Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 922

Search results for: persons with disabilities

922 Strengthening the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Shafallah Foundation as a Model

Authors: Osman Mohamed

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Over the past two decades, the global interest in the rights of persons with disabilities (PWDs) has increased that resulted in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPWDs). In this regard, the Gulf States have witnessed remarkable efforts towards strengthening the rights of persons with disabilities, including enactment of laws and establishment of specialized government councils for the Persons with Disabilities. This study aims to highlight the efforts of Shafallah Foundation in strengthening the rights of persons with disabilities as a model for the Gulf States. The researcher will conduct interviews with officials at Shafallah Foundation, some persons with disabilities who have benefited from the Foundation's programmes, officials from government agencies related to Persons with disabilities. The study is expected to reveal the role of Shafallah Foundation in implementing the UNCRPWDs through its programmes and activities as well as an overview of the situation of the rights of PWDs in the Gulf States. The study is important for stakeholders, decision-makers, policy-makers, academics, and the disability’s organizations.

Keywords: GCC, Gulf Cooperation Council, Shafallah Foundation, UNCRPWDs, United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, PWDs, persons with disabilities

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921 Access to Justice for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in Indonesia: Case and Problem in Indonesian Criminal Justice System

Authors: Fines Fatimah, SH. MH.

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Indonesia is one of the countries that has ratified the UNCRPD (United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities). The ratification of this convention brings consequences on the adjustment of national legislation with the UNCRPD convention, where this ratification at the same time is a measure in the eyes of the international community that a state party could be consistent with the issues and problems of disability. Persons with disabilities often have little access to justice when they are forced to deal with the criminal justice system. Pursuit of justice through litigation are often not in their favor, therefore without any awareness of law enforcement/awareness of disability will further complicate access to justice for persons with disabilities. Under Article 13 of the UNCRPD, it appeared that the convention requires ratifying states to guarantee equal opportunity and treatment in justice for persons with disabilities. The States should also ensure that any judicial rules must be adapted to the circumstances of persons with disabilities so that people with disabilities can fully participate in all stages of the trial court and, for example, as a witness. Finally, the state must provide training to understand these persons with disabilities (for those who work in the judiciary institution such as police or prison officials). Further, this paper aims to describe problem faced by persons with intellectual disabilities to access justice in Indonesian Criminal Justice System. This paper tries to find and propose the alternative solutions to promote the quality of law enforcement in Indonesia, especially for persons with intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: access to justice, Indonesian criminal justice system, intellectual disability, ratifying states

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920 Creating Entrepreneurs through Contribution of Individuals and Corporations: An Insight on Persons with Disabilities in Bangladesh

Authors: Saptarshi Dhar, Tahira Farzana

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In Bangladesh, particularly in rural areas, persons with disabilities are generally isolated from the mainstream and are pushed to the margins of society. They are seen as an individual problem, not as a social responsibility. As a result, persons with disabilities face challenges to actively participate in social and economic activities. The country is experiencing a steady economic and per capita growth over the past few years and entrepreneurial opportunities are also increasing. However, involvement of persons with disabilities in entrepreneurship is yet to increase. The aim of this paper is to explore the issue of entrepreneurship for persons with disabilities through contribution of individuals and corporations in the context of social responsibility. The paper is exploratory in nature and is approached through a three-month research project 'Shwanirbhor' run by the authors in Pakshi area of Pabna District in Bangladesh. The authors collected data through semi structured questionnaire, interviews and focus group discussions. Through the project, persons with disabilities were provided with financial capital (collected through contribution of individuals and corporations), business plans and advisory assistance on a need basis to help them start entrepreneurial ventures. The findings of the study indicate that in terms of contribution toward a social cause, individuals and corporations have positive attitude and are willing to offer monetary and nonmonetary assistance. When provided with entrepreneurial opportunity, persons with disabilities showed motivation in joining entrepreneurship to improve their economic standing and to be financially independent. In addition to that, the study also found that factors such as social inclusion and acceptance, economic empowerment, breaking the social and family barrier are also the reasons that drive persons with disabilities into embracing entrepreneurship. Moreover, while starting and running the entrepreneurial activities, they face constraints that range from personal, environmental, operational and infrastructural to informational barriers. The paper also proposes a strategy framework for entrepreneurship creation in Bangladesh which could be supportive for policy development for persons with disabilities.

Keywords: Bangladesh, entrepreneurship, persons with disabilities (PWD), social responsibility

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919 Employment of Persons with Disabilities in Georgia: Challenges and Perspectives

Authors: Tamar Makharadze, Anastasia Kitiashvili, Irine Zhvania, Tamar Abashidze

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After ratification of UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD) by the Parliament of Georgia in 2013, ensuring equal access to education and employment for people with disabilities has become one of the priorities of the government. The current research has analyzed the attitudes of people with disabilities, employers and society towards various challenges that employment of persons with disabilities faces in Georgia. The study has been carried out in the capital city and three towns in West and East Georgia. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods have been used. Employers’ attitudes have been studied by analyzing research data from six focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews. Views of persons with disabilities have been analyzed relied on data from eight focus groups and 14 in-depth interviews. The quantitative study covered 490 surveyed respondents from four cities in Georgia. The research was carried out with the employees of companies selected based on the Simple Random Sample; in each company, based on the size of the company 7–10 employees were surveyed. A survey was conducted using a specially developed structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS (21.0). The research was carried out during June-August 2015. The research data shows that both qualitative and quantitative research participants view employment of persons with disabilities positively; however persons with severe intellectual disabilities and mental problems are viewed as less workable and desired at workplaces. The respondents support the idea of employment of persons with disabilities at an open labour market; at the same time idea of a development of sheltered workshops is also supported. The vast majority of research participants believe that employers should be rather encouraged to hire persons with disabilities than force them to do so. For employers it is important to have the state assistance in adjusting working place to the needs of employee with disabilities. Some tax benefits for employers having employees with disabilities also are seen as encouraging employment of persons with disabilities. Both employers and persons with disabilities believe that development of job coaching will help persons with disabilities to find and maintain a job at the open market. Majority of survey respondents think that the main reasons discouraging employment of persons with disabilities in Georgia are: poor socioeconomic background and high level of unemployment in the country, absence of related state programs and existed stigma towards persons with disabilities within the society. To conclude it can be said that both employers and persons with disabilities expect initiative from the government – development of the programs and services focusing on employment of persons with disabilities that will be rather encouraging and supporting than punishing and forcing. Relied on survey data it can be said that people have positive attitudes to see persons with disabilities at workplaces, educational institutions and public places. This creates a good background for extensive and consistent work towards social inclusion of persons with disabilities in Georgia.

