Tailing’s Treatment by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM 26636

Authors: M. Gómez-Ramírez, A. Rivas-Castillo, I. Rodríguez-Pozos, R. A. Avalos-Zuñiga, N. G. Rojas-Avelizapa

Abstract:

Among the diverse types of pollutants produced by anthropogenic activities, metals represent a serious threat, due to their accumulation in ecosystems and their elevated toxicity. The mine tailings of abandoned mines contain high levels of metals such as arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb), which do not suffer any degradation process, they are accumulated in environment. Abandoned mine tailings potentially could contaminate rivers and aquifers representing a risk for human health due to their high metal content. In an attempt to remove the metals and thereby mitigate the environmental pollution, an environmentally friendly and economical method of bioremediation has been introduced. Bioleaching has been actively studied over the last several years, and it is one of the bioremediation solutions used to treat heavy metals contained in sewage sludge, sediment and contaminated soil. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, an extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, gram-negative, rod shaped microorganism, which is typically related to Cu mining operations (bioleaching), has been well studied for industrial applications. The sulfuric acid produced plays a major role in bioleaching. Specifically, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain DSM 26636 has been able to leach Al, Ni, V, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ni contained in slags from coal combustion wastes. The present study reports the ability of A. thiooxidans DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals contained in two different mine tailing samples (MT1 and MT2). It was observed that Al, Fe, and Mn were removed in 36.3±1.7, 191.2±1.6, and 4.5±0.2 mg/kg for MT1, and in 74.5±0.3, 208.3±0.5, and 20.9±0.1 for MT2. Besides, < 1.5 mg/kg of Au and Ru were also bioleached from MT1; in MT2, bioleaching of Zn was observed at 55.7±1.3 mg/kg, besides removal of < 1.5 mg/kg was observed for As, Ir, Li, and 0.6 for Os in this residue. These results show the potential of strain DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals that came from different mine tailings.

Keywords: A. thiooxidans, bioleaching, metals, mine tailings

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
198 Application of Various Methods for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils around Agarak Copper-Molybdenum Mine Complex, Armenia

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan

Abstract:

The present study was aimed in assessing the heavy metal pollution of the soils around Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex and related environmental risks. This mine complex is located in the south-east part of Armenia, and the present study was conducted in 2013. The soils of the five riskiest sites of this region were studied: surroundings of the open mine, the sites adjacent to processing plant of Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex, surroundings of Darazam active tailing dump, the recultivated tailing dump of “ravine - 2”, and the recultivated tailing dump of “ravine - 3”. The mountain cambisol was the main soil type in the study sites. The level of soil contamination by heavy metals was assessed by Contamination factors (Cf), Degree of contamination (Cd), Geoaccumulation index (I-geo) and Enrichment factor (EF). The distribution pattern of trace metals in the soil profile according to Cf, Cd, I-geo and EF values shows that the soil is much polluted. Almost in all studied sites, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Cd were the main polluting heavy metals, and this was conditioned by Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex activity. It is necessary to state that the pollution problem becomes pressing as some parts of these highly polluted region are inhabited by population, and agriculture is highly developed there; therefore, heavy metals can be transferred into human bodies through food chains and have direct influence on public health. Since the induced pollution can pose serious threats to public health, further investigations on soil and vegetation pollution are recommended. Finally, Cf calculating based on distance from the pollution source and the wind direction can provide more reasonable results.

Keywords: Agarak copper-molybdenum mine complex, heavy metals, soil contamination, enrichment factor (EF), Armenia

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197 Determination of Safe Ore Extraction Methodology beneath Permanent Extraction in a Lead Zinc Mine with the Help of FLAC3D Numerical Model

Authors: Ayan Giri, Lukaranjan Phukan, Shantanu Karmakar

Abstract:

Structure and tectonics play a vital role in ore genesis and deposition. The existence of a swelling structure below the current level of a mine leads to the discovery of ores below some permeant developments of the mine. The discovery and the extraction of the ore body are very critical to sustain the business requirement of the mine. The challenge was to extract the ore without hampering the global stability of the mine. In order to do so, different mining options were considered and analysed by numerical modelling in FLAC3d software. The constitutive model prepared for this simulation is the improved unified constitutive model, which can better and more accurately predict the stress-strain relationships in a continuum model. The IUCM employs the Hoek-Brown criterion to determine the instantaneous Mohr-Coulomb parameters cohesion (c) and friction (ɸ) at each level of confining stress. The extra swelled part can be dimensioned as north-south strike width 50m, east-west strike width 50m. On the north side, already a stope (P1) is excavated of the dimension of 25m NS width. The different options considered were (a) Open stoping of extraction of southern part (P0) of 50m to the full extent, (b) Extraction of the southern part of 25m, then filling of both the primaries and extraction of secondary (S0) 25m in between. (c) Extraction of the southern part (P0) completely, preceded by backfill and modify the design of the secondary (S0) for the overall stability of the permanent excavation above the stoping.

