Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3256

Search results for: underwater wireless sensor networks

3256 A Secure Routing Algorithm for ‎Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Jameii

Abstract:

Underwater wireless sensor networks have been attracting the interest of many ‎researchers lately, and the past three decades have beheld the rapid progress of ‎underwater acoustic communication. One of the major problems in underwater wireless ‎sensor networks is how to transfer data from the moving node to the base stations and ‎choose the optimized route for data transmission. Secure routing in underwater ‎wireless sensor network (UWCNs) is necessary for packet delivery. Some routing ‎protocols are proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks. However, a few ‎researches have been done on secure routing in underwater sensor networks. In this ‎article, a secure routing protocol is provided to resist against wormhole and sybil ‎attacks. The results indicated acceptable performance in terms of increasing the packet ‎delivery ratio with regards to the attacks, increasing network lifetime by creating ‎balance in the network energy consumption, high detection rates against the attacks, ‎and low-end to end delay.‎

Keywords: attacks, routing, security, underwater wireless sensor networks

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3255 An Energy Efficient Clustering Approach for Underwater ‎Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Mohammad Reza Taherkhani‎

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks that are used to monitor a special environment, are formed from a large number of sensor nodes. The role of these sensors is to sense special parameters from ambient and to make a connection. In these networks, the most important challenge is the management of energy usage. Clustering is one of the methods that are broadly used to face this challenge. In this paper, a distributed clustering protocol based on learning automata is proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithm that is called LA-Clustering forms clusters in the same energy level, based on the energy level of nodes and the connection radius regardless of size and the structure of sensor network. The proposed approach is simulated and is compared with some other protocols with considering some metrics such as network lifetime, number of alive nodes, and number of transmitted data. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: underwater sensor networks, clustering, learning automata, energy consumption

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3254 Proposing a Boundary Coverage Algorithm ‎for Underwater Sensor Network

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Jameii

Abstract:

Wireless underwater sensor networks are a type of sensor networks that are located in underwater environments and linked together by acoustic waves. The application of these kinds of network includes monitoring of pollutants (chemical, biological, and nuclear), oil fields detection, prediction of the likelihood of a tsunami in coastal areas, the use of wireless sensor nodes to monitor the passing submarines, and determination of appropriate locations for anchoring ships. This paper proposes a boundary coverage algorithm for intrusion detection in underwater sensor networks. In the first phase of the proposed algorithm, optimal deployment of nodes is done in the water. In the second phase, after the employment of nodes at the proper depth, clustering is executed to reduce the exchanges of messages between the sensors. In the third phase, the algorithm of "divide and conquer" is used to save energy and increase network efficiency. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: boundary coverage, clustering, divide and ‎conquer, underwater sensor nodes

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3253 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, network security, light weight encryption, threats

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3252 A Learning Automata Based Clustering Approach for Underwater ‎Sensor Networks to Reduce Energy Consumption

Authors: Motahareh Fadaei

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks that are used to monitor a special environment, are formed from a large number of sensor nodes. The role of these sensors is to sense special parameters from ambient and to make connection. In these networks, the most important challenge is the management of energy usage. Clustering is one of the methods that are broadly used to face this challenge. In this paper, a distributed clustering protocol based on learning automata is proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithm that is called LA-Clustering forms clusters in the same energy level, based on the energy level of nodes and the connection radius regardless of size and the structure of sensor network. The proposed approach is simulated and is compared with some other protocols with considering some metrics such as network lifetime, number of alive nodes, and number of transmitted data. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: clustering, energy consumption‎, learning automata, underwater sensor networks

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3251 A Review of Security Attacks and Intrusion Detection Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

Authors: Maleh Yassine, Ezzati Abdellah

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are currently used in different industrial and consumer applications, such as earth monitoring, health related applications, natural disaster prevention, and many other areas. Security is one of the major aspects of wireless sensor networks due to the resource limitations of sensor nodes. However, these networks are facing several threats that affect their functioning and their life. In this paper we present security attacks in wireless sensor networks, and we focus on a review and analysis of the recent Intrusion Detection schemes in WSNs.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, security attack, denial of service, IDS, cluster-based model, signature based IDS, hybrid IDS

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3250 Application of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey in Thailand

Authors: Sathapath Kilaso

Abstract:

