Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1414

Search results for: obesogenic cities

1414 Comparative Ethnography and Urban Health: A Multisite Study on Obesogenic Cities

Authors: Carlos Rios Llamas

Abstract:

Urban health challenges, like the obesity epidemic, need to be studied from a dialogue between different disciplines and geographical conditions. Public health uses quantitative analysis and local samples, but qualitative data and multisite analysis would help to better understand how obesity has become a health problem. In the last decades, obesity rates have increased in most of the countries, especially in the Western World. Concerned about the problem, the American Medical Association has recently voted obesity as a disease. Suddenly, a ‘war on obesity’ attracted scientists from different disciplines to explore various ways to control and even reverse the trends. Medical sciences have taken the advance with quantitative methodologies focused on individual behaviors. Only a few scientist have extended their studies to the environment where obesity is produced as social risk, and less of them have taken into consideration the political and cultural aspects. This paper presents a multisite ethnography in South Bronx, USA, La Courneuve, France, and Lomas del Sur, Mexico, where obesity rates are as relevant as urban degradation. The comparative ethnography offers a possibility to unveil the mechanisms producing health risks from the urban tissue. The analysis considers three main categories: 1) built environment and access to food and physical activity, 2) biocultural construction of the healthy body, 3) urban inequalities related to health and body size. Major findings from a comparative ethnography on obesogenic environments, refer to the anthropological values related to food and body image, as well as the multidimensional oppression expressed in fat people who live in stigmatized urban zones. At the end, obesity, like many other diseases, is the result of political and cultural constructions structured in urbanization processes.

Keywords: comparative ethnography, urban health, obesogenic cities, biopolitics

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1413 Actually Existing Policy Mobilities in Czechia: Comparing Creative and Smart Cities

Authors: Ondrej Slach, Jan Machacek, Jan Zenka, Lucie Hyllova, Petr Rumpel

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to identify and asses different trajectories of two fashionable urban policies –creative and smart cities– in specific post-socialistic context. Drawing on the case of Czechia, we employ the concept of policy mobility research. More specifically, we employ a discourse analysis in order to identify the so-called 'infrastructure' of both policies (such as principal actors, journals, conferences, events), with the special focus on 'agents of transfer' in a multiscale perspective. The preliminary results indicate faster and more aggressive spatial penetration of smart cities policy compared to creative cities policy in Czechia. Further, it seems that existed translation and implementation of smart cities policy into the national and urban context resulted in deliberated fragmented policy of smart cities in Czechia (pure technocratic view), which might be a threat for the future development of social sustainability, especially in cities that are facing increasing social polarisation. Last but not least, due to the fast spatial penetration of the concept and policies of smart cities, it seems that creative cities policy has almost been crowded out of the Czech urban agenda.

Keywords: policy mobility, smart cities, creative cities, Czechia

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1412 Inclusive Cities Decision Matrix Based on a Multidimensional Approach for Sustainable Smart Cities

Authors: Madhurima S. Waghmare, Shaleen Singhal

Abstract:

The concept of smartness, inclusion, sustainability is multidisciplinary and fuzzy, rooted in economic and social development theories and policies which get reflected in the spatial development of the cities. It is a challenge to convert these concepts from aspirations to transforming actions. There is a dearth of assessment and planning tools to support the city planners and administrators in developing smart, inclusive, and sustainable cities. To address this gap, this study develops an inclusive cities decision matrix based on an exploratory approach and using mixed methods. The matrix is soundly based on a review of multidisciplinary urban sector literature and refined and finalized based on inputs from experts and insights from case studies. The application of the decision matric on the case study cities in India suggests that the contemporary planning tools for cities need to be multidisciplinary and flexible to respond to the unique needs of the diverse contexts. The paper suggests that a multidimensional and inclusive approach to city planning can play an important role in building sustainable smart cities.

