Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1408

Search results for: vernacular architecture

1408 Focus on Sustainable Future of New Vernacular Architecture — Building "Vernacular Consciousness" in the New Ara

Authors: Ji Min China

Abstract:

The 20th century was the century of globalization. Developed transportation and the progress of information media made the earth into a global village. The differences between regions is increasingly reduced, "cultural convergence" phenomenon intensified, regional specialties and traditional culture has been eroded. In the field of architecture, while experienced orderly rational modernism baptism, it is increasingly recognized that set the expense of cultural differences and forced to follow the universal international-style building has been outdated. At the same time, in the 21st century environmental issues has been paid more and more attention, and the concept of sustainable development and sustainable building have been proposed.This makes the domestic and foreign architects began to explore the possibilities of building and reflect local cultural characteristics of the new vernacular architecture as a viable diversified architectural tendencies by domestic and foreign architects’ favor. The author will use the production and creative process of the new vernacular architecture at home and abroad as the background, and select some outstanding examples of the analysis and discussion, then reinterpret the "new vernacular architecture" in China now. This paper will pay more attention to how to master the true meaning of the here and now "new vernacular" as well as its multiple dimensions of sustainability in the future. It also determines the paper will be a two-way aspect and multi-dimensional understanding and mining of the "new vernacular".

Keywords: new vernacular architecture, regional culture, multi dimension, sustainable

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1407 Influence of Colonial Architecture on South Indian Vernacular Constructions: A Case of Venkatagiri in Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Jahnavi Priya Alluri, Sarang Barbarwar

Abstract:

With over 6000 years of sustained civilization, India has been home to diverse social customs and various communities. The country’s culture and architecture have been profoundly impacted by the extensive variation in its geography and climatic conditions. In its history, many kingdoms have ruled in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The vernacular constructions of this region have progressed considerably in this period. The paper discusses the impact on vernacular architecture in Venkatagiri, Andhra Pradesh, post the arrival of the British. The town was a small settlement that finds its roots in the Vijaynagara Empire. The study tries to highlight the amalgamation of colonial influences on the local construction techniques and material usage. It discusses the new variation in the style of architecture through the case of Venkatagiri Palace and its precincts. The paper also discusses the traits of distinction in the influence through various social and economic groups of the old city of the same town.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, colonial architecture, Venkatagiri, south Indian vernacular

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1406 How to Incorporate Vernacular Architecture into Practice for Sustainable Development: Case Studies from Kashmir and Kerala, India

Authors: Debanjana Chatterjee

Abstract:

Vernacular settlements in India often take the form that is dictated by the climate they are in. India, with its vast cultural diversity and various climatic regions, offers a wide range of vernacular architecture. This paper focuses on two main geographical regions: Kashmir and Kerala. They bring together myriad challenges of climatic and social characteristics to incorporate into their vernacular architectures, which are still relevant despite the advent of globalization and modernization. Scholars like William Wurster and Catherine Bauer even claimed that all the traditional buildings in these places have the kind of urbanity, which is dignified and elegant but also lively and human that every architect would like to achieve if they knew how. With modernization, and with a greater ease of construction, a reduction in labor, and the apparent robustness of contemporary construction techniques, people have, however, become increasingly tentative in respect of vernacular architecture. And yet modern architecture has typically led to energize intensive structures without much consideration to the location and surroundings of the structure itself. In contrary, Laurie Baker, the British-born Indian architect, had shown us the way to integrate the knowledge of vernacular when he developed his designs based on the traditional architecture of Kerala, respecting the local climate and environment. This paper also explores his technical creativity in his design of Center for Development Studies (CDS) in Trivandrum. Hence, in order to protect and conserve our rich cultural and architectural heritage, the elements of vernacular should be incorporated into the contemporary planning and architecture for sustainable building design. The provision should be made to incorporate vernacular architecture and traditional knowledge in the policies. Ultimately, the policymakers, planners, and architects should consider this incorporation of traditional vernacular and contemporary sustainability in their work for the betterment of society now.

