Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4005

Search results for: network lifetime

4005 A Lifetime-Enhancing Monitoring Node Distribution Using Minimum Spanning Tree in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Sungchul Ha, Hyunwoo Kim

Abstract:

In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes in a network only have limited resources and calculation ability. Therefore communication topology which have long lifetime is good for all nodes in mobile ad hoc networks. There are a variety of researches on security problems in wireless ad hoc networks. The existing many researches try to make efficient security schemes to reduce network power consumption and enhance network lifetime. Because a new node can join the network at any time, the wireless ad hoc networks are exposed to various threats and can be destroyed by attacks. Resource consumption is absolutely necessary to secure networks, but more resource consumption can be a critical problem to network lifetime. This paper focuses on efficient monitoring node distribution to enhance network lifetime in wireless ad hoc networks. Since the wireless ad hoc networks cannot use centralized infrastructure and security systems of wired networks, a new special IDS scheme is necessary. The scheme should not only cover all nodes in a network but also enhance the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an efficient IDS node distribution scheme using minimum spanning tree (MST) method. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has superior performance in comparison with existing algorithms.

Keywords: MANETs, IDS, power control, minimum spanning tree

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4004 CERD: Cost Effective Route Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Anuradha Banerjee

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructure less network, where nodes are free to move independently in any direction. The nodes have limited battery power; hence, we require energy efficient route discovery technique to enhance their lifetime and network performance. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient route discovery technique CERD that greatly reduces the number of route requests flooded into the network and also gives priority to the route request packets sent from the routers that has communicated with the destination very recently, in single or multi-hop paths. This does not only enhance the lifetime of nodes but also decreases the delay in tracking the destination.

Keywords: ad hoc network, energy efficiency, flooding, node lifetime, route discovery

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4003 Energy Efficient Firefly Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Wafa’ Alsharafat, Khalid Batiha, Alaa Kassab

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is comprised of a huge number of small and cheap devices known as sensor nodes. Usually, these sensor nodes are massively and deployed randomly as in Ad-hoc over hostile and harsh environment to sense, collect and transmit data to the needed locations (i.e., base station). One of the main advantages of WSN is that the ability to work in unattended and scattered environments regardless the presence of humans such as remote active volcanoes environments or earthquakes. In WSN expanding network, lifetime is a major concern. Clustering technique is more important to maximize network lifetime. Nature-inspired algorithms are developed and optimized to find optimized solutions for various optimization problems. We proposed Energy Efficient Firefly Algorithm to improve network lifetime as long as possible.

Keywords: wireless network, SN, Firefly, energy efficiency

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4002 Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization by Using 2-Stage Algorithm Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (2S-ICA)

Authors: Hamid Reza Lashgarian Azad, Seyed Nader Shetab Boushehri

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become progressively popular due to their wide range of applications. Wireless Sensor Network is made of numerous tiny sensor nodes that are battery powered. Maximizing the lifetime of wireless sensor network is very important problem. In this paper, we propose two-stage protocol based on imperialist competitive algorithm (2S-ICA) to solve a sensor network optimization problem. Long communication distances between sensors and a sink (or destination) in a sensor network can greatly drain the energy of sensors and reduce the lifetime of a network. By clustering a sensor network into a number of independent clusters using a 2S-ICA, we can greatly minimize the total communication distance, thus prolonging the network lifetime. Comparison results of proposed protocol and LEACH protocol, which is the common to solve WSN problem, show that our protocol has a better performance in term of improving network life and increasing number of transmitted data.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, K-means clustering, LEACH protocol, wireless sensor network

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4001 Ensuring Uniform Energy Consumption in Non-Deterministic Wireless Sensor Network to Protract Networks Lifetime

Authors: Vrince Vimal, Madhav J. Nigam

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks have enticed much of the spotlight from researchers all around the world, owing to its extensive applicability in agricultural, industrial and military fields. Energy conservation node deployment stratagems play a notable role for active implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering is the approach in wireless sensor networks which improves energy efficiency in the network. The clustering algorithm needs to have an optimum size and number of clusters, as clustering, if not implemented properly, cannot effectively increase the life of the network. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed to address connectivity issues with the aim of ensuring the uniform energy consumption of nodes in every part of the network. The results obtained after simulation showed that the proposed algorithm has an edge over existing algorithms in terms of throughput and networks lifetime.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor network (WSN), Random Deployment, Clustering, Isolated Nodes, Networks Lifetime

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4000 A Comparative and Critical Analysis of Some Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ishtiaq Wahid, Masood Ahmad, Nighat Ayub, Sajad Ali

Abstract:

Lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is directly proportional to the energy consumption of its constituent nodes. Routing in wireless sensor network is very challenging due its inherit characteristics. In hierarchal routing the sensor filed is divided into clusters. The cluster-heads are selected from each cluster, which forms a hierarchy of nodes. The cluster-heads are used to transmit the data to the base station while other nodes perform the sensing task. In this way the lifetime of the network is increased. In this paper a comparative study of hierarchal routing protocols are conducted. The simulation is done in NS-2 for validation.