Keywords: supported employment, job coaching, employment of persons with disabilities in Georgia, social inclusion

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918 Social Space or the Art of Belonging: The Socio-Spatial Approach in the Field of Residential Facilities for Persons with Disabilities

Authors: Sarah Reker

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The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) provides the basis of this study. For all countries which have ratified the convention since its entry into force in 2007, the effective implementation of the requirements often leads to considerable challenges. Furthermore, missing indicators make it difficult to measure progress. Therefore, the aim of the research project is to contribute to analyze the consequences of the implementation process on the inclusion and exclusion conditions for people with disabilities in Germany. Disabled People’s Organisations and other associations consider the social space to be relevant for the successful implementation of the CRPD. Against this background, the research project wants to focus on the relationship between a barrier-free access to the social space and the “full and effective participation and inclusion” (Art. 3) of persons with disabilities. The theoretical basis of the study is the sociological theory of social space (“Sozialraumtheorie”).

Keywords: decentralisation, qualitative research, residential facilities, social space

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917 Calling Persons with Disability as Divine: Exploring and Critiquing Meanings of Divyang (The One with a Divine Limb) in the Indian Context

Authors: Vinay Suhalka

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In India, the official nomenclature used by the State for persons with disability is divyang (literally, the one with a divine limb), a word coming from the Sanskrit language. Disability thus gets portrayed as divine, at least in the welfare sector from where it flows down even to the popular imagination where it gets equated to divinity. This paper looks at reference to persons with disabilities as divyangs and goes on to discusses what such usage for an already marginalized group achieves and misses out. The issue of nomenclature and language has always been a contested one when it comes to disability. At the same time, there is also an issue of who determines these labels for the persons with disability. Nomenclature and language used for disability can have real consequences for the population of persons with disability as it may empower or disempower them. Thus, this paper looks at the issue of what it means for persons with disabilities as ‘exceptionally gifted’ and hence divyang. Language can be a powerful tool to communicate meanings and messages associated with a term. When the persons with disabilities as a group are described as ‘exceptionally gifted, talented and the source of inspiration’, it essentially stereotypes and marginalizes them by putting a burden of performance that all of them ought to be achievers, and it is only then that they would be assimilated in the larger society. This paper also argues that such a situation creates a ‘double bind’ where the person is always trying to match up to the labels (the disabled as ‘achiever, overcomer, inspirational’) created by somebody else and looks at self through the eyes of others. This conceptual paper also presents an overview of disability labels while simultaneously looking at projecting disability as divinity which has the potential to wrongly portray the lives of persons with disability in India due to the official usage of the term. It also explores the question of visibility of disability since the idea of divyang implicitly assumes that all disabilities are visible. In reality, however, it may not be the case simply because all forms of disabilities are not visible, people may choose not to visibilize their disabilities if they can and pass as able-bodied, fearing the stigma that surrounds disability. Finally, it argues for an increased focus on understanding the everyday lived realities of those with disability in order to regard it as an important form of difference which could be a potential resource for the society.

Keywords: persons with disability, labels, language use, divinity

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916 Motivation for Higher Education: An Exploration of Lived Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Ghanaian University

Authors: Yaw Akoto

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The social construction of disability in a Ghanaian society has created a restriction on the development of the academic potentials of persons with disabilities. Ghanaian societal perceptions position persons with disabilities as needy, evil, feeble and 'abnormal' that a person with disability cannot contribute anything meaningful to their own development, society, and the nation as well. Almost all Ghanaian cultures believe the Gods visit evil people with disability as such they erect barriers that limit them to select and enroll in education. The few people with disabilities who gain admission to schools drop out due to these barriers erected by the society and institutions. However, there are very few of these students who are able to pursue their education at the higher education level despite these challenges. This qualitative study explores the motivation of students with disabilities to select and enroll in a Ghanaian university. The study used semi-structured interview to solicit information from students with disabilities in a Ghanaian university. Although the quality of students with disabilities experience was affected by culture, discrimination, marginalisation, and lack of support, the prospect of using themselves as role models, employment opportunities and family impingement were among others that pushed them to embark on their educational journey. The findings of this study have implications for societal and institutional levels for restructuring and refining societal perception and institutional policies on disabilities.