Keywords: vernacular, architecture, sustainable development, Kashmir and Kerala, climate, Laurie Baker

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1405 A Study on Thermodynamic Prototype for Vernacular Dwellings in Perspective of Bioclimatic Architecture

Authors: Zhenzhen Zhang

Abstract:

As major human activity places, buildings consume a large amount of energy, and residential buildings are very important part of it. An extensive research work had been conducted to research how to achieve low energy goals, vernacular dwellings and contemporary technologies are two prime parameters among them. On one hand, some researchers concentrated on vernacular dwellings which were climate-response design and could offer a better living condition without mechanic application. On the other hand, a series concepts appeared based on modern technologies, surplus energy house, bioclimatic architecture, etc. especially thermodynamic architecture which integrates the micro-climate, human activity, thermal comfort, and energy efficiency into design. How to blend the two parameters is the key research topic now, which would act as the key to how to integrate the ancient design wise and contemporary new technologies. By several cases study, this paper will represent the evolution of thermodynamic architecture and then try to develop one methodology about how to produce a typical thermodynamic prototype for one area by blending the ancient building wise and contemporary concepts to achieve both low energy consumption and surplus energy.

Keywords: vernacular dwelling, thermodynamic architecture, bioclimatic architecture, thermodynamic prototype, surplus energy

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1404 Evaluation of the Sustainability of Greek Vernacular Architecture in Different Climate Zones: Architectural Typology and Building Physics

Authors: Christina Kalogirou

Abstract:

Investigating the integration of bioclimatic design into vernacular architecture could lead to interesting results regarding the preservation of cultural heritage while enhancing the energy efficiency of historic buildings. Furthermore, these recognized principles and systems of bioclimatic design in vernacular settlements could be applied to modern architecture and thus to new buildings in such areas. This study introduces an approach to categorizing distinct technologies and design principles of bioclimatic design based on a thoughtful approach to various climatic zones and environment in Greece (mountainous areas, islands and lowlands). For this purpose, various types of dwellings are evaluated for their response to climate, regarding the layout of the buildings (orientation, floor plans’ shape, semi-open spaces), the site planning, the openings (size, position, protection), the building envelope (walls: construction materials-thickness, roof construction detailing) and the migratory living pattern according to seasonal needs. As a result, various passive design principles (that could be adapted to current architectural practice in such areas, in order to optimize the relationship between site, building, climate and energy efficiency) are proposed.

Keywords: bioclimatic design, buildings physics, climatic zones, energy efficiency, vernacular architecture

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1403 An Environmentally Friendly Approach towards the Conservation of Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Maria Philokyprou, Aimilios Michael

Abstract:

Contemporary theories of sustainability, concerning the natural and built environment, have recently introduced an environmental attitude towards the architectural design that, in turn, affects the practice of conservation and reuse of the existing building stock. This paper presents an environmentally friendly approach towards the conservation of vernacular architecture and it is based on the results of a research program which involved the investigation of sustainable design elements of traditional buildings in Cyprus. The research in question showed that Cypriot vernacular architecture gave more emphasis on cooling rather than heating strategies. Another notable finding of the investigation was the great importance given to courtyards as they enhance considerably, and in various ways, the microclimatic conditions of the immediate environment with favorable results throughout the year. Moreover, it was shown that the reduction in temperature fluctuation observed in the closed and semi-open spaces, compared to the respective temperature fluctuation of the external environment - due to the thermal inertia of the building envelope - helps towards the achievement of more comfortable living conditions within traditional dwellings. This paper concludes with a proposal of a sustainable approach towards the conservation of the existing environment and the introduction of new environmental criteria for the conservation of traditional buildings, beyond the aesthetic, morphological and structural ones that are generally applied.

Keywords: bioclimatic, conservation, environmental, traditional dwellings, vernacular architecture

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1402 Traditional Sustainable Architecture Techniques and Its Applications in Contemporary Architecture: Case Studies of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo and Sana'a, Cities in Egypt and Yemen

Authors: Ahmed S. Attia

Abstract:

This paper includes a study of modern sustainable architectural techniques and elements that are originally found in vernacular and traditional architecture, particularly in the Arab region. Courtyards, Wind Catchers, and Mashrabiya, for example, are elements that have been developed in contemporary architecture using modern technology to create sustainable architecture designs. An analytical study of the topic will deal with some examples of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo city in Egypt, analyzing its elements and their relationship to the environment, in addition to the examples in southern Egypt (Nubba) of sustainable architecture systems, and traditional houses in Sana'a city, Yemen, using earth resources of mud bricks and other construction materials. In conclusion, a comparative study between traditional and contemporary techniques will be conducted to confirm that it is possible to achieve sustainable architecture through the use of low-technology in buildings in Arab regions.

