Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 353

Search results for: non-invasive tomography

353 Noninvasive Evaluation of Acupuncture by Measuring Facial Temperature through Thermal Image

Authors: An Guo, Hieyong Jeong, Tianyi Wang, Na Li, Yuko Ohno

Abstract:

Acupuncture, known as sensory simulation, has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years. However, present studies had not addressed approaches for noninvasive measurement in order to evaluate therapeutic effect of acupuncture. The purpose of this study is to propose a noninvasive method to evaluate acupuncture by measuring facial temperature through thermal image. Three human subjects were recruited in this study. Each subject received acupuncture therapy for 30 mins. Acupuncture needles (Ø0.16 x 30 mm) were inserted into Baihui point (DU20), Neiguan points (PC6) and Taichong points (LR3), acupuncture needles (Ø0.18 x 39 mm) were inserted into Tanzhong point (RN17), Zusanli points (ST36) and Yinlingquan points (SP9). Facial temperature was recorded by an infrared thermometer. Acupuncture therapeutic effect was compared pre- and post-acupuncture. Experiment results demonstrated that facial temperature changed according to acupuncture therapeutic effect. It was concluded that proposed method showed high potential to evaluate acupuncture by noninvasive measurement of facial temperature.

Keywords: acupuncture, facial temperature, noninvasive evaluation, thermal image

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
352 Co-Registered Identification and Treatment of Skin Tumor with Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Therapy

Authors: Bo-Huei Huang, Chih-Hsun Yang, Meng-Tsan Tsai

Abstract:

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables to provide advantages of noninvasive imaging, high resolution, and high imaging speed. In this study, we integrated OCT and a CW laser for tumor diagnosis and treatment. The axial and transverse resolutions of the developed OCT system are 3 μm and 1 μm, respectively. The frame rate of OCT system is 30 frames/s. In this study, the tumor cells were implanted into the mice skin and scanned by OCT to observe the morphological and angiographic changes. With OCT imaging, 3D microstructures and skin angiography of mice skin can be simultaneously acquired, which can be utilized for identification of the tumor distribution. Then, the CW laser beam can be accurately controlled to expose on the center of the tumor, according to the OCT results. Moreover, OCT was used to monitor the induced photothermolysis and to evaluate the treatment outcome. The results showed that OCT-guided laser therapy could efficiently improve the treatment outcome and the extra damage induced by CW can be greatly reduced. Such OCT-guided laser therapy system could be a potential tool for dermatological applications.

Keywords: optical coherence tomography, laser therapy, skin tumor, position guide

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
351 Noninvasive Disease Diagnosis through Breath Analysis Using DNA-functionalized SWNT Sensor Array

Authors: W. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Du, M. L. Wang

Abstract:

Noninvasive diagnostics of diseases via breath analysis has attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest for many years and become more and more promising with the rapid advancement in nanotechnology and biotechnology. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, which are mainly blood borne, particularly provide highly valuable information about individuals’ physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Additionally, breath analysis is noninvasive, real-time, painless and agreeable to patients. We have developed a wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for the detection of a number of physiological indicators in breath. Eight DNA sequences were used to functionalize SWNT sensors to detect trace amount of methanol, benzene, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, acetone and ethanol, which are indicators of heavy smoking, excessive drinking, and diseases such as lung cancer, breast cancer, cirrhosis and diabetes. Our tests indicated that DNA functionalized SWNT sensors exhibit great selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and repeatability. Furthermore, different molecules can be distinguished through pattern recognition enabled by this sensor array. Thus, the DNA-SWNT sensor array has great potential to be applied in chemical or bimolecular detection for the noninvasive diagnostics of diseases and health monitoring.

Keywords: breath analysis, diagnosis, DNA-SWNT sensor array, noninvasive

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
350 Measuring the Cavitation Cloud by Electrical Impedance Tomography

Authors: Michal Malik, Jiri Primas, Darina Jasikova, Michal Kotek, Vaclav Kopecky

Abstract:

This paper is a case study dealing with the viability of using Electrical Impedance Tomography for measuring cavitation clouds in a pipe setup. The authors used a simple passive cavitation generator to cause a cavitation cloud, which was then recorded for multiple flow rates using electrodes in two measuring planes. The paper presents the results of the experiment, showing the used industrial grade tomography system ITS p2+ is able to measure the cavitation cloud and may be particularly useful for identifying the inception of cavitation in setups where other measuring tools may not be viable.