Keywords: beliefs, Ghanaian university, social construction, students with disabilities

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915 Steps toward the Support Model of Decision-Making in Hungary: The Impact of the Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on the Hungarian National Legislation

Authors: Szilvia Halmos

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Hungary was one of the first countries to sign and ratify the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (hereinafter: CRPD). Consequently, Hungary assumed an obligation under international law to review the national law in the light of the Article 12 of the CRPD requiring the States parties to guarantee the equality of persons with disabilities in terms of legal capacity, and to replace the regimes of substitute decision-making by the instruments of supported decision-making. This article is often characterized as one of the key norms of the CRPD, since the legal autonomy of the persons with disabilities is an essential precondition of their participation in the social life on an equal basis with others, envisaged by the social paradigm of disability. This paper examines the impact of the CRPD on the relevant Hungarian national legal norms, with special focus on the relevant rules of the recently codified Civil Code. The employed research methodologies include (1) the specification of the implementation requirements imposed by the Article 12 of the CRPD, (2) the determination of the indicators of the appropriate implementation, (3) the critical analysis of compliance of the relevant Hungarian legal regulation with the indicators, (4) with respect to the relevant case law of the Hungarian Constitutional Court and ordinary courts, the European Court of Human Rights and the Committee of Rights of Persons with Disabilities and (5) to the available empirical figures on the functioning of substitute and supported decision-making regimes. It will be established that the new Civil Code has made large steps toward the equality of persons with disabilities in terms of legal capacity and the support model of decision-making by the introduction of some specific instruments of supported decision-making and the restriction of the application of guardianship. Nevertheless, the regulation currently in effect fails to represent some crucial principles of the Article 12 of the CRPD, such as the non-discrimination of persons with psycho-social disabilities, the support of the articulation of the will and preferences of the individual instead of his/her best interest in the course of decision-making. The changes in the practice of the substitute and the support model brought about by the new legal norms can also be assessed as significant, however, so far unsatisfactory. The number of registered supporters is rather low, and the preconditions of the effective functioning of the support (e.g. the proper training of the supporters) are not ensured.

Keywords: Article 12 of the UN CRPD, Hungarian law on legal capacity, persons with intellectual and psycho-social disabilities, supported decision-making

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914 The Place of Inclusive Education in the Transformative Education of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Olabisi

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The society has bastion of people with diverse kinds of special needs which invariably affect the kind of education that is provided to this category of children. Most schools for pupils with intellectual disabilities seem not to be achieving the objectives it was set out to achieve. Hence, there is the need to provide transformative education for these children with intellectual disabilities which can only be achieved in an inclusive educational setting. However, achieving this has been a great challenge in Nigeria. This paper, however, dealt with the urgent need for transformative teaching for persons with intellectual disabilities in readiness for them to be accepted in the society and also enhance their self-concept and perception which in turn will make a way for their self-sustenance. Suggestions and recommendations that will better enhance the full implementation of transformative teaching for pupils with intellectual disabilities in an inclusive environment were also made.

Keywords: inclusive education, transformative education, intellectual disabilities, Oyo state, Nigeria

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913 Realizing the Rights of Prisoners with Disabilities in Nigeria: A Case Study of Four Lagos State Prisons

Authors: Jacob Bogart, Adaobi Egboka

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Nigeria signed and ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2010, which was heralded as a much-needed step towards protecting the rights of persons with disabilities (PWDs). However, even with such progress, incarcerated PWDs have been left behind. The current legal framework in Nigeria does not consider the particular challenges PWDs face in prison nor make provisions to address them, despite the need for such reforms. Indeed, given the closed and restricted nature of prisons, and the violence that results from overcrowding, lack of supervision, and poor facilities, prisoners with disabilities often face significant challenges while incarcerated. While every prisoner is affected by these issues, PWDs are disproportionately harmed by them due to the nature of their disability. A study of four prisons in Lagos State, Nigeria was carried out by interviewing prisoners with disabilities, prison officials, advocates, and academics. The study found that for prisoners with physical disabilities, inaccessible prison facilities and a lack of mobility, hearing, or seeing assistance can often cause them to be dependent on the mercy of the other inmates for assistance in performing such basic functions as using the restroom, going to church, or washing themselves. Prison officials do not assist these PWDs or provide them with aids, such as crutches or a cane. Relatedly, prisoners with psychosocial disabilities (mental health conditions) often are not removed to health care facilities, despite a law to that effect, and are left to languish in prisons without the mental health care treatment they need. This presentation argues that reforms addressing the rights of PWDs must consider and make provisions for prisoners with disabilities, such as ensuring that prison facilities are accessible, providing PWDs with mobility, seeing or hearing aids as needed, and conducting mental health screenings for persons awaiting trial immediately upon entering the prison. These reforms, among others, are necessary first steps toward realizing the rights of prisoners with disabilities in Nigeria.

Keywords: disability rights, human rights, Lagos, Nigeria, prisoners with disabilities

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912 Department of Social Development/Japan International Cooperation Agency's Journey from South African Community to Southern African Region

Authors: Daisuke Sagiya, Ren Kamioka

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South Africa has ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) on 30th November 2007. In line with this, the Department of Social Development (DSD) revised the White Paper on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (WPRPD), and the Cabinet approved it on 9th December 2015. The South African government is striving towards the elimination of poverty and inequality in line with UNCRPD and WPRPD. However, there are minimal programmes and services that have been provided to persons with disabilities in the rural community. In order to address current discriminative practices, disunity and limited self-representation in rural community, DSD in cooperation with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is implementing the 'Project for the Promotion of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities and Disability Mainstreaming' from May 2016 to May 2020. The project is targeting rural community as the project sites, namely 1) Collins Chabane municipality, Vhembe district, Limpopo and 2) Maluti-a-Phofung municipality, Thabo Mofutsanyana district, Free State. The project aims at developing good practices on Community-Based Inclusive Development (CBID) at the project sites which will be documented as a guideline and applied in other provinces in South Africa and neighbouring countries (Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique). In cooperation with provincial and district DSD and local government, the project is currently implementing various community activities, for example: Establishment of Self-Help Group (SHG) of persons with disabilities and Peer Counselling in the villages, and will conduct Disability Equality Training (DET) and accessibility workshop in order to enhance the CBID in the project sites. In order to universalise good practices on CBID, the authors will explain lessons learned from the project by utilising the theories of disability and development studies and community psychology such as social model of disability, twin-track approach, empowerment theory, sense of community, helper therapy principle, etc. And the authors conclude that in order to realise social participation of persons with disabilities in rural community, CBID is a strong tool and persons with disabilities must play central roles in all spheres of CBID activities.