Keywords: Islamic context, cultural environment, natural environment, Islamic house, low-technology, mud brick, vernacular and traditional architecture

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1401 Public Culture Intervention in the Sustainable Renewal of Vernacular Heritage, Taking the Villages Surrounding the Erlitou Site in China as an Example

Authors: Gong Zhang

Abstract:

The villages surrounding protected areas of the Sites are a unique vernacular heritage due to their geographical location, long history, and the combination of nature and humanity. With the construction of more and more heritage sites, the villages around them are faced with the conflict between conservation and development. How to carry out sustainable micro-renewal while preserving the authenticity of the vernacular heritage is of great importance for the co-growth of the village residents and the site. This paper focuses on the process of revitalization of the villages nearby the Erlitou Site Park in China, aiming to study how sustainable village regeneration and conservation can be carried out through the activation of public culture. Firstly, through field research and literature review, this paper studies the vernacular morphology and architecture types of more than ten historical villages around the Erlitou site and investigates the traditional vernacular culture and the daily public activities of the local villagers. Secondly, taking the nearest village to the site area, Ranzhuang Village, as an example, the paper studies the role of public cultural activity interventions on the three different stages of vernacular heritage renewal: master planning, architecture group, and acupuncture-style micro-renewal of individual buildings, aiming to summarise its impact on villagers' lives and vernacular heritage. This paper concludes that a living regeneration with a moderate public cultural activity intervention can promote the symbiosis between the heritage site and the life of the villagers and increase the vitality of the village. This study aims to use the example of village regeneration in Henan, China, as a sustainable reference for the co-development of heritage sites and villages in other parts of the world.

Keywords: Erlitou site, public culture intervention, sustainable, vernacular heritage

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1400 Design with Nature: Vernacular Buildings Adaptation to Sand Landforms in Sahara Desert

Authors: Mohammed Sherzad

Abstract:

The Sahara desert covers third of the total surface of Africa with a quarter of this area within the national boundaries of Algeria. Sand drift and deposition is considered one of the major factors of the desertification process in the area. It is estimated that a third of the world's hot arid lands are covered by aeolian sand deposits, forming extensive sand bedforms. The Gourrara region in the Grand Erg Occidental (west of Algerian Sahara) and the region of Souf in the Grand Erg Oriental (east of Algerian Sahara) have been chosen as case studies. These were significant cultural and trading centers for many centuries despite their remote location and their harsh desert environment particularly solar radiation and sand drift and deposition. The architecture of the sustained vernacular settlements in each of the two regions has unique design features for this environment. So do the irrigation systems used - palm groves and the foggara system for capturing and distributing groundwater. However, the ecological balance which enabled the Saharans to live with the desert has been upset. New buildings often use technology based on models imported or imposed from areas that climatically have little in common. These make the inhabitants live ‘in the desert’ rather than ‘with the desert’. This paper will describe the qualities of the vernacular architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness and adaptability to the region’s harsh desert environment in comparison with contemporary buildings. Developing design guides and approaches based on lessons from the traditional architecture is important to ensure sustained livelihoods of the inhabitants in these areas.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, desert architecture, hot climate, aeolian sand deposition

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1399 Factors Affecting the Formation of Architectural Space and Construction Systems in the Jordanian Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Mohannad Tarrad

Abstract:

The research deals with the beginnings of the vernacular Jordanian architecture since the establishment of the Jordanian state in the early nineteenth century until now, where the Jordanian architecture was based on the interactions of the Jordanian society with the surrounding environment, where the local materials available in the construction area were used, and the construction systems inherited from previous civilizations were used. The builders in Jordan relied on exchanging knowledge and transferring it from one generation to another, where they were able to formulate a construction style capable of responding to the requirement of architectural spaces, and each region of Jordan has its own way of building, as there are various geographical areas in Jordan, including agricultural, mountainous and desert areas. Then the research touched on a historical study of the architectural space and identifying the value of the architectural space in the Jordanian social life, which is related to the customs and traditions of a society influenced by the Arab Islamic civilization, and then the construction, the structural structure, its characteristics and the constituent elements of the building were defined in the vernacular l Jordanian architecture. From the structural point of view, and then to identify the structural materials used in the structural structure and the impact of the structural structure on the design from several aspects, leading to the interior space and the factors affecting it. The research aims to explain and clarify the interconnected design and construction solutions in the vernacular Jordanian architecture in a manner that respects the environmental context, taking into account the material cost of the building, where the financial situation of the home owner plays an important role in choosing the building material and construction method. Case studies from heritage buildings from several Jordanian regions will be analyzed to illustrate the idea of the research.