Keywords: inclusive-cities decision matrix, smart cities in India, city planning tools, sustainable cities

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1411 Planning for a Smart Sustainable Cities: A Case Study

Authors: Ajaykumar Kambekar, Nikita Kalantri

Abstract:

Due to faster urbanization; developing nations will have to look forward towards establishing new planned cities those are environmentally friendly. Due to growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), it is evident that the rise of smart cities is witnessed as a promising trend for future growth; however, technology alone cannot make a city as a smart city. Cities must use smart systems to enhance the quality of life of its citizens and to achieve sustainable growth. Recent trends in technology may offer some indication towards harnessing our cities potential as the new engines of sustainable growth. To overcome the problems of mega-urbanization, new concept of smart cities has been introduced. The current research aims to reduce the knowledge gap in urban planning by exploring the concept of smart cities considering sustainability as a major focus. The aim of this paper is to plan for an entire smart city. The paper analyses sustainable development and identifies the key factors for the creation of future smart cities. The study also emphasizes the use of advanced planning and scheduling software such as Microsoft Project (MSP).

Keywords: urbanization, planned cities, information and communication technology, sustainable growth

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1410 Integrating Environmental and Ecological Justice for the Sustainable Development of Smart Cities: A Normative Eco Framework

Authors: Thomas Benson

Abstract:

This paper leverages theoretical insights into two different justice approaches – environmental justice and ecological justice – to examine the effectiveness of sustainable development within smart cities and related smart city technology initiatives. Through theoretical development, the author seeks to establish an Eco Framework for smart cities and urban sustainable development. In turn, this paper aims to proffer the notion that there are ecologically sustainable ways in which smart cities can get smarter, and that such strategies can be compatible with ecological justice and environmental justice. Ultimately, a single conceptual framework is put forward to integrate the above approaches and concepts with normative prescriptions, which can serve researchers in the continued examination of smart cities and policymakers in their sustainable development of smart cities.

Keywords: ecological justice, environmental justice, normative framework, smart cities, sustainable development

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1409 The Role of Sustainable Development in the Design and Planning of Smart Cities Using GIS Techniques: Models of Arab Cities

Authors: Ahmed M. Jihad

Abstract:

The paper presents the concept of sustainable development, and the role of geographic techniques in the design, planning and presentation of maps of smart cities with geographical vision, and the identification of programs and tools, and models of maps of Arab cities, is the problem of research in how to apply, process and experience these programs? What is the role of geographic techniques in planning and mapping the optimal place for these cities? The paper proposes an addition to the designs of Iraqi cities, as it can be developed in the future to serve as a model for interactive smart cities by developing its services. The importance of this paper stems from the concept of sustainable development dynamic which has become a method of development imposed by the present era in rapid development to achieve social balance and specialized programs in draw paper argues that ensuring sustainable development is achieved through the use of information technology. The paper will follow the theoretical presentation of the importance of the concept of development, design tools and programs. The paper follows the method of analysis of modern systems (System Analysis Approach) through the latest programs will provide results can be said that the new Iraqi cities can be developed with smart technologies, like some of the Arab and European cities that were newly created through the introduction of international investment, and therefore Plans can be made to select the best programs in manufacturing and producing maps and smart cities in the future.

Keywords: geographic techniques, planning the cities, smart cities, sustainable development

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1408 Citizen Participation in Smart Cities: Singapore and Tokyo

Authors: Thomas Benson

Abstract:

Smart cities have been heralded as multi-faceted entities which utilise information and communication technologies to enhance citizen participation. The purpose of this paper is to outline authoritative definitions of smart cities and citizen participation and investigate smart city citizen-centrism rhetoric by examining urban governance and citizen participation processes. Drawing on extant literature and official city government documents and websites, Singapore (Singapore) and Tokyo (Japan) are chosen as comparable smart city case studies. For the smart city to be truly realised, this paper concludes that smart cities must do more to incorporate genuine citizen participation mechanisms.