Keywords: community-based inclusive development, disability mainstreaming, empowerment of persons with disabilities, self-help group

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911 Electoral Reforms and Voting Participation of Persons with Disabilities in 2019 General Elections in Nigeria

Authors: Afeez Kolawole Shittu

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Democracy as practiced across the globe is sustained with the increase participation of all eligible voters irrespective of class, race, colour, and disabilities. However, there is a perception within the contemporary African society that people with disability (PWDs) belongs to charity and welfare. This is exacerbated with little understanding among African counties including Nigeria that persons with disability have fundamental rights inevitably rooted in the constitution. This significant viewpoint has continued to militate against the social inclusion of persons with disabilities in various aspects of societal lives including their political participation It is instructive to note that the political right of PWDs has been protected by various international conventions. Article 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights and Dignities for Persons with Disability (CRPD) guaranteed the participation of persons with disability in the political process. Domesticating and ratification of this right has been a challenge for many African countries including Nigeria. Against the backdrop, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting elections in Nigeria provided forum for the participation of persons with disability in election through implementations of electoral act. Section 56 (1) and (2) of the 2010 Electoral Act (as amended) provide for voting participation of persons with disability. This study examines the implementation of the electoral act and how it impacts the voting participation of persons with disability vis-à-vis other challenges affecting the participation of PWDs in electoral process in Nigeria’s 2019 general election. This paper draws on mixed method in sourcing relevant information from the respondents. Interview will be conducted among INEC officials, Civil Society Organisations, Joint National Association of Persons with Disability (JONAPWD). Questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion will be held among different forms of PWDs. The data will be analysed using appropriate descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, as well as thematic content analysis. The study will enlighten understanding on the awareness of the political rights of PWDs as well as improving their electoral participation for sustainable democracy in Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country.

Keywords: electoral reforms, voting participation, persons with disabilities

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910 Improving the Quality of Higher Education for Students with Disability in Universities of Pakistan

Authors: Nasir Sulman

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In Pakistan, the inclusion of persons with disabilities in higher education institutions has significantly been increased with every passing year and anyone can observe a sizeable number of these students in each faculty. The study executes to conduct a baseline survey for measuring faculty understanding about the special needs, experiences of students with disabilities and support provided by university administration in order to teach these students effectively. The researcher has used mixed methods and the University of Karachi was selected through non-probability-based sampling method. This university is one of the largest universities in Pakistan where more than 40,000 students have been enrolled. Data was gathered through a questionnaire and focused group discussion from three stakeholders including students with disabilities, faculty members and members of the university administration. The key findings show that students with disabilities experience a number of problems related to accommodating their special needs. However, the most encouraging factors identified are the attitude, support, and motivation they received from various faculty members and university administration. On the basis of the findings of the study the researcher has prepared a faculty guidebook and established a ‘Model Learning Assistance Centre for Students with Disabilities’ in the Department of Special Education, University of Karachi. Both these efforts will be helpful for improving the support services for students with disabilities to strengthen the existing laws, policies, and practices in institutions of higher education.

Keywords: persons with disabilities, higher education, learning assistance center, faculty guidebook

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909 Assistive Technologies and the 'Myth' of Independent Living: A Sociological Understanding of Assistive Technologies for Locomotor Disabled in India

Authors: Pavani K. Sree, Ragahava Reddy Chandri

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Independent living and living with dignity have been the hallmarks of the movement of the persons with disabilities across the globe against the oppression perpetuated by society in the form of social and physical structural barriers. Advancements in assistive technologies have been providing a new lease of life to persons with disabilities. However, access to these technologies is marred by the issues of affordability and availability. Poor from the developing countries find it difficult to make independent living or live with dignity because of lack of access and inability to afford the advance technologies. Class and gender appear to be key factors influencing the access to modern assistive technologies. The present paper attempts to understand the dynamics of class and gender in accessing advanced technologies in the Indian context. Based on an empirical study in which data were collected from persons with locomotor disabilities and service providers, the paper finds that the advance technologies are expensive and inaccessible to all persons with disabilities. The paper also finds that men with disabilities are prioritized by the members of the family for the use of advance technologies while women with disabilities are forced to live with not so advanced technologies. The paper finds that the state institutions working in the field of prosthetics and assistive technologies fail to deliver to the requirements of the poor. It was found that because of lack of facilities at the state institutions the cost of prosthetics, in the case of orthopedically challenged, is expensive and unaffordable for the poor. It was found that while rich male access the private services the poor women depend on the state institutions. It may be said that the social, cultural stereotypes extend not only to the state organizations but also to the use of prosthetics. Thus the notions of independent living and living with dignity in third world countries context are still elusive.

Keywords: accessibility, assistive technology, class, gender, state

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908 Attitudes of the Adolescent Students towards People with Disabilities and Demographic Variables: An Indian Context

Authors: Santoshi Halder, Bijoya Saha

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Adolescent’s attitude is one of the most important variables in the inclusion of people with disabilities. This article investigated attitudes of general adolescent in the eastern part of India (Kolkata), India, towards people with disabilities measured by responses on the Attitude toward Disabled Persons Scale. The present study examined 400, High School adolescent students of Mean Age 14 from various schools in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. The study measured whether demographic characteristics such as gender, socioeconomic status (SES) habitat affect the attitudes of adolescent students towards people with disabilities. The results of this study indicate that habitat and socioeconomic status are some of the significant factors affecting the attitudes of the general adolescent students towards people with disabilities (PwD). However findings also indicate no significant effect on the attitude of the students towards people with disabilities (PwD) with respect to gender. Implication of this study: Broader and wide range of exposure to students and healthy family environment in order to increase positive attitudes towards people with disabilities.