Nowadays, Today, wireless sensor networks are an important technology that works with Internet of Things. It is receiving various data from many sensor. Then sent to processing or storing. By wireless network or through the Internet. The devices around us are intelligent, can receiving/transmitting and processing data and communicating through the system. There are many applications of wireless sensor networks, such as smart city, smart farm, environmental management, weather. This article will explore the use of wireless sensor networks in Thailand and collect data from Thai Thesis database in 2012-2017. How to Implementing Wireless Sensor Network Technology. Advantage from this study To know the usage wireless technology in many fields. This will be beneficial for future research. In this study was found the most widely used wireless sensor network in agriculture field. Especially for smart farms. And the second is the adoption of the environment. Such as weather stations and water inspection.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, smart city, survey, Adhoc Network

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3249 Cluster-Based Multi-Path Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Si-Gwan Kim

Abstract:

Small-size and low-power sensors with sensing, signal processing and wireless communication capabilities is suitable for the wireless sensor networks. Due to the limited resources and battery constraints, complex routing algorithms used for the ad-hoc networks cannot be employed in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose node-disjoint multi-path hexagon-based routing algorithms in wireless sensor networks. We suggest the details of the algorithm and compare it with other works. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance in terms of efficiency and message delivery ratio.

Keywords: clustering, multi-path, routing protocol, sensor network

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3248 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.

Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor networks, IEEE 802.15.4, low power, low data rate

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3247 Performance Analysis of N-Tier Grid Protocol for Resource Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jai Prakash Prasad, Suresh Chandra Mohan

Abstract:

Modern wireless sensor networks (WSN) consist of small size, low cost devices which are networked through tight wireless communications. WSN fundamentally offers cooperation, coordination among sensor networks. Potential applications of wireless sensor networks are in healthcare, natural disaster prediction, data security, environmental monitoring, home appliances, entertainment etc. The design, development and deployment of WSN based on application requirements. The WSN design performance is optimized to improve network lifetime. The sensor node resources constrain such as energy and bandwidth imposes the limitation on efficient resource utilization and sensor node management. The proposed N-Tier GRID routing protocol focuses on the design of energy efficient large scale wireless sensor network for improved performance than the existing protocol.

Keywords: energy efficient, network lifetime, sensor networks, wireless communication

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3246 A Survey on a Critical Infrastructure Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Khelifa Benahmed, Tarek Benahmed

Abstract:

There are diverse applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in the real world, typically invoking some kind of monitoring, tracking, or controlling activities. In an application, a WSN is deployed over the area of interest to sense and detect the events and collect data through their sensors in a geographical area and transmit the collected data to a Base Station (BS). This paper presents an overview of the research solutions available in the field of environmental monitoring applications, more precisely the problems of critical area monitoring using wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: critical infrastructure monitoring, environment monitoring, event region detection, wireless sensor networks

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3245 An Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Khan, H. Mahmood

Abstract:

In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), sensor nodes close to water surface (final destination) are often preferred for selection as forwarders. However, their frequent selection makes them depleted of their limited battery power. In consequence, these nodes die during early stage of network operation and create energy holes where forwarders are not available for packets forwarding. These holes severely affect network throughput. As a result, system performance significantly degrades. In this paper, a routing protocol is proposed to avoid energy holes during packets forwarding. The proposed protocol does not require the conventional position information (localization) of holes to avoid them. Localization is cumbersome; energy is inefficient and difficult to achieve in underwater environment where sensor nodes change their positions with water currents. Forwarders with the lowest water pressure level and the maximum number of neighbors are preferred to forward packets. These two parameters together minimize packet drop by following the paths where maximum forwarders are available. To avoid interference along the paths with the maximum forwarders, a packet holding time is defined for each forwarder. Simulation results reveal superior performance of the proposed scheme than the counterpart technique.

Keywords: energy holes, interference, routing, underwater

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3244 Ensuring Uniform Energy Consumption in Non-Deterministic Wireless Sensor Network to Protract Networks Lifetime

Authors: Vrince Vimal, Madhav J. Nigam

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks have enticed much of the spotlight from researchers all around the world, owing to its extensive applicability in agricultural, industrial and military fields. Energy conservation node deployment stratagems play a notable role for active implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering is the approach in wireless sensor networks which improves energy efficiency in the network. The clustering algorithm needs to have an optimum size and number of clusters, as clustering, if not implemented properly, cannot effectively increase the life of the network. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed to address connectivity issues with the aim of ensuring the uniform energy consumption of nodes in every part of the network. The results obtained after simulation showed that the proposed algorithm has an edge over existing algorithms in terms of throughput and networks lifetime.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor network (WSN), Random Deployment, Clustering, Isolated Nodes, Networks Lifetime