Keywords: construction systems, architectural space, environmental context, Jordanian architecture

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1398 A Study on Shavadoon Underground Living Space in Dezful and Shooshtar Cities, Southwest of Iran: As a Sample of Sustainable Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Haniyeh Okhovat, Mahmood Hosseini, Omid Kaveh Ahangari, Mona Zaryoun

Abstract:

Shavadoon is a type of underground living space, formerly used in urban residences of Dezful and Shooshtar cities in southwestern Iran. In spite of their high efficiency in creating cool spaces for hot summers of that area, Shavadoons were abandoned, like many other components of vernacular architecture, as a result of the modernism movement. However, Shavadoons were used by the local people as shelters during the 8-year Iran-Iraq war, and although several cases of bombardment happened during those years, no case of damage was reported in those two cities. On this basis, and regarding the high seismicity of Iran, the use of Shavadoons as post-disasters shelters can be considered as a good issue for research. This paper presents the results of a thorough study conducted on these spaces and their seismic behavior. First, the architectural aspects of Shavadoon and their construction technique are presented. Then, the results of seismic evaluation of a sample Shavadoon, conducted by a series of time history analyses, using Plaxis software and a set of selected earthquakes, are briefly explained. These results show that Shavadoons have good stability against seismic excitations. This stability is mainly because of the high strength of conglomerate materials inside which the Shavadoons have been excavated. On this basis, and considering other merits of this components of vernacular architecture in southwest of Iran, it is recommended that the revival of these components is seriously reconsidered by both architects and civil engineers.

Keywords: Shavadoon, Iran high seismicity, Conglomerate, Modeling in Plaxis, Vernacular sustainable architecture

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1397 Investigation of Thermal Comfort Conditions of Vernacular Buildings Taking into Consideration Various Use Patterns: A Case Study

Authors: Christina Kalogirou

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to explore the thermal comfort conditions in traditional buildings during all seasons of the year taking into consideration various use patterns. For this purpose a dwelling of vernacular architecture is selected and data regarding the indoor and outdoor air and surface temperature as well as the relative humidity are collected. These measurements are conducted in situ during the period of a year. Also, this building is occupied periodically and a calendar of occupancy was kept (duration of residence, hours of heating system operation, hours of natural ventilation, etc.) in order to correlate the indoor conditions recorded with the use patterns via statistical analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the high thermal inertia of the stone masonry walls and the different orientation of the rooms is addressed. Thus, this paper concludes in some interesting results on the effect of the users in the indoor climate conditions in the case of buildings with high thermal inertia envelops.

Keywords: thermal comfort, in situ measurements, occupant behaviour, vernacular architecture

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1396 Sustainability of Vernacular Architecture in Zegalli Houses in Northern Iran with Emphasis on Their Seismic Behavior

Authors: Mona Zaryoun, Mahmood Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan Khalkhali, Haniyeh Okhovat

Abstract:

Zegalli houses in Guilan province, northern Iran, are a type of vernacular houses which their foundation, skeleton and walls all have been made of wood. The only houses which could survive the major Manjil-Rudbar earthquake of 1990 with a magnitude of 7.2 were these houses. Regarding this fact, some researchers started thinking of this type of foundations used in these houses to benefit from rocking-wise behavior. On the one hand, the relatively light weight of the houses, have helped these houses to withstand well against seismic excitations. In this paper at first a brief description of Zegalli houses and their architectural features, with emphasis on their foundation is presented. in the next stage foundation of one of these houses is modeled as a sample by a using a computer program, which has been developed in MATLAB environment, and by using the horizontal and vertical accelerograms of a set of selected site compatible earthquakes, a series of time history analysis (THA) are carried out to investigate the behavior of this type of houses against earthquake. Based on numerical results of THA it can be said that even without no sliding at the foundation timbers, only due to the rocking which occurs in various levels of the foundation the seismic response of the house is significantly reduced., which results in their stability subjected to earthquakes with peak ground acceleration of around 0.35g. Therefore, it can be recommended the Zegalli houses are considered as sustainable Iranian vernacular architecture, and it can be recommended that the use of these houses and their architecture and their structural merits are reconsidered by architects as well as civil and structural engineers.

Keywords: MATLAB software, rocking behavior, time history analysis, Zegalli houses

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1395 Expressions of Local Identity via Residential Architecture Practice in UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Authors: Surasak Kangkhao, Chaturong Louhapensang

Abstract:

This research investigates design and cultural heritage interpretations by residential architecture design in World Heritage cities: Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand reflect on the essence of design based on local identity. The research consisted of three thematic foci. First, the studies examined the contextual background that led to the genesis of the building. Second, the investigations concentrated on how its design was developed and implemented. Third, these modes of problematisation lent a basis to argue that a quality of placeness was not confined exclusively to traditional or vernacular structures but could be found from the unconventional aesthetics of Residential Architecture as well.