Keywords: attitudes, People with Disabilities (PwD), adolescent students, socioeconomic status, gender, habitat, inclusion

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907 Factors Associated with Self-Rated Health among Persons with Disabilities: A Korean National Survey

Authors: Won-Seok Kim, Hyung-Ik Shin

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Self-rated health (SRH) is a subjective assessment of individual health and has been identified as a strong predictor for mortality and morbidity. However few studies have been directed to the factors associated with SRH in persons with disabilities (PWD). We used data of 7th Korean national survey for 5307 PWD in 2008. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to find out independent risk factors for poor SRH in PWD. As a result, indicators of physical condition (poor instrumental ADL), socioeconomic disadvantages (poor education, economically inactive, low self-rated social class, medicaid in health insurance, presence of unmet need for hospital use) and social participation and networks (no use of internet service) were selected as independent risk factors for poor SRH in final model. Findings in the present study would be helpful in making a program to promote the health and narrow the gap of health status between the PWD.

Keywords: disabilities, risk factors, self-rated health, socioeconomic disadvantages, social networks

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906 Induced Emotional Empathy and Contextual Factors like Presence of Others Reduce the Negative Stereotypes Towards Persons with Disabilities through Stronger Prosociality

Authors: Shailendra Kumar Mishra

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In this paper, we focus on how contextual factors like the physical presence of other perceivers and then developed induced emotional empathy towards a person with disabilities may reduce the automatic negative stereotypes and then response towards that person. We demonstrated in study 1 that negative attitude based on negative stereotypes assessed on ATDP-test questionnaires on five points Linkert-scale are significantly less negative when participants were tested with a group of perceivers and then tested alone separately by applying 3 (positive, indifferent, and negative attitude levels) X 2 (physical presence condition and alone) factorial design of ANOVA test. In the second study, we demonstrate, by applying regression analysis, in the presence of other perceivers, whether in a small group, participants showed more induced emotional empathy through stronger prosociality towards a high distress target like a person with disabilities in comparison of that of other stigmatized persons such as racial biased or gender-biased people. Thus results show that automatic affective response in the form of induced emotional empathy in perceiver and contextual factors like the presence of other perceivers automatically activate stronger prosocial norms and egalitarian goals towards physically challenged persons in comparison to other stigmatized persons like racial or gender-biased people. This leads to less negative attitudes and behaviour towards a person with disabilities.

Keywords: contextual factors, high distress target, induced emotional empathy, stronger prosociality

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905 Israeli Households Caring for Children and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Explorative Study

Authors: Ayelet Gur

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Background: In recent years we are witnessing a welcome trend in which more children/persons with disabilities are living at home with their families and within their communities. This trend is related to various policy innovations as the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities that reflect a shift from the medical-institutional model to a human rights approach. We also witness the emergence of family centered approaches that perceive the family and not just the individual with the disability as a worthy target of policy planning, implementation and evaluation efforts. The current investigation aims to explore economic, psychological and social factors among households of families of children or adults with intellectual disabilities in Israel and to present policy recommendation. Methods: A national sample of 301 households was recruited through the education and employment settings of persons with intellectual disability. The main caregiver of the person with the disability (a parent) was interviewed. Measurements included the income and expense surveys; assets and debts questionnaire; the questionnaire on resources and stress; the social involvement questionnaire and Personal Wellbeing Index. Results: Findings indicate significant gaps in financial circumstances between households of families of children with intellectual disabilities and households of the general Israeli society. Households of families of children with intellectual disabilities report lower income and higher expenditures and loans than the general society. They experience difficulties in saving and coping with unexpected expenses. Caregivers (the parents) experience high stress, low social participation, low financial support from family, friend and non-governmental organizations and decreased well-being. They are highly dependent on social security allowances which constituted 40% of the household's income. Conclusions: Households' dependency on social security allowances may seem contradictory to the encouragement of persons with intellectual disabilities to favor independent living in light of the human rights approach to disability. New policy should aim at reducing caregivers' stress and enhance their social participation and support, with special emphasis on families of lower socio-economic status. Finally, there is a need to continue monitoring the economic and psycho-social needs of households of families of children with intellectual disabilities and other developmental disabilities.

Keywords: disability policy, family policy, intellectual and developmental disabilities, Israel, households study, parents of children with disabilities

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904 Learning Difficulties of Children with Disabilities

Authors: Chalise Kiran

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The learning difficulties of children with disabilities are always a matter of concern when we talk about educational needs and quality education of children with disabilities. This paper is the outcome of the review of the literatures based on the literatures on the educational needs and learning difficulties of children with disabilities. For the paper, different studies written on children with disabilities and their education were collected through search engines. The literature put together was analyzed from the angle of learning difficulties faced by children with disabilities and the same were used as a precursor to arrive at the findings on the learning of the children. The analysis showed that children with disabilities face learning difficulties. The reasons for these difficulties could be attributed to factors in terms of authority, structure, school environment, and behaviors of teachers and parents, and the society as a whole.