Keywords: citizen participation, smart cities, urban governance, Singapore, Tokyo

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1407 Evaluation of the Spatial Performance of Ancient Cities in the Context of Landscape Architecture

Authors: Elvan Ender Altay, Zeynep Pirselimoglu Batman, Murat Zencirkiran

Abstract:

Ancient cities are, according to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), landscape areas designed and created by people, at the same time naturally developing and constantly changing sustainable cultural landscapes. Ancient cities are the urban settlements where we can see the reflection of public lifestyle existed thousands of years ago. The conceptual and spatial traces in ancient cities, are crucial for examining the city history and its preservation. This study is intended to demonstrate the impacts of human life and physical environment on the cultural landscape. This research aims to protect and maintain cultural continuity of the ancient cities in Bursa which contain archeological and historical elements and could not majorly reach to the day because of not being protected and to show importance of landscape architecture to ensure this protection. In this context, ancient cities in Bursa were researched and a total of 7 ancient cities were identified. These ancient cities are; Apollonia, Lopadion, Nicaea, Myrleia, Cius, Daskyleion and Basilinopolis. In the next stage, the spatial performances of ancient cities were assessed by weighted criteria method. The highest score is the Nicaea Ancient City. Considering current situation of the ancient cities in Bursa, it is seen that most of them could not survive until our day due to lack of interest in these areas. As a result, according to the findings, it is a priority to create a protective band with green areas around the archaeological sites, thus adapting to nearby areas and emphasizing culture. In addition, proposals have been made to provide a transportation network that does not harm the ancient cities and the cultural landscape.

Keywords: ancient cities, Bursa, landscape, spatial performance

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1406 Studying the Function of Green Belt around the Metropolises

Authors: Soroush Mokallaei

Abstract:

Since ancient times, urbanization engineers have always thought of creating green spaces along with urbanization. Athens and Rome have attempted to construct public gardens around streets and palaces. Since then developing green space has become a part of urban civilization. In medieval ages, all Western cities had palaces and houses with internal gardens. In different sources green belt is defined as a green band of trees and bushes around the cities which has multiple functions. It is said that green belts are not only around the mountains, cities, and rivers but also around houses, subways, and highways. Constructing green belt around cities has different advantages such as: protecting cities against pollution, purifying air, screening dust, being a place for recreation, buffer zone of city internal lands, confronting the phenomenon of heat island, increasing agricultural products, helping to prevent illegal city development, confronting deforestation, preventing flood and increasing subterranean water resources.

Keywords: environment, garden cities, green belt, metropolises

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1405 Process of Revitalization of the City Centres in Poland: The Problem of Cooperation between Sectors

Authors: Ewa M. Boryczka

Abstract:

Contemporary city is a subject to rapid economic and social changes. Therefore it requires an active policy designed to meet the diverse needs of their residents, build competitive position and capacity to compete with other cities. Competitiveness of cities depends largely on their resources, but also to a large extent, on the policies and performance of local authorities. Cooperation with private and social sectors also plays an important role, as it affects the use of resources and builds an advantage over other cities. The subject of this article is city's contemporary problems of development with particular emphasis on central areas. This issue is a starting point for reflection on the process of urban regeneration in medium size cities in Poland, as well as cooperation between various actors and their roles in the revitalization processes of Polish cities' centres.

Keywords: city, cooperation between sectors, crisis of city centres, revitalization

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1404 Examining Institutional and Structural Racism to Address Persistent Racial Inequities in US Cities

Authors: Zoe Polk

Abstract:

In cities across the US, race continues to predict an individual’s likelihood to be employed, to receive a quality education, to live in a safe neighborhood, to life expectancy to contacts with the criminal justice system. Deep and pervasive disparities exist despite laws enacted at the federal, state and local level to eliminate discrimination. This paper examines the strengths of the U.S. civil rights movement in making discrimination a moral issue. Following the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, cities throughout the US adopted laws that mirror the language, theories of practice and enforcement of the law. This paper argues that while those laws were relevant to the way discrimination was conducted in that time, they are limited in their ability to help cities address discrimination today. This paper reviews health indicators This paper concludes that in order for cities to create environments where race no longer predicts one’s success, cities must conduct institutional and structural racism audits.