Keywords: expressions, local identity, residential architecture, practice, world heritage site

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1394 Evaluation of Traditional Housing Texture in Context of Sustainability

Authors: Esra Yaldız, Dicle Aydın

Abstract:

Sustainability is a term that provides deciding about the future considering environment and investigates the harmony and balance between protection and usage of the resource. The main objective of sustainability is creating residential areas is nature compatible or providing continuance thereby adapting existing residential area to nature. In this context, historical and traditional areas must have utilized according to sustainability. Traditional housing texture are identified as a traditional architectural product has been designed based on this term. General characteristics of traditional housing within the context of sustainable architecture are their specific dynamics and components and their harmonisation of environment and nature. Owing to the fact that traditional housing texture harmonizes natural conditions of the region, topography, climate and their context, construction materials are provided from environment and traditional techniques and their forms are used and due to construction materials has natural insulation traditional housing create healthy and comfortable living environment, traditional housing is rather significant in terms of sustainable architecture. The basis of this study comprise the routers in traditional housing design in accordance with the principles of sustainability. These are, accommodating topography, climate, and geography, accessibility, structuring at the scale of human, utilization of green zones, unique to the region used construction materials, the form of construction, building envelope and space organization of dwelling. In this context, the purpose of this study is that vernacular architecture approaches of traditional housing textures which are in Central Anatolia Region Located in Anatolia are utilized with regard to sustainability.

Keywords: Anatolia, sustainability, traditional housing texture, vernacular architecture

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1393 Continuity of Place-Identity: Identifying Regional Components of Kerala Architecture through 1805-1950

Authors: Manoj K. Kumar, Deepthi Bathala

Abstract:

Man has the need to know and feel as a part of the historical continuum and it is this continuum that reinforces his identity. Architecture and the built environment contribute to this identity as established by the various identity theories exploring the relationship between the two. Architecture which is organic has been successful in maintaining a continuum of identity until the advent of globalization when the world saw a drastic shift to architecture of ‘placelessness’. The answer to the perfect synthesis of ‘universalization’ and ‘regionalism’ is an ongoing quest. However, history has established a smooth transition from vernacular to colonial to modern unlike the architecture of today. The traditional Kerala architecture has evolved from the tropical climate, geography, local needs, materials, skills and foreign influences. It is unique in contrast to the architecture of the neighboring states as a result of the geographical barriers however influenced by the architecture of the Orient due to trade relations. Through 1805 to 1950, the European influence on the architecture of Kerala resulted in the emergence of the colonial style which managed to establish a continuum of the traditional architecture. The paper focuses on the identification of the components of architecture that established the continuity of place-identity in the architecture of Kerala and examines the transition from the traditional Kerala architecture to colonial architecture during the colonial period. Visual surveys based on the principles of urban design, cognitive mapping, typology analysis followed by the strong understanding of the morphological and built environment along with the matrix method are the research tools used. The understanding of these components of continuity can be useful in creating buildings which people can relate to in the present day. South-Asia shares the history of colonialism and the understanding of these components can pave the way for further research on how to establish a regional identity in the era of globalization.

Keywords: colonial, identity, place, regional

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1392 Tectonics Theory and an Example of Its Application in Sustainable Contemporary Architecture

Authors: Mafalda Fabiene Ferreira Pantoja, Luciana Lins Do Amaral Sobreira

Abstract:

The present work seeks to exemplify the precepts of the sustainable tectonics, through a built work. This is the architectural group ‘Chácara dos Professores’ in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. Such an architectural ensemble allows elucidating vernacular constructive techniques that can still be used in contemporary times, on the way to more sustainable constructions. It seeks to show the principles of sustainable tectonics as a design tool, seeking an architecture that can give answers to contemporary issues and that concern caring for the planet. Firstly, a brief investigation will be made about sustainable tectonics, its application in architecture, and later, to correlate such precepts as a tool for reflections and sustainable projects in the contemporary world. For this, will be exemplified, by means of a visit in loco, the construction methods used in the ‘Chácara dos Professores’ project and its results in the constructed work. The goal is to draw a theoretical reflection on the precepts of tectonics, and to show if such precepts are able to enhance contemporary architecture and help it move towards sustainability, seeking projects increasingly consistent with the reality of today.