Keywords: children with disabilities, learning difficulties, education, disabled children

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903 The Sexuality of People with Physical Disabilities: A Qualitative Feminist Perspective of Carer's Points of View

Authors: Etsuko Sakairi

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In 2016 Japan started to enforce domestic legislation in the form of the Act of Elimination of Discrimination against Persons with Disability, along with ratifying the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2014. However, it is not clear what kind of situations would be considered cases of discrimination in relation to issues of sexuality according to this legislation. Furthermore, in March 2016, the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) made a recommendation to the Japanese government to conduct a study of the forced sterilization of women under the Eugenic Protection Act. This research is carried out against this background in which the experiences of people with disabilities have often been restricted by caregivers and family members—as evidenced by the high number of eugenics surgeries performed on people with disabilities without their consent. This research contributes to this topic by presenting voices and perspectives of key people, especially focusing on the voices of carers who are working with people with physical disabilities in a Non-Western country, Japan. Furthermore, since 90% of the research on the topic of sexuality of people with disabilities is conducted in Western countries, the voices from Non-Western countries in this regard are greatly lacking. In the part of the research presented here, the researcher has employed a feminist disability theory to understand the circumstances surrounding people with physical disabilities. She has gathered voices from 58 carers by using an on-line questionnaire (55) and by conducting face-to-face interviews (3). In this presentation, the researcher will introduce experiences and thoughts regarding sexuality and people with disabilities by using carers’ own words. One of the major findings was carers’ concern about a boundary issue. Although each carer has had unique experiences depending on their professional or personal relationship with people with physical disabilities, many of them shared some similar viewpoints. This included a concern that assisting with the meeting of some forms of sexual needs 9e.g. assisted masturbation) would result in the possibility of transgressing the boundary between the carer and the person with physical disability. Most of the carer did not have any opportunity to receive any trainings regarding to sexuality of people with disabilities. Furthermore, most of the carers conceptualized that ‘Keeping a sexual dignity of people with disabilities’ means practicing a ‘Principle of same sex assistance’. The researcher hopes that this presentation provides an opportunity for audiences to look back at their own community and to think about what sexuality of people with physical disabilities means to their carers as well as to look back at their own practice in relation to this issue.

Keywords: Carer, Japan, physical disabilities, sexuality

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902 Social Workers' Perspectives on Muslim Parents with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Ayelet Gur

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Background: Parents with intellectual disability are of great interest to social service professionals. Article 23 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities aims to ensure that persons with disabilities can create a family by providing adequate supports. The aim of the current investigation was to portray families with parents with intellectual disabilities within Muslim- Arab society in Israel. Method: Qualitative method using semi-structured interviews with nine-teen Muslim Israeli social workers was employed. Thematic analysis was used to identify major themes. Results: Families with parents with intellectual disability are not a rare phenomenon in the Arab society. The common type is of marriage between a man with intellectual disability and a woman without disability. Findings indicated two main motives for the arranged marriage of a man with intellectual disability: the extended family's concerns about his future and their desire for the family continuity. The non-disabled wives' motives for marrying men with intellectual disabilities revolved around their lack of other opportunities to create a family and their desire to leave their parents' household and live independently. Those women were described as partly or fully aware of their husbands' disability prior to the marriage. The family life of those families were described in relation to the fathers' involvement in family life and relation to the wives' high burden and in many cases, acceptance of their life situation. Conclusions: Findings are discussed with respect to religious values on disability, arranged marriage and the status of Muslim women. Services and supports for parents with intellectual disabilities should be developed with respect to the cultural values and norms.

Keywords: Arab society in Israel, intellectual and developmental disability, parents with intellectual disability, social work

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901 An Assessment on Awareness of Public Transport Policies for Persons with Disabilities in Three South-West Nigerian States

Authors: Julius A. Ademokoya, Grace C. Ilori

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Extreme public transport difficulty for persons with disabilities (PWDs) has always been one of the challenges which these individuals experience on a daily basis in Nigeria. Private and public transport vehicles are not disability- friendly. Operators of public transport are often very intolerant of PWDs' conditions. Indeed, many Nigerians believe it is luxury for PWDs to engage in public transport. They are rarely expected to be seen in public much less going to places via public transport means. Initiatives by a few Nigerian states to develop and implement public transport policies for PWDs, therefore, were a huge relief for them and some concerned Nigerians. A few years ago, three southwest Nigerian states (Lagos, Ondo, and Ekiti) came up with some legislative welfare provisions (including transport programmes) for PWDs. This study, therefore, sought to ascertain levels of awareness and implementation of public policies among the PWDs and those expected to implement the policies. The study adopted a mixed method research. Findings across the three states showed that: (1) awareness of public policies among PWDs is low and (2) a considerable scope of the policies is not yet implemented. Recommendations are, therefore, made on how to improve on awareness and implementation of transport policies for PWDs in three south-west Nigerian states.

Keywords: awareness, disability rights, implementation persons with disability, transport policies

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900 Making Haste Slowly: South Africa's Transition from a Medical to a Social Model regarding Persons with Disabilities

Authors: Leoni Van Der Merwe

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Historically, in South Africa, disability has been viewed as a dilemma of the individual. The discourse surrounding the definition of disability and applicable theories are as fluid as the differing needs of persons with disabilities within society. In 1997, the Office of the Deputy President published the White Paper on the Integrated National Disability Strategy (WPINDS) which sought to integrate disability issues in all governmental development strategies, planning and programs as well as to solidify the South African government’s stance that disability was to be considered according to the social model and not the, previously utilized, medical model of disability. The models of disability are conceptual frameworks for understanding disability and can provide some insight into why certain attitudes exist and how they are reinforced in society. Although the WPINDS was regarded as a critical milestone in the history of the disability rights struggle in South Africa; it has taken approximately twenty years for the publication of a similar document taking into account South Africa’s changing social, economic, political and technological dispensation. December 2015 marked the approval of the White Paper on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (WPRPD) which seeks to update the WPINDS, integrate principles contained in international law instruments and endorse a mainstreaming trajectory for realizing the rights of persons with disabilities. While the WPINDS and the WPRPD were published two decades apart, both documents contain an emphasis on a transition from the medical model to the social model. Whereas, the medical model presupposes that disability is mainly a health and welfare matter and is focused on an individualistic and dependency-based approach; the social model requires a paradigm shift in the manner in which disability is constructed so as to highlight the shortcomings of society in respect of disability and to bring to the fore the capabilities of persons with disabilities. The social model has led to unmatched success in changing the perceptions surrounding disability. This article seeks to investigate the progress made in the implementation of the social model in South Africa by taking into account the effect of the diverse political and cultural landscape in promoting the historically entrenched medical model and the rise of disability activism prior to the new democratic dispensation as well as legislation, case law, policy documents and barriers in respect of persons with disabilities that are pervasive in South African society. The research paper will conclude that although numerous interventions have been identified and implemented to promote the consideration of disability within a social construct in South Africa, such interventions require increased national and international collaboration, resources and pace to ensure that the efforts made lead to sustainable results. For persons with disabilities, what remains to be seen is whether the proliferation of activism by interest groups, social awareness as well as the development of policy documents, legislation and case law will serve as the impetus to dissipate the view that disability is burden to be carried solely on the shoulders of the person with the disability.