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3243 Communication of Sensors in Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Kashish Sareen, Jatinder Singh Bal

Abstract:

The use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has grown vastly in the last era, pointing out the crucial need for scalable and energy-efficient routing and data gathering and aggregation protocols in corresponding large-scale environments. Wireless Sensor Networks have now recently emerged as a most important computing platform and continue to grow in diverse areas to provide new opportunities for networking and services. However, the energy constrained and limited computing resources of the sensor nodes present major challenges in gathering data. The sensors collect data about their surrounding and forward it to a command centre through a base station. The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are very useful in target detecting and other applications. However, hierarchical clustering protocols have maximum been used in to overall system lifetime, scalability and energy efficiency. In this paper, the state of the art in corresponding hierarchical clustering approaches for large-scale WSN environments is shown.

Keywords: clustering, DLCC, MLCC, wireless sensor networks

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3242 Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Frodouard Minani

Abstract:

Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.

Keywords: base station, clustering algorithm, energy efficient, sensors, wireless sensor networks

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3241 Investigation of Clustering Algorithms Used in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Naim Karasekreter, Ugur Fidan, Fatih Basciftci

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks are networks in which more than one sensor node is organized among themselves. The working principle is based on the transfer of the sensed data over the other nodes in the network to the central station. Wireless sensor networks concentrate on routing algorithms, energy efficiency and clustering algorithms. In the clustering method, the nodes in the network are divided into clusters using different parameters and the most suitable cluster head is selected from among them. The data to be sent to the center is sent per cluster, and the cluster head is transmitted to the center. With this method, the network traffic is reduced and the energy efficiency of the nodes is increased. In this study, clustering algorithms were examined in terms of clustering performances and cluster head selection characteristics to try to identify weak and strong sides. This work is supported by the Project 17.Kariyer.123 of Afyon Kocatepe University BAP Commission.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks (WSN), clustering algorithm, cluster head, clustering

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3240 Multiple Query Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Data Correlation

Authors: Elaheh Vaezpour

Abstract:

Data sensing in wireless sensor networks is done by query deceleration the network by the users. In many applications of the wireless sensor networks, many users send queries to the network simultaneously. If the queries are processed separately, the network’s energy consumption will increase significantly. Therefore, it is very important to aggregate the queries before sending them to the network. In this paper, we propose a multiple query optimization framework based on sensors physical and temporal correlation. In the proposed method, queries are merged and sent to network by considering correlation among the sensors in order to reduce the communication cost between the sensors and the base station.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, multiple query optimization, data correlation, reducing energy consumption

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3239 Comparative Analysis of Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Approach for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ashish Payal, C. S. Rai, B. V. R. Reddy

Abstract:

With the increasing use and application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), need has arisen to explore them in more effective and efficient manner. An important area which can bring efficiency to WSNs is the localization process, which refers to the estimation of the position of wireless sensor nodes in an ad hoc network setting, in reference to a coordinate system that may be internal or external to the network. In this paper, we have done comparison and analysed Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (SFFANNs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for developing localization framework in WSNs. The presented work utilizes the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), measured by static node on 100 x 100 m2 grid from three anchor nodes. The comprehensive evaluation of these approaches is done using MATLAB software. The simulation results effectively demonstrate that FFANNs based sensor motes will show better localization accuracy as compared to RBF.

Keywords: localization, wireless sensor networks, artificial neural network, radial basis function, multi-layer perceptron, backpropagation, RSSI, GPS

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3238 Location Management in Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobility

Authors: Amrita Anil Agashe, Sumant Tapas, Ajay Verma Yogesh Sonavane, Sourabh Yeravar

Abstract:

Due to advancement in MEMS technology today wireless sensors network has gained a lot of importance. The wide range of its applications includes environmental and habitat monitoring, object localization, target tracking, security surveillance etc. Wireless sensor networks consist of tiny sensor devices called as motes. The constrained computation power, battery power, storage capacity and communication bandwidth of the tiny motes pose challenging problems in the design and deployment of such systems. In this paper, we propose a ubiquitous framework for Real-Time Tracking, Sensing and Management System using IITH motes. Also, we explain the algorithm that we have developed for location management in wireless sensor networks with the aspect of mobility. Our developed framework and algorithm can be used to detect emergency events and safety threats and provides warning signals to handle the emergency.