Keywords: contemporary architecture, constructive techniques, sustainability, tectonics

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1391 Vernacular Language Origin and Student's Accent Neutralization: A Basis for BPO Employability

Authors: Elma C. Sultan

Abstract:

The study concentrated on Vernacular Language Origin and Students’ Accent Neutralization of the College of Arts and Sciences fourth students in Samar State University, Catbalogan City answering respondent’s locale profile, vernacular language origin in terms of local dialect/s and domestic language/s used; the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and accent neutralization of the respondents; and the proposed activities to adopt in neutralizing students’ accent. It utilized the descriptive-correlational method of research determining the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. The researcher used: (1) questionnaire divided into three parts: the first part identified the students’ locale; the second part determined the respondents’ domestic language/s used while the third part identified their local language/s used, (2) validated accent neutralization assessment tool, (3) statistical treatments in the analysis of data: percentage to determine the profile of the students; chi-square test for independence to determine the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. Findings of the study showed that vowel and diphthong sound production, domestic and local languages in indigenous, and native dialects are significantly related to accent neutralization. While, slow reading speed has a higher possibility in affecting accent neutralization. These caused designing a 50-hour short-term program for accent neutralization focusing in the correct vowel and diphthong sounds production and appropriate reading speed in preparation for the respondents’ search for BPO employment. This short-term program ran for 5 hours in a day for five days in a week.

Keywords: accent neutralization, dialect, diphthongs, indigenous, language origin, language, native, reading speed, vernacular, vowels

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1390 The Role of Digital Text in School and Vernacular Literacies: Students Digital Practices at Cybercafés in Mexico

Authors: Guadalupe López-Bonilla

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Students of all educational levels participate in literacy practices that may involve print or digital media. Scholars from the New Literacy Studies distinguish practices that fulfill institutional purposes such as those established at schools from literate practices aimed at doing other kinds of activities, such as reading instructions in order to play a video game; the first are known as institutional practices while the latter are considered vernacular literacies. When students perform these kinds of activities they engage with print and digital media according to the demands of the task. In this paper, it is aimed to discuss the results of a research project focusing on literacy practices of high school students at 10 urban cybercafés in Mexico. The main objective was to analyze the literacy practices of students performing both school tasks and vernacular literacies. The methodology included a focused ethnography with online and face to face observations of 10 high school students (5 male and 5 female) and interviews after performing each task. In the results, it is presented how students treat texts as open, dynamic and relational artifacts when engaging in vernacular literacies; while texts are conceived as closed, authoritarian and fixed documents when performing school activities. Samples of each type of activity are shown followed by a discussion of the pedagogical implications for improving school literacy.

Keywords: digital literacy, text, school literacy, vernacular practices

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1389 Passive Retrofitting Strategies for Windows in Hot and Humid Climate Vijayawada

Authors: Monica Anumula

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Nowadays human beings attain comfort zone artificially for heating, cooling and lighting the spaces they live, and their main importance is given to aesthetics of building and they are not designed to protect themselves from climate. They depend on artificial sources of energy resulting in energy wastage. In order to reduce the amount of energy being spent in the construction industry and Energy Package goals by 2020, new ways of constructing houses is required. The larger part of energy consumption of a building is directly related to architectural aspects hence nature has to be integrated into the building design to attain comfort zone and reduce the dependency on artificial source of energy. The research is to develop bioclimatic design strategies and techniques for the walls and roofs of Vijayawada houses. Study and analysis of design strategies and techniques of various cases like Kerala, Mangalore etc. for similar kind of climate is examined in this paper. Understanding the vernacular architecture and modern techniques of that various cases and implementing in the housing of Vijayawada not only decreases energy consumption but also enhances socio cultural values of Vijayawada. This study focuses on the comparison of vernacular techniques and modern building bio climatic strategies to attain thermal comfort and energy reduction in hot and humid climate. This research provides further thinking of new strategies which include both vernacular and modern bioclimatic techniques.

Keywords: bioclimatic design, energy consumption, hot and humid climates, thermal comfort

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1388 A Postcolonial View Analysis on the Structural Rationalism Influence in Indonesian Modern Architecture

Authors: Ryadi Adityavarman

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The study is an analysis by using the postcolonial theoretical lens on the search for a distinctive architectural identity by architect Maclaine Pont in Indonesia in the early twentieth century. Influenced by progressive architectural thinking and enlightened humanism at the time, Pont applied the fundamental principles of Structural Rationalism by using a creative combination of traditional Indonesian architectural typology and innovative structural application. The interpretive design strategy also celebrated creative use of local building materials with sensible tropical climate design response. Moreover, his holistic architectural scheme, including inclusion of local custom of building construction, represents the notion of Gesamkunstwerk. By using such hybrid strategy, Maclaine Pont intended to preserve the essential cultural identity and vernacular architecture of the indigenous. The study will chronologically investigate the evolution of Structural Rationalism architecture philosophy of Viollet-le-Duc to Hendrik Berlage’s influential design thinking in the Dutch modern architecture, and subsequently to the Maclaine Pont’s innovative design in Indonesia. Consequently, the morphology analysis on his exemplary design works of ITB campus (1923) and Pohsarang Church (1936) is to understand the evolutionary influence of Structural Rationalism theory. The postmodern analysis method is to highlight the validity of Pont’s idea in the contemporary Indonesian architecture within the culture of globalism era.