Keywords: racism, racial equity, constitutional law, social justice

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1403 Drivers, Patterns and Economic Consequences of Cities’ Globalization

Authors: Denis Ushakov

Abstract:

Cities are the main actors of global production and trade, and dominant share of international business activity is now concentrating within a frame of global urban net. This trend transforms mechanisms and patterns of market economy institutes’ (such as competition, division of labor, international movement of capital and labor force) functioning; stimulates an appearance of new economical (development of rural areas), social (urbanization) and political (political and economical unity of the big countries) problems. All these reasons identified relevance and importance of purpose of this study – to consider a modern role of cities’ business systems in the global economy, to identify sources for global urban competitive advantages, to clear inter-cities economic relationships and patterns of cities’ positioning within a frame of global net.

Keywords: globalization, urban business system, global city, transnationalization, networking

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1402 Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Public Bicycle Projects in Chinese Cities

Authors: Xiujuan Wang, Weiguo Wang, Lei Yu, Xue Liu

Abstract:

There are many purported benefits of public bike systems, therefore, it has seen a sharp increase since 2008 in Hangzhou, China. However, there are few studies on the public bicycle system in Chinese cities. In order to make recommendations for the development of public bicycle systems, this paper analyzes the influencing factors by using the system dynamics method according to the main characteristics of Chinese cities. The main characteristics of Chinese cities lie in the city size and process of urbanization, traffic mode division, demographic characteristics, bicycle infrastructure and right of way, regime structure. Finally, under the context of Chinese bike sharing systems, these analyses results can help to design some feasible strategies for the planner to the development of the public bicycles.

Keywords: engineering of communication and transportation system, bicycle, public bike, characteristics of Chinese cities, system dynamics

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1401 Cities Simulation and Representation in Locative Games from the Perspective of Cultural Studies

Authors: B. A. A. Paixão, J. V. B. Gomide

Abstract:

This work aims to analyze the locative structure used by the locative games of the company Niantic. To fulfill this objective, a literature review on the representation and simulation of cities was developed; interviews with Ingress players and playing Ingress. Relating these data, it was possible to deepen the relationship between the virtual and the real to create the simulation of cities and their cultural objects in locative games. Cities representation associates geo-location provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS), with augmented reality and digital image, and provides a new paradigm in the city interaction with its parts and real and virtual world elements, homeomorphic to real world. Bibliographic review of papers related to the representation and simulation study and their application in locative games was carried out and is presented in the present paper. The cities representation and simulation concepts in locative games, and how this setting enables the flow and immersion in urban space, are analyzed. Some examples of games are discussed for this new setting development, which is a mix of real and virtual world. Finally, it was proposed a Locative Structure for electronic games using the concepts of heterotrophic representations and isotropic representations conjoined with immediacy and hypermediacy.

Keywords: cities representation, cities simulation, games simulation, immersion, locative games

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1400 Key Factors for a Smart City

Authors: Marta Christina Suciu, Cristina Andreea Florea

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relevance of building smart cities in the context of regional development and to analyze the important factors that make a city smart. These cities could be analyzed through the perspective of environment quality, the socio-cultural condition, technological applications and innovations, the vitality of the economic environment and public policies. Starting with these five sustainability domains, we will demonstrate the hypothesis that smart cities are the engine of the regional development. The aim of this paper is to assess the implications of smart cities, in the context of sustainable development, analyzing the benefits of developing creative and innovative cities. Regarding the methodology, it is used the systemic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data, also descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. In conclusion, we will define a direction on the regional development and competitiveness increasing.