Keywords: WSN, cluster, routing, sensor networks

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3999 Load-Enabled Deployment and Sensing Range Optimization for Lifetime Enhancement of WSNs

Authors: Krishan P. Sharma, T. P. Sharma

Abstract:

Wireless sensor nodes are resource constrained battery powered devices usually deployed in hostile and ill-disposed areas to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Due to their limited power supply, the major challenge for researchers is to utilize their battery power for enhancing the lifetime of whole network. Communication and sensing are two major sources of energy consumption in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a deployment strategy for enhancing the average lifetime of a sensor network by effectively utilizing communication and sensing energy to provide full coverage. The proposed scheme is based on the fact that due to heavy relaying load, sensor nodes near to the sink drain energy at much faster rate than other nodes in the network and consequently die much earlier. To cover this imbalance, proposed scheme finds optimal communication and sensing ranges according to effective load at each node and uses a non-uniform deployment strategy where there is a comparatively high density of nodes near to the sink. Probable relaying load factor at particular node is calculated and accordingly optimal communication distance and sensing range for each sensor node is adjusted. Thus, sensor nodes are placed at locations that optimize energy during network operation. Formal mathematical analysis for calculating optimized locations is reported in present work.

Keywords: load factor, network lifetime, non-uniform deployment, sensing range

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3998 A Multicopy Strategy for Improved Security Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Tuğçe Yücel

Abstract:

A Wireless Sensor Network(WSN) is a collection of sensor nodes which are deployed randomly in an area for surveillance. Efficient utilization of limited battery energy of sensors for increased network lifetime as well as data security are major design objectives for WSN. Moreover secure transmission of data sensed to a base station for further processing. Producing multiple copies of data packets and sending them on different paths is one of the strategies for this purpose, which leads to redundant energy consumption and hence reduced network lifetime. In this work we develop a restricted multi-copy multipath strategy where data move through ‘frequently’ or ‘heavily’ used sensors is copied by the sensor incident to such central nodes and sent on node-disjoint paths. We develop a mixed integer programing(MIP) model and heuristic approach present some preleminary test results.

Keywords: MIP, sensor, telecommunications, WSN

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3997 Clustering Using Cooperative Multihop Mini-Groups in Wireless Sensor Network: A Novel Approach

Authors: Virender Ranga, Mayank Dave, Anil Kumar Verma

Abstract:

Recently wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used in many real life applications like environmental monitoring, habitat monitoring, health monitoring etc. Due to power constraint cheaper devices used in these applications, the energy consumption of each device should be kept as low as possible such that network operates for longer period of time. One of the techniques to prolong the network lifetime is an intelligent grouping of sensor nodes such that they can perform their operation in cooperative and energy efficient manner. With this motivation, we propose a novel approach by organize the sensor nodes in cooperative multihop mini-groups so that the total global energy consumption of the network can be reduced and network lifetime can be improved. Our proposed approach also reduces the number of transmitted messages inside the WSNs, which further minimizes the energy consumption of the whole network. The experimental simulations show that our proposed approach outperforms over the state-of-the-art approach in terms of stability period and aggregated data.

Keywords: clustering, cluster-head, mini-group, stability period

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3996 Orphan Node Inclusion Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sandeep Singh Waraich

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network (WSN ) consists of a large number of sensor nodes. The disparity in their energy consumption usually lead to the loss of equilibrium in wireless sensor network which may further results in an energy hole problem in wireless network. In this paper, we have considered the inclusion of orphan nodes which usually remain unutilized as intermediate nodes in multi-hop routing. The Orphan Node Inclusion (ONI) Protocol lets the cluster member to bring the orphan nodes into their clusters, thereby saving important resources and increasing network lifetime in critical applications of WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, orphan node, clustering, ONI protocol

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3995 Lifetime Improvement of IEEE.802.15.6 Sensors in Scheduled Access Mode