Keywords: Indonesian modern architecture, postcolonial, structural rationalism, critical regionalism

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1387 Influential Factors on Woodcarvings in Traditional Malay Houses of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Authors: Nurdiyana Zainal Abidin, Raja Nafida Raja Shahminan, Fawazul Khair Ibrahim

Abstract:

Timber vernacular houses in Malaysia are unique heritage buildings which can be identified through their designs, structure, architectural elements and ornamentations. Woodcarvings are common forms of ornamentations and decorations in Traditional Malay Houses and they can be found throughout Malaysia including in Negeri Sembilan. As a multi-cultural, multi-racial, and multi-religion state which uniquely practices the matrilineal social system, Negeri Sembilan has a strong connection to its’ history and heritage and in particular the distinctive vernacular architecture. The purpose of this paper is to underline the factors that influence the woodcarvings in Traditional Malay Houses in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The houses studied were from the archives of measured drawings in Center of Built Environment in the Malay World (KALAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The findings indicated several factors influencing the woodcarver’s works and also the applications of the woodcarvings such as religious factors, cultural factors and political factors. These factors among several other shows that woodcarvings were predetermined before being carved and that they were not just merely placed without reason but are functioning pieces of aesthetic ornamentation.

Keywords: influences, traditional Malay houses, woodcarvings, multi-cultural

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1386 Examples from a Traditional Sismo-Resistant Architecture

Authors: Amira Zatir, Abderahmane Mokhtari, Amina Foufa, Sara Zatir

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It exists in several regions in the world, of numerous historic monuments, buildings and housing environment, built in traditional ways which survive for earthquakes, even in zones where the seismic risk is particularly raised. These constructions, stemming from vernacular architecture, allow, through their resistances in the time earthquakes, to identify the various sismo-resistant "local" techniques. Through the examples and the experiences presented, the remark which can be made, is that in the traditional built, two major principles in a way opposite, govern the constructions in earthquake-resistant. It is about the very big flexibility, whom answer very light constructions, like the Japanese wooden constructions, Turkish and even Chinese; that of the very big rigidity to which correspond constructions in masonry in particular stone, more or less heavy and massive, which we meet in particular in the Mediterranean Basin, and in the historic sanctuary of Machu Pacchu. In it sensible and well-reflected techniques of construction are added, of which the use of the humble materials such as the earth and the adobe. The ancient communities were able to face the seismic risks, thanks to them know-how reflected in their intelligently designed constructions, testifying of a local seismic culture.

Keywords: earthquake, architecture, traditional, construction, resistance

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1385 Configuration of Water-Based Features in Islamic Heritage Complexes and Vernacular Architecture: An Analysis into Interactions of Morphology, Form, and Climatic Performance

Authors: Mustaffa Kamal Bashar Mohd Fauzi, Puteri Shireen Jahn Kassim, Nurul Syala Abdul Latip

Abstract:

It is increasingly realized that sustainability includes both a response to the climatic and cultural context of a place. To assess the cultural context, a morphological analysis of urban patterns from heritage legacies is necessary. While the climatic form is derived from an analysis of meteorological data, cultural patterns and forms must be abstracted from a typological and morphological study. This current study aims to analyzes morphological and formal elements of water-based architectural and urban design of past Islamic vernacular complexes in the hot arid regions and how a vast utilization of water was shaped and sited to act as cooling devices for an entire complex. Apart from its pleasant coolness, water can be used in an aesthetically way such as emphasizing visual axes, vividly enhancing the visual of the surrounding environment and symbolically portraying the act of purity in the design. By comparing 2 case studies based on the analysis of interactions of water features into the form, planning and morphology of 2 Islamic heritage complexes, Fatehpur Sikri (India) and Lahore Fort (Pakistan) with a focus on Shish Mahal of Lahore Fort in terms of their mass, architecture and urban planning, it is agreeable that water plays an integral role in their climatic amelioration via different methods of water conveyance system. Both sites are known for their substantial historical values and prominent for their sustainable vernacular buildings for example; the courtyard of Shish Mahal in Lahore fort are designed to provide continuous coolness by constructing various miniatures water channels that run underneath the paved courtyard. One of the most remarkable features of this system that all water is made dregs-free before it was inducted into these underneath channels. In Fatehpur Sikri, the method of conveyance seems differed from Lahore Fort as the need to supply water to the ridge where Fatehpur Sikri situated is become the major challenges. Thus, the achievement of supplying water to the palatial complexes is solved by placing inhabitable water buildings within the two supply system for raising water. The process of raising the water can be either mechanical or laborious inside the enclosed well and water rising houses. The studies analyzes and abstract the water supply forms, patterns and flows in 3-dimensional shapes through the actions of evaporative cooling and wind-induced ventilation under arid climates. Through the abstraction analytical and descriptive relational morphology of the spatial configurations, the studies can suggest the idealized spatial system that can be used in urban design and complexes which later became a methodological and abstraction tool of sustainability to suit the modern contemporary world.