Keywords: mobility management, motes, multihop, wireless sensor networks

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3237 A Comparative and Critical Analysis of Some Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ishtiaq Wahid, Masood Ahmad, Nighat Ayub, Sajad Ali

Abstract:

Lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is directly proportional to the energy consumption of its constituent nodes. Routing in wireless sensor network is very challenging due its inherit characteristics. In hierarchal routing the sensor filed is divided into clusters. The cluster-heads are selected from each cluster, which forms a hierarchy of nodes. The cluster-heads are used to transmit the data to the base station while other nodes perform the sensing task. In this way the lifetime of the network is increased. In this paper a comparative study of hierarchal routing protocols are conducted. The simulation is done in NS-2 for validation.

Keywords: WSN, cluster, routing, sensor networks

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3236 Efficient Broadcasting in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An, Hyuk Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the Minimum Latency Broadcast Scheduling (MLBS) problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main issue of the MLBS problem is to compute schedules with the minimum number of timeslots such that a base station can broadcast data to all other sensor nodes with no collisions. Unlike existing works that utilize the traditional omni-directional WSNs, we target the directional WSNs where nodes can collaboratively determine and orientate their antenna directions. We first develop a 7-approximation algorithm, adopting directional WSNs. Our ratio is currently the best, to the best of our knowledge. We then validate the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulation.

Keywords: broadcast, collision-free, directional antenna, approximation, wireless sensor networks

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3235 A Study on Using Network Coding for Packet Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rei-Heng Cheng, Wen-Pinn Fang

Abstract:

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed by a large number of sensors and one or a few base stations, where the sensor is responsible for detecting specific event information, which is sent back to the base station(s). However, how to save electricity consumption to extend the network lifetime is a problem that cannot be ignored in the wireless sensor networks. Since the sensor network is used to monitor a region or specific events, how the information can be reliably sent back to the base station is surly important. Network coding technique is often used to enhance the reliability of the network transmission. When a node needs to send out M data packets, it encodes these data with redundant data and sends out totally M + R packets. If the receiver can get any M packets out from these M + R packets, it can decode and get the original M data packets. To transmit redundant packets will certainly result in the excess energy consumption. This paper will explore relationship between the quality of wireless transmission and the number of redundant packets. Hopefully, each sensor can overhear the nearby transmissions, learn the wireless transmission quality around it, and dynamically determine the number of redundant packets used in network coding.

Keywords: energy consumption, network coding, transmission reliability, wireless sensor networks

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3234 Design an Architectural Model for Deploying Wireless Sensor Network to Prevent Forest Fire

Authors: Saurabh Shukla, G. N. Pandey

Abstract:

The fires have become the most serious disasters to forest resources and the human environment. In recent years, due to climate change, human activities and other factors the frequency of forest fires has increased considerably. The monitoring and prevention of forest fires have now become a global concern for forest fire prevention organizations. Currently, the methods for forest fire prevention largely consist of patrols, observation from watch towers. Thus, software like deployment of the wireless sensor network to prevent forest fire is being developed to get a better estimate of the temperature and humidity prospects. Now days, wireless sensor networks are beginning to be deployed at an accelerated pace. It is not unrealistic to expect that in coming years the world will be covered with wireless sensor networks. This new technology has lots of unlimited potentials and can be used for numerous application areas including environmental, medical, military, transportation, entertainment, crisis management, homeland defense, and smart spaces.

Keywords: deployment, sensors, wireless sensor networks, forest fires

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3233 Performance Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks in Areas for Sports Activities and Environmental Preservation

Authors: Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Ítalo de Pontes Oliveira

Abstract:

This paper presents a analysis of performance the Received Strength Signal Indicator (RSSI) to Wireless Sensor Networks, with a finality of investigate a behavior of ZigBee devices operating into real environments. The test of performance was realize using two Series 1 ZigBee Module and two modules of development Arduino Uno R3, evaluating in this form a measurements of RSSI into environments like places of sports, preservation forests and water reservoir.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, RSSI, Arduino, environments

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3232 Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization by Using 2-Stage Algorithm Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (2S-ICA)