Authors: Latif Adnane, C. E. Ait Zaouiat, M. Eddabbah

Abstract:

In Wireless Body Area Networks, the issue of systems lifetime is a big challenge to complete. In this paper, we have tackled this subject to suggest some solutions. For this aim, we have studied some batteries characteristics related to human body temperature. Moreover, we have analyzed a mathematical model which defines sensors lifetime (battery lifetime). Based on this model, we note that the random access increases the energy consumption, because nodes are waking up during the whole superframe period. Results show that using scheduled mode access of IEEE 802.15.6 maximizes the lifetime function, by setting nodes in the sleep mode in the inactive period of transmission.

Keywords: battery, energy consumption, IEEE 802.15.6, lifetime, polling

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3994 Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Frodouard Minani

Abstract:

Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.

Keywords: base station, clustering algorithm, energy efficient, sensors, wireless sensor networks

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3993 Multi Tier Data Collection and Estimation, Utilizing Queue Model in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amirhossein Mohajerzadeh, Abolghasem Mohajerzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, target parameter is estimated with desirable precision in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSN) while the proposed algorithm also tries to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, using efficient data collecting algorithm. Target parameter distribution function is considered unknown. Sensor nodes sense the environment and send the data to the base station called fusion center (FC) using hierarchical data collecting algorithm. FC builds underlying phenomena based on collected data. Considering the aggregation level, x, the goal is providing the essential infrastructure to find the best value for aggregation level in order to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, while desirable accuracy is guaranteed (required sample size is fully depended on desirable precision). First, the sample size calculation algorithm is discussed, second, the average queue length based on M/M[x]/1/K queue model is determined and it is used for energy consumption calculation. Nodes can decrease transmission cost by aggregating incoming data. Furthermore, the performance of the new algorithm is evaluated in terms of lifetime and estimation accuracy.

Keywords: aggregation, estimation, queuing, wireless sensor network

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3992 Performance Analysis of N-Tier Grid Protocol for Resource Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jai Prakash Prasad, Suresh Chandra Mohan

Abstract:

Modern wireless sensor networks (WSN) consist of small size, low cost devices which are networked through tight wireless communications. WSN fundamentally offers cooperation, coordination among sensor networks. Potential applications of wireless sensor networks are in healthcare, natural disaster prediction, data security, environmental monitoring, home appliances, entertainment etc. The design, development and deployment of WSN based on application requirements. The WSN design performance is optimized to improve network lifetime. The sensor node resources constrain such as energy and bandwidth imposes the limitation on efficient resource utilization and sensor node management. The proposed N-Tier GRID routing protocol focuses on the design of energy efficient large scale wireless sensor network for improved performance than the existing protocol.

Keywords: energy efficient, network lifetime, sensor networks, wireless communication

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3991 Performance Analysis of ERA Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Kamalpreet Kaur, Harjit Pal Singh, Vikas Khullar

Abstract:

In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the main limitation is generally inimitable energy consumption during processing of the sensor nodes. Cluster head (CH) election is one of the main issues that can reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, discovering energy saving routing protocol is the focused area for research. In this paper, fuzzy-based energy aware routing protocol is presented, which enhances the stability and network lifetime of the network. Fuzzy logic ensures the well-organized selection of CH by taking four linguistic variables that are concentration, energy, centrality, and distance to base station (BS). The results show that the proposed protocol shows better results in requisites of stability and throughput of the network.

Keywords: ERA, fuzzy logic, network model, WSN

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3990 Node Optimization in Wireless Sensor Network: An Energy Approach

Authors: Y. B. Kirankumar, J. D. Mallapur

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology, which has great invention for various low cost applications both for mass public as well as for defence. The wireless sensor communication technology allows random participation of sensor nodes with particular applications to take part in the network, which results in most of the uncovered simulation area, where fewer nodes are located at far distances. The drawback of such network would be that the additional energy is spent by the nodes located in a pattern of dense location, using more number of nodes for a smaller distance of communication adversely in a region with less number of nodes and additional energy is again spent by the source node in order to transmit a packet to neighbours, thereby transmitting the packet to reach the destination. The proposed work is intended to develop Energy Efficient Node Placement Algorithm (EENPA) in order to place the sensor node efficiently in simulated area, where all the nodes are equally located on a radial path to cover maximum area at equidistance. The total energy consumed by each node compared to random placement of nodes is less by having equal burden on fewer nodes of far location, having distributed the nodes in whole of the simulation area. Calculating the network lifetime also proves to be efficient as compared to random placement of nodes, hence increasing the network lifetime, too. Simulation is been carried out in a qualnet simulator, results are obtained on par with random placement of nodes with EENP algorithm.