Keywords: extraction, IUCM, FLAC 3D, stoping, tectonics

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196 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Metallurgical Slag

Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha

Abstract:

Acid mine drainage (AMD) refers to the production of acidified water from abandoned mines and active mines as well. The reason behind the generation of this kind of acidified water is the oxidation of pyrites present in the rocks in and around mining areas. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which is a sulfur oxidizing bacteria, helps in the oxidation process. AMD is extremely acidic in nature, (pH 2-3) with high concentration of several trace and heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such as chloride and sulfate. AMD has several detrimental effect on aquatic organism and environment. It can directly or indirectly contaminate the ground water and surface water as well. The present study considered the treatment of AMD with metallurgical slag, which is a waste material. Slag helped to enhance the pH of AMD to 8.62 from 1.5 with 99% removal of trace metals such as Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co. Metallurgical slag was proven as efficient neutralizing material for the treatment of AMD.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, Heavy metals, metallurgical slag, Neutralization

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195 Developing Sustainable Tourism Practices in Communities Adjacent to Mines: An Exploratory Study in South Africa

Authors: Felicite Ann Fairer-Wessels

Abstract:

There has always been a disparity between mining and tourism mainly due to the socio-economic and environmental impacts of mines on both the adjacent resident communities and the areas taken up by the mining operation. Although heritage mining tourism has been actively and successfully pursued and developed in the UK, largely Wales, and Scandinavian countries, the debate whether active mining and tourism can have a mutually beneficial relationship remains imminent. This pilot study explores the relationship between the ‘to be developed’ future Nokeng Mine and its adjacent community, the rural community of Moloto, will be investigated in terms of whether sustainable tourism and livelihood activities can potentially be developed with the support of the mine. Concepts such as social entrepreneur, corporate social responsibility, sustainable development and triple bottom line are discussed. Within the South African context as a mineral rich developing country, the government has a statutory obligation to empower disenfranchised communities through social and labour plans and policies. All South African mines must preside over a Social and Labour Plan according to the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, No 28 of 2002. The ‘social’ component refers to the ‘social upliftment’ of communities within or adjacent to any mine; whereas the ‘labour’ component refers to the mine workers sourced from the specific community. A qualitative methodology is followed using the case study as research instrument for the Nokeng Mine and Moloto community with interviews and focus group discussions. The target population comprised of the Moloto Tribal Council members (8 in-depth interviews), the Moloto community members (17: focus groups); and the Nokeng Mine representatives (4 in-depth interviews). In this pilot study two disparate ‘worlds’ are potentially linked: on the one hand, the mine as social entrepreneur that is searching for feasible and sustainable ideas; and on the other hand, the community adjacent to the mine, with potentially sustainable tourism entrepreneurs that can tap into the resources of the mine should their ideas be feasible to build their businesses. Being an exploratory study the findings are limited but indicate that the possible success of tourism and sustainable livelihood activities lies in the fact that both the Mine and Community are keen to work together – the mine in terms of obtaining labour and profit; and the community in terms of improved and sustainable social and economic conditions; with both parties realizing the importance to mitigate negative environmental impacts. In conclusion, a relationship of trust is imperative between a mine and a community before a long term liaison is possible. However whether tourism is a viable solution for the community to engage in is debatable. The community could initially rather pursue the sustainable livelihoods approach and focus on life-supporting activities such as building, gardening, etc. that once established could feed into possible sustainable tourism activities.