Keywords: disability, medical model, social model, societal barriers, South Africa

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899 Compatibility of Disabilities for a Single Workplace through Mobile Technology: A Case Study in Brazilian Industries

Authors: Felyppe Blum Goncalves, Juliana Sebastiany

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In line with Brazilian legislation on the inclusion of persons with disabilities in the world of work, known as the 'quota law' (Law 8213/91) and in accordance with the prerogatives of the United Nations Convention on Human Rights of people with disabilities, which was ratified by Brazil through Federal Decree No. 6.949 of August 25, 2009, the SESI National Department, through Working Groups, structured the product Affordable Industry. This methodology aims to prepare the industries for the adequate process of inclusion of people with disabilities, as well as the development of an organizational culture that values and respects human diversity. All industries in Brazil with 100 or more employees must comply with current legislation, but due to the lack of information and guidance on the subject, they end up having difficulties in this process. The methodology brings solutions for companies through the professional qualification of the disabled person, preparation of managers, training of human resources teams and employees. It also advocates the survey of the architectural accessibility of the factory and the identification of the possibilities of inclusion of people with disabilities, through the compatibility between work and job requirements, preserving safety, health, and quality of life.

Keywords: inclusion, app, disability, management

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898 A Social Cognitive Investigation in the Context of Vocational Training Performance of People with Disabilities

Authors: Majid A. AlSayari

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The study reported here investigated social cognitive theory (SCT) in the context of Vocational Rehab (VR) for people with disabilities. The prime purpose was to increase knowledge of VR phenomena and make recommendations for improving VR services. The sample consisted of 242 persons with Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) who completed questionnaires. A further 32 participants were Trainers. Analysis of questionnaire data was carried out using factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, and thematic analysis. The analysis suggested that, in motivational terms, and consistent with research carried out in other academic contexts, self-efficacy was the best predictor of VR performance. The author concludes that that VR self-efficacy predicted VR training performance.

Keywords: people with physical disabilities, social cognitive theory, self-efficacy, vocational training

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897 Person-Centered Thinking as a Fundamental Approach to Improve Quality of Life

Authors: Christiane H. Kellner, Sarah Reker

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The UN-Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which Germany also ratified, postulates the necessity of user-centred design, especially when it comes to evaluating the individual needs and wishes of all citizens. Therefore, a multidimensional approach is required. Based on this insight, the structure of the town-like centre in Schönbrunn - a large residential complex and service provider for persons with disabilities in the outskirts of Munich - will be remodelled to open up the community to all people as well as transform social space. This strategy should lead to more equal opportunities and open the way for a much more diverse community. The research project “Index for participation development and quality of life for persons with disabilities” (TeLe-Index, 2014-2016), which is anchored at the Technische Universität München in Munich and at the Franziskuswerk Schönbrunn supports this transformation process called “Vision 2030”. In this context, we have provided academic supervision and support for three projects (the construction of a new school, inclusive housing for children and teenagers with disabilities and the professionalization of employees using person-centred planning). Since we cannot present all the issues of the umbrella-project within the conference framework, we will be focusing on one sub-project more in-depth, namely “The Person-Centred Think Tank” [Arbeitskreis Personenzentriertes Denken; PZD]. In the context of person-centred thinking (PCT), persons with disabilities are encouraged to (re)gain or retain control of their lives through the development of new choice options and the validation of individual lifestyles. PCT should thus foster and support both participation and quality of life. The project aims to establish PCT as a fundamental approach for both employees and persons with disabilities in the institution through in-house training for the staff and, subsequently, training for users. Hence, for the academic support and supervision team, the questions arising from this venture can be summed up as follows: (1) has PCT already gained a foothold at the Franziskuswerk Schönbrunn? And (2) how does it affect the interaction with persons with disabilities and how does it influence the latter’s everyday life? According to the holistic approach described above, the target groups for this study are both the staff and the users of the institution. Initially, we planned to implement the group discussion method for both target-groups. However, in the course of a pretest with persons with intellectual disabilities, it became clear that this type of interview, with hardly any external structuring, provided only limited feedback. In contrast, when the discussions were moderated, there was more interaction and dialogue between the interlocutors. Therefore, for this target-group, we introduced structured group interviews. The insights we have obtained until now will enable us to present the intermediary results of our evaluation. We analysed and evaluated the group interviews and discussions with the help of qualitative content analysis according to Mayring in order to obtain information about users’ quality of life. We sorted out the statements relating to quality of life obtained during the group interviews into three dimensions: subjective wellbeing, self-determination and participation. Nevertheless, the majority of statements were related to subjective wellbeing and self-determination. Thus, especially the limited feedback on participation clearly demonstrates that the lives of most users do not take place beyond the confines of the institution. A number of statements highlighted the fact that PCT is anchored in the everyday interactions within the groups. However, the implementation and fostering of PCT on a broader level could not be detected and thus remain further aims of the project. The additional interviews we have planned should validate the results obtained until now and open up new perspectives.