Keywords: cavitation cloud, conductivity measurement, electrical impedance tomography, mechanically induced cavitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
349 The Superiority of 18F-Sodium Fluoride PET/CT for Detecting Bone Metastases in Comparison with Other Bone Diagnostic Imaging Modalities

Authors: Mojtaba Mirmontazemi, Habibollah Dadgar

Abstract:

Bone is the most common metastasis site in some advanced malignancies, such as prostate and breast cancer. Bone metastasis generally indicates fewer prognostic factors in these patients. Different radiological and molecular imaging modalities are used for detecting bone lesions. Molecular imaging including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, planar bone scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography, and positron emission tomography as noninvasive visualization of the biological occurrences has the potential to exact examination, characterization, risk stratification and comprehension of human being diseases. Also, it is potent to straightly visualize targets, specify clearly cellular pathways and provide precision medicine for molecular targeted therapies. These advantages contribute implement personalized treatment for each patient. Currently, NaF PET/CT has significantly replaced standard bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. On one hand, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT has gained high attention for accurate staging of primary prostate cancer and restaging after biochemical recurrence. On the other hand, FDG PET/CT is not commonly used in osseous metastases of prostate and breast cancer as well as its usage is limited to staging patients with aggressive primary tumors or localizing the site of disease. In this article, we examine current studies about FDG, NaF, and PSMA PET/CT images in bone metastases diagnostic utility and assess response to treatment in patients with breast and prostate cancer.

Keywords: skeletal metastases, fluorodeoxyglucose, sodium fluoride, molecular imaging, precision medicine, prostate cancer (68Ga-PSMA-11)

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
348 Microwave Tomography: The Analytical Treatment for Detecting Malignant Tumor Inside Human Body

Authors: Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong

Abstract:

Early detection through screening is the best tool short of a perfect treatment against the malignant tumor inside the breast of a woman. By detecting cancer in its early stages, it can be recognized and treated before it has the opportunity to spread and change into potentially dangerous. Microwave tomography is a new imaging method based on contrast in dielectric properties of materials. The mathematical theory of microwave tomography involves solving an inverse problem for Maxwell’s equations. In this paper, we present designed antenna for breast cancer detection, which will use in microwave tomography configuration.

Keywords: microwave imaging, inverse scattering, breast cancer, malignant tumor detection

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347 3D Printed Multi-Modal Phantom Using Computed Tomography and 3D X-Ray Images

Authors: Sung-Suk Oh, Bong-Keun Kang, Sang-Wook Park, Hui-Jin Joo, Jong-Ryul Choi, Seong-Jun Lee, Jeong-Woo Sohn

Abstract:

The imaging phantom is utilized for the verification, evaluation and tuning of the medical imaging device and system. Although it could be costly, 3D printing is an ideal technique for a rapid, customized, multi-modal phantom making. In this article, we propose the multi-modal phantom using 3D printing. First of all, the Dicom images for were measured by CT (Computed Tomography) and 3D X-ray systems (PET/CT and Angio X-ray system of Siemens) and then were analyzed. Finally, the 3D modeling was processed using Dicom images. The 3D printed phantom was scanned by PET/CT and MRI systems and then evaluated.

Keywords: imaging phantom, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET / CT (Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography), 3D printing

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346 O-(2-18F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Suspicious Recurrent Low and High-Grade Glioma

Authors: Mahkameh Asadi, Habibollah Dadgar

Abstract:

The precise definition margin of high and low-grade glioma is crucial for choosing best treatment approach after surgery and radio-chemotherapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with low (LGG) and high grade glioma (HGG). We retrospectively analyzed 18F-FET PET/CT of 10 patients (age: 33 ± 12 years) with suspicious for recurrent LGG and HGG. The final decision of recurrence was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and registered clinical data. While response to radio-chemotherapy by MRI is often complex and sophisticated due to the edema, necrosis, and inflammation, emerging amino acid PET leading to better interpretations with more specifically differentiate true tumor boundaries from equivocal lesions. Therefore, integrating amino acid PET in the management of glioma to complement MRI will significantly improve early therapy response assessment, treatment planning, and clinical trial design.

Keywords: positron emission tomography, amino acid positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, low and high grade glioma

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345 Role of Imaging in Predicting the Receptor Positivity Status in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Chapter in Radiogenomics

Authors: Sonal Sethi, Mukesh Yadav, Abhimanyu Gupta

Abstract:

The upcoming field of radiogenomics has the potential to upgrade the role of imaging in lung cancer management by noninvasive characterization of tumor histology and genetic microenvironment. Receptor positivity like epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genotyping are critical in lung adenocarcinoma for treatment. As conventional identification of receptor positivity is an invasive procedure, we analyzed the features on non-invasive computed tomography (CT), which predicts the receptor positivity in lung adenocarcinoma. Retrospectively, we did a comprehensive study from 77 proven lung adenocarcinoma patients with CT images, EGFR and ALK receptor genotyping, and clinical information. Total 22/77 patients were receptor-positive (15 had only EGFR mutation, 6 had ALK mutation, and 1 had both EGFR and ALK mutation). Various morphological characteristics and metastatic distribution on CT were analyzed along with the clinical information. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found spiculated margin, lymphangitic spread, air bronchogram, pleural effusion, and distant metastasis had a significant predictive value for receptor mutation status. On univariate analysis, air bronchogram and pleural effusion had significant individual predictive value. Conclusions: Receptor positive lung cancer has characteristic imaging features compared with nonreceptor positive lung adenocarcinoma. Since CT is routinely used in lung cancer diagnosis, we can predict the receptor positivity by a noninvasive technique and would follow a more aggressive algorithm for evaluation of distant metastases as well as for the treatment.