Keywords: energy, WSN, wireless sensor network, energy approach

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3989 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Rail Pads for High Speed Trains

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park

Abstract:

Useful lifetime evaluations of rail-pads were very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of rail pads. In this study, we performed properties and accelerated heat aging tests of rail pads considering degradation factors and all environmental conditions including operation, and then derived a lifetime prediction equation according to changes in hardness, thickness, and static spring constants in the Arrhenius plot to establish how to estimate the aging of rail pads. With the useful lifetime prediction equation, the lifetime of e-clip pads was 2.5 years when the change in hardness was 10% at 25°C; and that of f-clip pads was 1.7 years. When the change in thickness was 10%, the lifetime of e-clip pads and f-clip pads is 2.6 years respectively. The results obtained in this study to estimate the useful lifetime of rail pads for high speed trains can be used for determining the maintenance and replacement schedule for rail pads.

Keywords: rail pads, accelerated test, Arrhenius plot, useful lifetime prediction, mechanical engineering design

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3988 Optrix: Energy Aware Cross Layer Routing Using Convex Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ali Shareef, Aliha Shareef, Yifeng Zhu

Abstract:

Energy minimization is of great importance in wireless sensor networks in extending the battery lifetime. One of the key activities of nodes in a WSN is communication and the routing of their data to a centralized base-station or sink. Routing using the shortest path to the sink is not the best solution since it will cause nodes along this path to fail prematurely. We propose a cross-layer energy efficient routing protocol Optrix that utilizes a convex formulation to maximize the lifetime of the network as a whole. We further propose, Optrix-BW, a novel convex formulation with bandwidth constraint that allows the channel conditions to be accounted for in routing. By considering this key channel parameter we demonstrate that Optrix-BW is capable of congestion control. Optrix is implemented in TinyOS, and we demonstrate that a relatively large topology of 40 nodes can converge to within 91% of the optimal routing solution. We describe the pitfalls and issues related with utilizing a continuous form technique such as convex optimization with discrete packet based communication systems as found in WSNs. We propose a routing controller mechanism that allows for this transformation. We compare Optrix against the Collection Tree Protocol (CTP) and we found that Optrix performs better in terms of convergence to an optimal routing solution, for load balancing and network lifetime maximization than CTP.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, Energy Efficient Routing

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3987 Exploring Structure of Human Chromosomes Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

Authors: A. Bhartiya, S. Botchway, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson

Abstract:

Chromatin condensation is maintained by DNA-based proteins and some divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, etc.). Condensation process during cell division maintains structural and functional organizations of chromosomes by transferring genetic information correctly to daughter cells. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) technique measures the fluorescence decay of fixed human chromosomes by calculating the lifetime of fluorophores at a pixel x of the arrival of each photon as a function of time delay t, following excitation with a laser pulse. Fixed metaphase human chromosomes were labelled with DNA-binding dye, DAPI and later DAPI fluorescence lifetime measured using multiphoton microscopy. 5 out of 23 pairs of human chromosomes shown shorter lifetime at the centromere region, differentiating proportion of compaction along the length of chromosomes. Different lifetime was observed in a condensed and de-condensed chromosome. It clearly indicates the involvement of divalent cations in the process of condensation.

Keywords: divalent cations, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging), human chromosomes, multiphoton microscopy

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3986 Energy Efficient Heterogeneous System for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)

Authors: José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, Jeronimo Silva Rocha

Abstract:

Mobile devices are increasingly occupying sectors of society and one of its most important features is mobility. However, the use of mobile devices is subject to the lifetime of the batteries. Thus, the use of energy batteries has become an important issue in the study of wireless network technologies. In this context, new solutions that enable aggregate energy efficiency not only through energy saving, and principally they are evaluated from a more realistic model of energy discharge, if easy adaptation to existing protocols. This paper presents a study on the energy needed and the lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) using a heterogeneous network and applying the LEACH protocol.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, heterogeneous, LEACH protocol

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3985 Optimized Cluster Head Selection Algorithm Based on LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Wided Abidi, Tahar Ezzedine

Abstract:

Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) has been considered as one of the effective hierarchical routing algorithms that optimize energy and prolong the lifetime of network. Since the selection of Cluster Head (CH) in LEACH is carried out randomly, in this paper, we propose an approach of electing CH based on LEACH protocol. In other words, we present a formula for calculating the threshold responsible for CH election. In fact, we adopt three principle criteria: the remaining energy of node, the number of neighbors within cluster range and the distance between node and CH. Simulation results show that our proposed approach beats LEACH protocol in regards of prolonging the lifetime of network and saving residual energy.