Keywords: person-centered thinking, research with persons with disabilities, residential complex and service provider, participation, self-determination.

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896 Political and Economic Transition of People with Disabilities Related to Globalization

Authors: Jihye Jeon

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This paper analyzes the political and economic issues that people with disabilities face related to globalization; how people with disabilities have been adapting globalization and surviving under worldwide competition system. It explains that economic globalization exacerbates inequality and deprivation of people with disabilities. The rising tide of neo-liberal welfare policies emphasized efficiency, downsized social expenditure for people with disabilities, excluded people with disabilities against labor market, and shifted them from welfare system to nothing. However, there have been people with disabilities' political responses to globalization, which are characterized by a global network of people with disabilities as well as participation to global governance. Their resistance can be seen as an attempt to tackle the problems that economic globalization has produced. It is necessary paradigm shift of disability policy from dependency represented by disability benefits to independency represented by labor market policies for people with disabilities.

Keywords: economic globalization, people with disability, deprivation, welfare cut, disability right movement, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
895 Moving beyond the Social Model of Disability by Engaging in Anti-Oppressive Social Work Practice

Authors: Irene Carter, Roy Hanes, Judy MacDonald

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Considering that disability is universal and people with disabilities are part of all societies; that there is a connection between the disabled individual and the societal; and that it is society and social arrangements that disable people with impairments, contemporary disability discourse emphasizes the social model of disability to counter medical and rehabilitative models of disability. However, the social model does not go far enough in addressing the issues of oppression and inclusion. The authors indicate that the social model does not specifically or adequately denote the oppression of persons with disabilities, which is a central component of progressive social work practice with people with disabilities. The social model of disability does not go far enough in deconstructing disability and offering social workers, as well as people with disabilities a way of moving forward in terms of practice anchored in individual, familial and societal change. The social model of disability is expanded by incorporating principles of anti-oppression social work practice. Although the contextual analysis of the social model of disability is an important component there remains a need for social workers to provide service to individuals and their families, which will be illustrated through anti-oppressive practice (AOP). By applying an anti-oppressive model of practice to the above definitions, the authors not only deconstruct disability paradigms but illustrate how AOP offers a framework for social workers to engage with people with disabilities at the individual, familial and community levels of practice, promoting an emancipatory focus in working with people with disabilities. An anti- social- oppression social work model of disability connects the day-to-day hardships of people with disabilities to the direct consequence of oppression in the form of ableism. AOP theory finds many of its basic concepts within social-oppression theory and the social model of disability. It is often the case that practitioners, including social workers and psychologists, define people with disabilities’ as having or being a problem with the focus placed upon adjustment and coping. A case example will be used to illustrate how an AOP paradigm offers social work a more comprehensive and critical analysis and practice model for social work practice with and for people with disabilities than the traditional medical model, rehabilitative and social model approaches.

Keywords: anti-oppressive practice, disability, people with disabilities, social model of disability

Procedia PDF Downloads 649
894 Prevalence of Disability among Children Two to Fourteen Years at Selected Districts in Greater Accra Region of Ghana

Authors: Yvonne Nanaama Brew, Bismark Jampim Abrokwah

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Children with disabilities in Ghana are not routinely registered, and this can imply that they may be neglected in national policy planning since global estimates may not be near the exact numbers. Although there are some studies with reports on the prevalence of disability among children in Ghana, reliable information on the prevalence, types of disability in children, and children who die with disabilities in the Greater Accra region are lacking. The current study seeks to investigate the incidence of disability among children two to fourteen years at selected districts in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. A cross-sectional design is adapted with a quantitative method for this study. Parents with disabled children who access child welfare clinics at the Greater Accra regional hospital, Maamobi hospital, Ga west, and Ga south district hospitals will be selected through purposive sampling for the study. An adapted UNICEF structured Ten Questions will be used to collect relevant data about participants. The responses to the questions will be either 'Yes' or 'No'. Parents with children who answer 'Yes' to a disability and purposively sampled parents with children who answer 'No' to disability will be invited to Child Health Clinic at the Greater Accra regional hospital for a free clinical assessment. Data will be entered into Microsoft Office Excel 2013 and imported into STATA version 15 for analysis. The study is expected to provide reliable disaggregated data on less than fourteen years of children with disabilities in the Greater Accra region. The findings and recommendations of the study will demonstrate the importance of early detection of disability and facilitate more quality and holistic planning of appropriate programmes that best safeguard the rights of children with disabilities in Ghana. It will help in policy and decision-making on children less than fourteen years with disabilities in Ghana. Also, findings will be useful for health facilities in Ghana to plan services for disabled children. Finally, the study is expected to add to the guides for the National Council of Persons with Disabilities to fulfill its legal mandate for disabled persons in Ghana.

Keywords: prevalence, disability, children, Ghana

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893 Intertwined Lives: Narratives of Children with Disabilities and Their Siblings

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi

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The experiences of children with disabilities and their siblings are seldom documented in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to uncover the narratives of young children with disabilities and their siblings in Sri Lanka. Fifteen children with disabilities and fifteen siblings were included in this study. Opportunities were offered to the participants to engage in artwork and story making activities. Narratives on the artwork and stories were gathered and the data analyzed using the key principles of Framework Analysis to determine the key themes. The key themes to emerge were of love, protectiveness, insecurity and visibility. The results highlight the need to take account of the experiences of children with disabilities and their siblings to understand how they understand and cope with disability.

Keywords: art, children with disabilities, narratives, siblings, storymaking

Procedia PDF Downloads 201