Keywords: creativity, innovation, regional development, smart city, sustainability, triple helix

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1399 Evaluating India's Smart Cities against the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

Abstract:

17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the world leaders in September 2015 at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. These goals were adopted by UN member states to promote prosperity, health and human rights while protecting the planet. Around the same time, the Government of India launched the Smart City Initiative to speed up development of state of the art infrastructure and services in 100 cities with a focus on sustainable and inclusive development. These cities are meant to become role models for other cities in India and promote sustainable regional development. This paper examines goals set under the Smart City Initiative and evaluates them in terms of the Sustainable Development Goals, using case studies of selected Smart Cities in India. The study concludes that most Smart City projects at present actually consist of individual solutions to individual problems identified in a community rather than comprehensive models for complex issues in cities across India. Systematic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data has been done, collected from government sources, government papers, research papers by various experts on the topic, and results from some online surveys. Case studies have been used for a graphical analysis highlighting the issues of migration, ecology, economy and social equity in these Smart Cities.

Keywords: housing, migration, smart cities, sustainable development goals, urban infrastructure

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1398 Global City Typologies: 300 Cities and Over 100 Datasets

Authors: M. Novak, E. Munoz, A. Jana, M. Nelemans

Abstract:

Cities and local governments the world over are interested to employ circular strategies as a means to bring about food security, create employment and increase resilience. The selection and implementation of circular strategies is facilitated by modeling the effects of strategies locally and understanding the impacts such strategies have had in other (comparable) cities and how that would translate locally. Urban areas are heterogeneous because of their geographic, economic, social characteristics, governance, and culture. In order to better understand the effect of circular strategies on urban systems, we create a dataset for over 300 cities around the world designed to facilitate circular strategy scenario modeling. This new dataset integrates data from over 20 prominent global national and urban data sources, such as the Global Human Settlements layer and International Labour Organisation, as well as incorporating employment data from over 150 cities collected bottom up from local departments and data providers. The dataset is made to be reproducible. Various clustering techniques are explored in the paper. The result is sets of clusters of cities, which can be used for further research, analysis, and support comparative, regional, and national policy making on circular cities.

Keywords: data integration, urban innovation, cluster analysis, circular economy, city profiles, scenario modelling

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1397 Progress and Challenges of Smart Cities in India: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Sushil K. Sharma, Jeff Zhang, Saeed Tabar

Abstract:

Worldwide, several governments are utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) to create smart city infrastructures to improve both the quality of government services and citizen welfare. Over 700 cities from around the world have already started implementing their smart city projects. Smart City utilizes the network of connected things, or the Internet of Things (IoT), that interconnects devices and various components across city infrastructure, making them work together seamlessly to enhance the quality, performance, and interactivity of urban services, optimize resources, and reduce costs. Without developing smart cities, the accelerating growth of cities, and their disproportionate consumption of physical and social resources are unsustainable. In 2016, the Indian Government released a list of 100 cities with the intention of kick-starting the process of developing them into 'smart cities’ as part of the Smart Cities Mission. This study reports the progress and challenges of Smart City projects in India. The data were collected through the city/state government websites, media reports, and focus group discussions/interviews. The preliminary results indicate that smart city projects are not only behind in their implementation and scope but also lacks the sincerity for its implementation.

Keywords: smart city, smart government, Internet of Things, digital government

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1396 Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities: Using Wastewater and Urban Wetlands as Resource

Authors: Hussnain Mukhtar, Yu-Pin Lin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the concept of ecologically engineered system for sustainable agriculture production with the view of sustainable cities development. Sustainable cities offer numerous eco-services to its inhabitants, and where, among other issues, wastewater nutrients can be considered to be a valuable resource to be used for a sustainable enhancement of urban agriculture in wetlands. Existing cities can be transferred from being only consumer of food and other agriculture product into important resource conserving and sustainable generators of these products. The review provides the food production capacity through introduction of wastewater into urban wetlands, potential for nutrient recovery and ecological engineering intervention to reduce the risk of food contamination by pathogens. Finally, we discuss the potential nutrients accumulating in our cities, as an important aspect of sustainable urban development.