Keywords: wireless sensors networks, LEACH protocol, cluster head election, energy efficiency

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3984 Hybrid Hierarchical Routing Protocol for WSN Lifetime Maximization

Authors: H. Aoudia, Y. Touati, E. H. Teguig, A. Ali Cherif

Abstract:

Conceiving and developing routing protocols for wireless sensor networks requires considerations on constraints such as network lifetime and energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a hybrid hierarchical routing protocol named HHRP combining both clustering mechanism and multipath optimization taking into account residual energy and RSSI measures. HHRP consists of classifying dynamically nodes into clusters where coordinators nodes with extra privileges are able to manipulate messages, aggregate data and ensure transmission between nodes according to TDMA and CDMA schedules. The reconfiguration of the network is carried out dynamically based on a threshold value which is associated with the number of nodes belonging to the smallest cluster. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach HHRP, a comparative study with LEACH protocol is illustrated in simulations.

Keywords: routing protocol, optimization, clustering, WSN

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3983 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park

Abstract:

Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uni-axial tension, equi bi-axial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.

Keywords: chevron rubber spring, material coefficient, finite element analysis, useful lifetime prediction

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3982 Data Clustering in Wireless Sensor Network Implemented on Self-Organization Feature Map (SOFM) Neural Network

Authors: Krishan Kumar, Mohit Mittal, Pramod Kumar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is one of the most promising communication networks for monitoring remote environmental areas. In this network, all the sensor nodes are communicated with each other via radio signals. The sensor nodes have capability of sensing, data storage and processing. The sensor nodes collect the information through neighboring nodes to particular node. The data collection and processing is done by data aggregation techniques. For the data aggregation in sensor network, clustering technique is implemented in the sensor network by implementing self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network. Some of the sensor nodes are selected as cluster head nodes. The information aggregated to cluster head nodes from non-cluster head nodes and then this information is transferred to base station (or sink nodes). The aim of this paper is to manage the huge amount of data with the help of SOM neural network. Clustered data is selected to transfer to base station instead of whole information aggregated at cluster head nodes. This reduces the battery consumption over the huge data management. The network lifetime is enhanced at a greater extent.

Keywords: artificial neural network, data clustering, self organization feature map, wireless sensor network

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3981 Lifetime Assessment of Highly Efficient Metal-Based Air-Diffuser through Accelerated Degradation Test

Authors: Jinyoung Choi, Tae-Ho Yoon, Sunmook Lee

Abstract:

Degradation of standard oxygen transfer efficiency (SOTE) with time was observed for the assessment of lifetime of metal-based air-diffuser, which displaced a polymer composite-based air-diffuser in order to attain a longer lifetime in the actual field. The degradation of air-diffuser occurred due to the failure of the formation of small and uniform air bubbles since the patterns formed on the disc of air-diffuser deteriorated and/or changed from their initial shapes while they were continuously exposed to the air blowing condition during the operation in the field. Therefore, the lifetime assessment of metal-based air-diffuser was carried out through an accelerated degradation test by accelerating the air-blowing conditions in 200 L/min, 300 L/min, and 400 L/min and the lifetime of normal operating condition at 120 L/min was predicted. It was found that Weibull distribution was the most proper one for describing the lifetime distribution of metal-based air-diffuser in the present study. The shape and scale parameters indicated that the accelerated blowing conditions were all within the acceleration domain. The lifetime was predicted by adopting inverse power model for a stress-life relationship and estimated to be B10=94,004 hrs with CL=95%. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Grant number: N0001475).