Keywords: community development, mining tourism, sustainability, South Africa

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194 Comparisons of Surveying with Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Total Station for Volume Determination of Overburden and Coal Excavations in Large Open-Pit Mine

Authors: B. Keawaram, P. Dumrongchai

Abstract:

The volume of overburden and coal excavations in open-pit mine is generally determined by conventional survey such as total station. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) used to measure overburden and coal excavations, and to compare TLS survey data sets with the data of the total station. Results revealed that, the reference points measured with the total station showed 0.2 mm precision for both horizontal and vertical coordinates. When using TLS on the same points, the standard deviations of 4.93 cm and 0.53 cm for horizontal and vertical coordinates, respectively, were achieved. For volume measurements covering the mining areas of 79,844 m2, TLS yielded the mean difference of about 1% and the surface error margin of 6 cm at the 95% confidence level when compared to the volume obtained by total station.

Keywords: mine, survey, terrestrial laser scanner, total station

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193 Radon and Thoron Determination in Natural Ancient Mine Using Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Dose Assessment

Authors: L. Oufni, M. Amrane, R. Rabi

Abstract:

Radon (and thoron) is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, having variable distribution in the geological environment. The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Radon, thoron and their short-lived decay products in the atmosphere are the most important contributors to human exposure from natural sources. The aim of this study is to determine alpha-and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon (222Rn), thoron (220Rn) and their progenies in the air of ancient mine of Aouli in which there is no working activity is situated at approximately 25 km north of the city of Midelt (Morocco), by using LR-115 type II and CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Equilibrium factors between radon and its daughters and between thoron and its progeny were evaluated in the studied atmospheres. The committed equivalent doses due to the 218Po and 214Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the visitors of the considered ancient mine. The visitors in these mines spent a good amount of time. It was essential to let the staff know about these values and take the needed steps to prevent any health complications.

Keywords: radon, thoron, concentration, exposure dose, SSNTD, mine

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
192 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Modified Fly Ash

Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha

Abstract:

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is the generation of acidic water from active as well as abandoned mines. AMD generates due to the oxidation of pyrites present in the rock in mining areas. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans acts as a catalyst in this oxidation process. The characteristics of AMD is extreme low pH (2-3) with elevated concentration of different heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such sulfate and chloride. AMD contaminate the ground water as well as surface water which leads to the degradation of water quality. Moreover, it carries detrimental effect for aquatic organism and degrade the environment. In the present study, AMD is treated with fly ash, modified with alkaline agent (NaOH). This modified fly ash (MFA) was experimentally proven as a very effective neutralizing agent for the treatment of AMD. It was observed that pH of treated AMD raised to 9.22 from 1.51 with 100g/L of MFA dose. Approximately, 99% removal of Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co took place with the same MFA dose. The treated water comply with the effluent discharge standard of (IS: 2490-1981).

Keywords: acid mine drainage, heavy metals, modified fly ash, neutralization

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191 Study of the Stability of the Slope Open-Pit Mines: Case of the Mine of Phosphates – Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: Mohamed Fredj, Abdallah Hafsaoui, Radouane Nakache

Abstract:

The study of the stability of the mining works in rock masses fractured is the major concern of the operating engineer. For geotechnical works in mines and quarries, it there is not today's general methodology for analysis and the quantification of the risks relating to the dangers inherent in these concrete types (falling boulders, landslides, etc.). The reasons for this are uncertainty, which weighs on available data or lack of knowledge of the values of the parameters required for this analysis type. Stability calculations must be based on reliable knowledge of the distribution of discontinuities that dissect the Rocky massif and the resistance to shear of the intact rock and discontinuities. This study is aimed to study the stability of slope of mine (Kef Sennoun - Tebessa, Algeria). The problem is analyzed using a numerical model based on the finite elements (software Plaxis 3D).

Keywords: stability, discontinuities, finite elements, rock mass, open-pit mine

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
190 Geochemical Controls of Salinity in a Typical Acid Mine Drainage Neutralized Groundwater System

Authors: Modreck Gomo

Abstract:

Although the dolomite and calcite carbonates can neutralize Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and prevent leaching of metals, salinity still remains a huge problem. The study presents a conceptual discussion of geochemical controls of salinity in a typical calcite and dolomite AMD neutralised groundwater systems. Thereafter field evidence is presented to support the conceptual discussions. 1020 field data sets of from a groundwater system reported to be under circumneutral conditions from the neutralization effect of calcite and dolomite is analysed using correlation analysis and bivariate plots. Field evidence indicates that sulphate, calcium and magnesium are strongly and positively correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) which is used as measure of salinity. In this, a hydrogeochemical system, the dissolution of sulphate, calcium and magnesium form AMD neutralization process contributed 50%, 10% and 5% of the salinity.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, carbonates, neutralization, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 72