Keywords: ecological engineering, nutrient recovery, pathogens, urban agriculture, wetlands

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1395 Applications Using Geographic Information System for Planning and Development of Energy Efficient and Sustainable Living for Smart-Cities

Authors: Javed Mohammed

Abstract:

As urbanization process has been and will be happening in an unprecedented scale worldwide, strong requirements from academic research and practical fields for smart management and intelligent planning of cities are pressing to handle increasing demands of infrastructure and potential risks of inhabitants agglomeration in disaster management. Geo-spatial data and Geographic Information System (GIS) are essential components for building smart cities in a basic way that maps the physical world into virtual environment as a referencing framework. On higher level, GIS has been becoming very important in smart cities on different sectors. In the digital city era, digital maps and geospatial databases have long been integrated in workflows in land management, urban planning and transportation in government. People have anticipated GIS to be more powerful not only as an archival and data management tool but also as spatial models for supporting decision-making in intelligent cities. The purpose of this project is to offer observations and analysis based on a detailed discussion of Geographic Information Systems( GIS) driven Framework towards the development of Smart and Sustainable Cities through high penetration of Renewable Energy Technologies.

Keywords: digital maps, geo-spatial, geographic information system, smart cities, renewable energy, urban planning

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1394 A Survey on Intelligent Connected-Vehicle Applications Based on Intercommunication Techniques in Smart Cities

Authors: B. Karabuluter, O. Karaduman

Abstract:

Connected-Vehicles consists of intelligent vehicles, each of which can communicate with each other. Smart Cities are the most prominent application area of intelligent vehicles that can communicate with each other. The most important goal that is desired to be realized in Smart Cities planned for facilitating people's lives is to make transportation more comfortable and safe with intelligent/autonomous/driverless vehicles communicating with each other. In order to ensure these, the city must have communication infrastructure in the first place, and the vehicles must have the features to communicate with this infrastructure and with each other. In this context, intelligent transport studies to solve all transportation and traffic problems in classical cities continue to increase rapidly. In this study, current connected-vehicle applications developed for smart cities are considered in terms of communication techniques, vehicular networking, IoT, urban transportation implementations, intelligent traffic management, road safety, self driving. Taxonomies and assessments performed in the work show the trend of studies in inter-vehicle communication systems in smart cities and they are contributing to by ensuring that the requirements in this area are revealed.

Keywords: smart city, connected vehicles, infrastructures, VANET, wireless communication, intelligent traffic management

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1393 Interaction between River and City Morphology

Authors: Ehsan Abshirini

Abstract:

Rivers as one of the most important topographic factors have played a strategic role not only on the appearance of cities but they also affect the structure and morphology of cities. In this paper author intends to find out how a city in its physical network interacts with a river flowing inside. The pilot study is Angers, a city in western France, in which it is influenced by the Maine River. To this purpose space syntax method integrating with GIS is used to extract the properties of physical form of cities in terms of global and local integration value, accessibility and choice value. Simulating the state of absence of river in this city and comparing the result to the current state of city according to the effect of river on the morphology of areas located in different banks of river is also part of interest in this paper. The results show that although a river is not comparable to the city based on size and the area occupied by, it has a significant effect on the form of the city in both global and local properties. In addition, this study endorses that tracking the effect of river-cities and their interaction to rivers in a hybrid of space syntax and GIS may lead researchers to improve their interpretation of physical form of these types of cities.

Keywords: river-cities, Physical form, space syntax properties, GIS, topographic factor

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1392 Development Strategies for Building Smart Cities: The Case of Kalampaka, Greece

Authors: Christos Stamopoulos

Abstract:

Nowadays, the technological evolution has brought changes and new requirements not only on human’s life but also on the environment in which they live. Cities have begun to be organized in new ways which comply with contemporary living standards. The aim of this paper was to present the characteristics and to introduce good construction strategies of smart cities around the world. Also, a case study of the city of Kalampaka and its residents was surveyed. More specifically, residents’ knowledge about smart cities and their opinion for future progress was examined. Statistical analysis showed that residents’ knowledge about smart cities was fairly good (48% knew the phrase 'smart city'). However, respondents believe that the appearance of the city of Kalampaka needs improvement in many areas (the 75% are disappointed with the current appearance of the city). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the value of the environmental sustainability is greatly influenced by the energy saving, as well as, innovation has an impact on the level of quality of life, while older people seem satisfied with administration’s efforts for development.