Authors: Hamid Reza Lashgarian Azad, Seyed Nader Shetab Boushehri

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become progressively popular due to their wide range of applications. Wireless Sensor Network is made of numerous tiny sensor nodes that are battery powered. Maximizing the lifetime of wireless sensor network is very important problem. In this paper, we propose two-stage protocol based on imperialist competitive algorithm (2S-ICA) to solve a sensor network optimization problem. Long communication distances between sensors and a sink (or destination) in a sensor network can greatly drain the energy of sensors and reduce the lifetime of a network. By clustering a sensor network into a number of independent clusters using a 2S-ICA, we can greatly minimize the total communication distance, thus prolonging the network lifetime. Comparison results of proposed protocol and LEACH protocol, which is the common to solve WSN problem, show that our protocol has a better performance in term of improving network life and increasing number of transmitted data.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, K-means clustering, LEACH protocol, wireless sensor network

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3231 Routing and Energy Efficiency through Data Coupled Clustering in Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Jainendra Singh, Zaheeruddin

Abstract:

A typical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consists of several tiny and low-power sensors which use radio frequency to perform distributed sensing tasks. The longevity of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a major issue that impacts the application of such networks. While routing protocols are striving to save energy by acting on sensor nodes, recent studies show that network lifetime can be enhanced by further involving sink mobility. A common approach for energy efficiency is partitioning the network into clusters with correlated data, where the representative nodes simply transmit or average measurements inside the cluster. In this paper, we propose an energy- efficient homogenous clustering (EHC) technique. In this technique, the decision of each sensor is based on their residual energy and an estimate of how many of its neighboring cluster heads (CHs) will benefit from it being a CH. We, also explore the routing algorithm in clustered WSNs. We show that the proposed schemes significantly outperform current approaches in terms of packet delay, hop count and energy consumption of WSNs.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, energy efficiency, clustering, routing

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3230 Detecting and Secluding Route Modifiers by Neural Network Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: C. N. Vanitha, M. Usha

Abstract:

In a real world scenario, the viability of the sensor networks has been proved by standardizing the technologies. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to both electronic and physical security breaches because of their deployment in remote, distributed, and inaccessible locations. The compromised sensor nodes send malicious data to the base station, and thus, the total network effectiveness will possibly be compromised. To detect and seclude the Route modifiers, a neural network based Pattern Learning predictor (PLP) is presented. This algorithm senses data at any node on present and previous patterns obtained from the en-route nodes. The eminence of any node is upgraded by their predicted and reported patterns. This paper propounds a solution not only to detect the route modifiers, but also to seclude the malevolent nodes from the network. The simulation result proves the effective performance of the network by the presented methodology in terms of energy level, routing and various network conditions.

Keywords: neural networks, pattern learning, security, wireless sensor networks

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3229 Care: A Cluster Based Approach for Reliable and Efficient Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: K. Prasanth, S. Hafeezullah Khan, B. Haribalakrishnan, D. Arun, S. Jayapriya, S. Dhivya, N. Vijayarangan

Abstract:

The main goal of our approach is to find the optimum positions for the sensor nodes, reinforcing the communications in points where certain lack of connectivity is found. Routing is the major problem in sensor network’s data transfer between nodes. We are going to provide an efficient routing technique to make data signal transfer to reach the base station soon without any interruption. Clustering and routing are the two important key factors to be considered in case of WSN. To carry out the communication from the nodes to their cluster head, we propose a parameterizable protocol so that the developer can indicate if the routing has to be sensitive to either the link quality of the nodes or the their battery levels.

Keywords: clusters, routing, wireless sensor networks, three phases, sensor networks

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3228 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering in a Wireless Sensor Network Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Tapan Jain, Davender Singh Saini

Abstract:

Clustering is a useful mechanism in wireless sensor networks which helps to cope with scalability and data transmission problems. The basic aim of our research work is to provide efficient clustering using Hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). If the distance between the sensing nodes is calculated using their location then it’s quantitative HAC. This paper compares the various agglomerative clustering techniques applied in a wireless sensor network using the quantitative data. The simulations are done in MATLAB and the comparisons are made between the different protocols using dendrograms.

Keywords: routing, hierarchical clustering, agglomerative, quantitative, wireless sensor network

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3227 Harmony Search-Based K-Coverage Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shaimaa M. Mohamed, Haitham S. Hamza, Imane A. Saroit

Abstract:

Many wireless sensor network applications require K-coverage of the monitored area. In this paper, we propose a scalable harmony search based algorithm in terms of execution time, K-Coverage Enhancement Algorithm (KCEA), it attempts to enhance initial coverage, and achieve the required K-coverage degree for a specific application efficiently. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves coverage improvement of 5.34% compared to K-Coverage Rate Deployment (K-CRD), which achieves 1.31% when deploying one additional sensor. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is more time efficient.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), harmony search algorithms, K-Coverage, Mobile WSN

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