Keywords: heritage site, Islamic vernacular architecture, water features, morphology, urban design

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1384 Kelantan Malay Cultural Landscape: The Concept of Kota Bharu Islamic City

Authors: Mohammad Rusdi Mohd Nasir, Ismail Hafiz Salleh

Abstract:

Kota Bharu, as an Islamic City, represents a symbolic icon in the urban development of the Islamic state of Kelantan, Malaysia. This research seeks to provide a basis for new approaches to landscape planning that shows greater respect for the traditional vernacular landscape. In addition, this research also intends to distinguish the prospects for the future Kelantan Malay cultural landscape, building upon the multiple historical influences in the evolution of the cultural landscape using multiple methods including literature review, observation, document analysis and content analysis. The study of the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape is particularly important in view of its distinctive contribution to Malay heritage by identifying the elements, characteristics, history and their influences. As a result, this research recognizes the importance of incorporating the existing heritage alongside contemporary design as well as further research on the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape. Optimistically, there will be better landscape practices in the future to understand the past, the present and the future prospects of the vernacular tradition, in order to ensure that our architecture, landscape and urbanism practices express its values.

Keywords: Malay culture, Malay heritage, cultural landscape, Islamic concept

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1383 A 'Four Method Framework' for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: software architecture, architecture erosion, prescriptive architecture, descriptive architecture

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1382 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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1381 Reconciling the Modern Standard Arabic with the Local Dialects in Writing Literary Texts

Authors: Ahmed M. Ghaleb, Ehab S. Al-Nuzaili

Abstract:

This paper attempts to shed light on the question of the choice between standard Arabic and the vernacular in writing literary texts. Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) has long been the formal language of writing education, administration, and media, shred across the Arab countries. In the mid-20th century, some writers have begun to write their literary works in local dialects claiming that they can be more realistic. On the other hand, other writers have opposed this new trend as it can be a threat to the Standard Arabic or MSA that unify all Arabs. However, some other writers, like Tawfiq al-Hakim, Hamed Damanhouri, Najib Mahfouz, and Hanna Mineh, attempted to solve this problem by using what W. M. Hutchins called a 'hybrid language', a middle language between the standard and the vernacular. It is also termed 'a third language'. The paper attempts to examine some of the literary texts in which a combination of the standard and the colloquial is employed. Thus, the paper attempts to find out a solution by proposing a third language, a form that can combine the MSA and the colloquial, and the possibility of using it in writing literary texts. Therefore, the paper can bridge the gap between the different levels of Arabic.

Keywords: modern standard arabic, dialect or vernacular, diglossia, third language

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1380 Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito’s Conceptual Architecture

Authors: Serap Durmus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in ‘Architecture and Philosophy Readings’ elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito’s buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the paper contains Toyo Ito’s philosophy, his discourses and buildings and also thinking similarities with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Thus, the workshop of course is about architecture and philosophy relationship. With this aspect, a holistic graphic representation is aimed for Toyo Ito who thinks that everything composes a whole. As a result, it can be said that architect and philosopher interaction in architecture and philosophy relation supports creative thinking. Conceptual architecture of Toyo Ito has philosophical roots and his philosophy can be read over his buildings and can be represent totally via a holistic pattern.

Keywords: architecture, conceptual architecture, Gilles Deleuze, philosophy, Toyo Ito

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1379 Islamic Architecture and the Challenges against It

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

Abstract:

Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to lack of necessary information and also successive wars which have overtaken the Muslims as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Muslims but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art and culture of Muslims and civilization.

Keywords: art, culture, civilization, Islamic architecture, Muslims

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