Keywords: accelerated degradation test, air-diffuser, lifetime assessment, SOTE

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3980 An Algorithm to Depreciate the Energy Utilization Using a Bio-Inspired Method in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Navdeep Singh Randhawa, Shally Sharma

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network is an autonomous technology emanating in the current scenario at a fast pace. This technology faces a number of defiance’s and energy management is one of them, which has a huge impact on the network lifetime. To sustain energy the different types of routing protocols have been flourished. The classical routing protocols are no more compatible to perform in complicated environments. Hence, in the field of routing the intelligent algorithms based on nature systems is a turning point in Wireless Sensor Network. These nature-based algorithms are quite efficient to handle the challenges of the WSN as they are capable of achieving local and global best optimization solutions for the complex environments. So, the main attention of this paper is to develop a routing algorithm based on some swarm intelligent technique to enhance the performance of Wireless Sensor Network.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, routing, swarm intelligence, MPRSO

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3979 Residual Lifetime Estimation for Weibull Distribution by Fusing Expert Judgements and Censored Data

Authors: Xiang Jia, Zhijun Cheng

Abstract:

The residual lifetime of a product is the operation time between the current time and the time point when the failure happens. The residual lifetime estimation is rather important in reliability analysis. To predict the residual lifetime, it is necessary to assume or verify a particular distribution that the lifetime of the product follows. And the two-parameter Weibull distribution is frequently adopted to describe the lifetime in reliability engineering. Due to the time constraint and cost reduction, a life testing experiment is usually terminated before all the units have failed. Then the censored data is usually collected. In addition, other information could also be obtained for reliability analysis. The expert judgements are considered as it is common that the experts could present some useful information concerning the reliability. Therefore, the residual lifetime is estimated for Weibull distribution by fusing the censored data and expert judgements in this paper. First, the closed-forms concerning the point estimate and confidence interval for the residual lifetime under the Weibull distribution are both presented. Next, the expert judgements are regarded as the prior information and how to determine the prior distribution of Weibull parameters is developed. For completeness, the cases that there is only one, and there are more than two expert judgements are both focused on. Further, the posterior distribution of Weibull parameters is derived. Considering that it is difficult to derive the posterior distribution of residual lifetime, a sample-based method is proposed to generate the posterior samples of Weibull parameters based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method. And these samples are used to obtain the Bayes estimation and credible interval for the residual lifetime. Finally, an illustrative example is discussed to show the application. It demonstrates that the proposed method is rather simple, satisfactory, and robust.

Keywords: expert judgements, information fusion, residual lifetime, Weibull distribution

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3978 A Study on Using Network Coding for Packet Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rei-Heng Cheng, Wen-Pinn Fang

Abstract:

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed by a large number of sensors and one or a few base stations, where the sensor is responsible for detecting specific event information, which is sent back to the base station(s). However, how to save electricity consumption to extend the network lifetime is a problem that cannot be ignored in the wireless sensor networks. Since the sensor network is used to monitor a region or specific events, how the information can be reliably sent back to the base station is surly important. Network coding technique is often used to enhance the reliability of the network transmission. When a node needs to send out M data packets, it encodes these data with redundant data and sends out totally M + R packets. If the receiver can get any M packets out from these M + R packets, it can decode and get the original M data packets. To transmit redundant packets will certainly result in the excess energy consumption. This paper will explore relationship between the quality of wireless transmission and the number of redundant packets. Hopefully, each sensor can overhear the nearby transmissions, learn the wireless transmission quality around it, and dynamically determine the number of redundant packets used in network coding.

Keywords: energy consumption, network coding, transmission reliability, wireless sensor networks

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3977 Power Management in Wireless Combustible Gas Sensors

Authors: Denis Spirjakin, Alexander Baranov, Saba Akbari, Natalia Kalenova, Vladimir Sleptsov

Abstract:

In this paper we propose the approach to power management in wireless combustible gas sensors. This approach makes possible drastically prolong sensor nodes autonomous lifetime. That is necessary to tie battery replacement to every year technical service procedures which are claimed by safety standards. Using this approach the current consumption of the wireless combustible gas sensor node was decreased from 80 mA to less than 2 mA and the power consumption from more than 220 mW to 4.6 mW. These values provide autonomous lifetime of the node more than one year.

Keywords: Gas sensors, power management, wireless sensor network

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3976 Survey on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Swapnil Singh, Sanjoy Das

Abstract:

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is infrastructure less networks dynamically formed by autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Mobile nodes communicate with each other on the fly. In this network each node also acts as a router. The battery power and the bandwidth are very scarce resources in this network. The network lifetime and connectivity of nodes depends on battery power. Therefore, energy is a valuable constraint which should be efficiently used. In this paper, we survey various energy efficient routing protocol. The energy efficient routing protocols are classified on the basis of approaches they use to minimize the energy consumption. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research work and combine the existing solution and to develop a more energy efficient routing mechanism.

Keywords: delaunay triangulation, deployment, energy efficiency, MANET

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