Keywords: development, economy, environment, governance, quality of life, smart city

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1391 Augmented Reality and Storytelling in Cities: An Application to Lisbon Street Art

Authors: Francisco Guimarães, Mauro Figueiredo, José Rodrigues

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Cities are spaces of memory with several zones (parts of cities) with their own history and cultural events. Today, cities are also marked by a form of intangible cultural heritage like street art, which creates a visual culture based on the process of reflection about the city and the world. To link these realities and create a personal user interaction with this cultural heritage it is important to capture the story and aesthetics, and find alternatives to immerse the user in these spaces of memory. To that end, this article presents a project which combines Augmented Reality technologies and concepts of Transmedia Storytelling applied to Lisbon City, using Street Art artifacts as markers in a framework of digital media-art.

Keywords: augmented reality, cultural heritage, street art, transmedia storytelling, digital media-art

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1390 Redesigning Smart Cities: Case Study of Milton Keynes

Authors: Faten Hatem

Abstract:

The research explores the significance of more value-based rationality and more reflexive practice for the construction of smart cities, rethinking how human experiences are approached to improve it to be more balanced and engaging rather than merely focused on the pleasure of the eye. This transition establishes a sense of place in the city that is proven necessary to enhance people`s attitude and overall wellbeing. As the vision of smart cities promotes them as more liveable cities while mainly focusing on achieving more efficient services, the main question this research project seeks to address is how to make a more engaging atmosphere in the smart cities space, where different urban areas give different ambience, taste, identity and personality. The research investigates how well informed, diverse, and supported smart city making is to accomplish a better experience, why, and how to improve. Therefore, it suggests examining the normative nature of smart cities and to make the process of its construction more considerate of the value of fulfilling various experiential needs of humans. The research engages through an abductive approach in dialogue with a variety of approaches and practices of smart cities construction that might differ in their ontological, epistemological, and theoretical approaches. The methodology analyses a case study through a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The methods analyse smart city standards, observations, and interviews with multi-disciplinary experts involved in the rolling out of smart urbanism. The study will use knowledge systems analysis as an organizing framework to recognize thinking patterns and factors that contribute to the results in terms of creating an engaging atmosphere in the smart city. The findings will be used to create practical guidelines that improve the ability of smart cities to produce more engaging experiences, which is also the development of a process of how (and with whom) they are conceived, designed and implemented, that will help redefine progress in city development from merely enhancing basic functions to improving the human experience.

Keywords: smart design, smart cities, sustainability, smart cities construction

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1389 Korean Smart Cities: Strategic Foci, Characteristics and Effects

Authors: Sang Ho Lee, Yountaik Leem

Abstract:

This paper reviews Korean cases of smart cities through the analysis framework of strategic foci, characteristics and effects. Firstly, national strategies including c(cyber), e(electronic), u(ubiquitous) and s(smart) Korea strategies were considered from strategic angles. Secondly, the characteristics of smart cities in Korea were looked through the smart cities examples such as Seoul, Busan, Songdo and Sejong cities etc. from the views on the by STIM (Service, Technology, Infrastructure and Management) analysis. Finally, the effects of smart cities on socio-economies were investigated from industrial perspective using the input-output model and structural path analysis. Korean smart city strategies revealed that there were different kinds of strategic foci. c-Korea strategy focused on information and communications network building and user IT literacy. e-Korea strategy encouraged e-government and e-business through utilizing high-speed information and communications network. u-Korea strategy made ubiquitous service as well as integrated information and communication operations center. s-Korea strategy is propelling 4th industrial platform. Smart cities in Korea showed their own features and trends such as eco-intelligence, high efficiency and low cost oriented IoT, citizen sensored city, big data city. Smart city progress made new production chains fostering ICTs (Information Communication Technologies) and knowledge intermediate inputs to industries.

Keywords: Korean smart cities, Korean smart city strategies, STIM, smart service, infrastructure, technologies, management, effect of smart city

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1388 Developing a Theory for Study of Transformation of Historic Cities

Authors: Sana Ahrar

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Cities are undergoing rapid transformation with the change in lifestyle and technological advancements. These transformations may be experienced or physically visible in the built form. This paper focuses on the relationship between the social, physical environment, change in lifestyle and the interrelated factors influencing the transformation of any historic city. Shahjahanabad as a city has undergone transformation under the various political powers as well as the various policy implementations after independence. These visible traces of transformation diffused throughout the city may be due to socio-economic, historic, political factors and due to the globalization process. This study shall enable evolving a theory for the study of transformation of Historic cities such as Shahjahanabad: which has been plundered, rebuilt, and which still thrives as a ‘living heritage city’. The theory developed will be the process of studying the transformation and can be used by planners, policy makers and researchers in different urban contexts.

Keywords: heritage, historic cities, Shahjahanabad, transformation

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1387 Urban Design for Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Narjis Zehra

Abstract:

After automobile revolution 1.0, we have automobile revolution 2.0 standing at the horizon, Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). While the technology is developing into more adaptable form, the conversations around its impact on our cities have already started on multiple scales, from academic institutions and community town halls, to the offices of mayors. In order to explore more the AVs impact on Urban transformation, we first inquire if cities can be redesigned or rebuilt. Secondly, we discuss expectation management for the public and policy in terms of what people think/believe AV technology will deliver, and what the current technological evidence suggests the technology and its adoption will look like. Thirdly, based on these discussions, we take Pittsburgh, PA, as a case study to extrapolate what other cities might need to do in order to prepare themselves for the upcoming technological revolution, that may impact more than just the research institutes. Finally, we conclude by suggesting a political way forward to embed urban design with AV technology for equitable cities of tomorrow.

Keywords: urban design, autonomous vehicles, transformation, policy

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1386 Meeting Places in the Urban Strategy to Build a Happy City: A Mixed Research Approach

Authors: J. Szoltysek, S. Twarog

Abstract:

The happy city, as the desired effect of changes implemented by cities, involves the deliberate and purposeful evolution of material and spiritual space in which residents pursue happiness, as it is perceived collectively and individually. The quality of life (QoL) has, for many years, been researched as one of the dimensions of happiness. Both literature studies and the observation of how cities function lead to the conclusion that the happy city is the city of meetings. The importance of meeting spaces in cities for the quality of life has been confirmed also for Polish cities and, as a result, the conclusions may be drawn that public space should be planned in such a manner so as to tailor it – to the greatest possible degree – to the needs of the residents of Polish cities. The study embraced both Polish and foreign data concerning both the dimension of the quality of life in cities and the issues related to the existence of common spaces where meetings take place. Both quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques have been used to analyze and interpret the data collected. We sought the answers to the questions on the significance of the factors, identified by the respondents, which affect the QoL in a city. We identified 9 mega factors: being, work, education, recreation, health and safety, mobility, neighborhood, acceptance, agora. We established the preferences of the QoL in relation to the size of a city and the public spaces, that seem to be the cornerstone of the happy city.

Keywords: city, meetings, public spaces, social cohesion, quality of life

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1385 Accelerating the Uptake of Smart City Applications through Cloud Computing

Authors: Panagiotis Tsarchopoulos, Nicos Komninos, Christina Kakderi

Abstract:

Smart cities are high on the political agenda around the globe. However, planning smart cities and deploying applications dealing with the complex problems of the urban environment is a very challenging task that is difficult to be undertaken solely by the cities. We argue that the uptake of smart city strategies is facilitated, first, through the development of smart city application repositories allowing re-use of already developed and tested software, and, second, through cloud computing which disengages city authorities from any resource constraints, technical or financial, and has a higher impact and greater effect at the city level The combination of these two solutions allows city governments and municipalities to select and deploy a large number of applications dedicated to different city functions, which collectively could create a multiplier effect with a greater impact on the urban environment.

Keywords: smart cities, applications, cloud computing, migration to the cloud, application repositories

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