Keywords: lung cancer, multidisciplinary cancer care, oncologic imaging, radiobiology

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344 Using Electrical Impedance Tomography to Control a Robot

Authors: Shayan Rezvanigilkolaei, Shayesteh Vefaghnematollahi

Abstract:

Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique suitable for medical applications. This paper describes an electrical impedance tomography device with the ability to navigate a robotic arm to manipulate a target object. The design of the device includes various hardware and software sections to perform medical imaging and control the robotic arm. In its hardware section an image is formed by 16 electrodes which are located around a container. This image is used to navigate a 3DOF robotic arm to reach the exact location of the target object. The data set to form the impedance imaging is obtained by having repeated current injections and voltage measurements between all electrode pairs. After performing the necessary calculations to obtain the impedance, information is transmitted to the computer. This data is fed and then executed in MATLAB which is interfaced with EIDORS (Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction Software) to reconstruct the image based on the acquired data. In the next step, the coordinates of the center of the target object are calculated by image processing toolbox of MATLAB (IPT). Finally, these coordinates are used to calculate the angles of each joint of the robotic arm. The robotic arm moves to the desired tissue with the user command.

Keywords: electrical impedance tomography, EIT, surgeon robot, image processing of electrical impedance tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
343 Development of Noninvasive Method to Analyze Dynamic Changes of Matrix Stiffness and Elasticity Characteristics

Authors: Elena Petersen, Inna Kornienko, Svetlana Guryeva, Sergey Dobdin, Anatoly Skripal, Andrey Usanov, Dmitry Usanov

Abstract:

One of the most important unsolved problems in modern medicine is the increase of chronic diseases that lead to organ dysfunction or even complete loss of function. Current methods of treatment do not result in decreased mortality and disability statistics. Currently, the best treatment for many patients is still transplantation of organs and/or tissues. Therefore, finding a way of correct artificial matrix biofabrication in case of limited number of natural organs for transplantation is a critical task. One important problem that needs to be solved is development of a nondestructive and noninvasive method to analyze dynamic changes of mechanical characteristics of a matrix with minimal side effects on the growing cells. This research was focused on investigating the properties of matrix as a marker of graft condition. In this study, the collagen gel with human primary dermal fibroblasts in suspension (60, 120, 240*103 cells/mL) and collagen gel with cell spheroids were used as model objects. The stiffness and elasticity characteristics were evaluated by a semiconductor laser autodyne. The time and cell concentration dependency of the stiffness and elasticity were investigated. It was shown that these properties changed in a non-linear manner with respect to cell concentration. The maximum matrix stiffness was observed in the collagen gel with the cell concentration of 120*103 cells/mL. This study proved the opportunity to use the mechanical properties of matrix as a marker of graft condition, which can be measured by noninvasive semiconductor laser autodyne technique.

Keywords: graft, matrix, noninvasive method, regenerative medicine, semiconductor laser autodyne

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
342 Resistivity Tomography Optimization Based on Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection Algorithm

Authors: Yiwei Huang, Chunyu Zhao, Jingjing Ding

Abstract:

Electrical Resistivity Tomography has been widely used in the medicine and the geology, such as the imaging of the lung impedance and the analysis of the soil impedance, etc. Linear Back Projection is the core algorithm of Electrical Resistivity Tomography, but the traditional Linear Back Projection can not make full use of the information of the electric field. In this paper, an imaging method of Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection for Electrical Resistivity Tomography is proposed, which generates the electric field distribution that is not linearly related to the traditional Linear Back Projection, captures the new information and improves the imaging accuracy without increasing the number of electrodes by changing the connection mode of the electrodes. The simulation results show that the accuracy of the image obtained by the inverse operation obtained by the Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection can be improved by about 20%.

Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography, finite element simulation, image optimization, parallel electrode linear back projection

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341 Evaluation of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography, MRI, and Ultrasound in the Assessment of Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Wooseok Byon, Eunyoung Kim, Junseong Kwon, Byung Joo Song, Chan Heun Park

Abstract:

Purpose: 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can identify nodal metastases in women with primary breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of FDG-PET with MRI and sonography scanning to determine axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. Patients and Methods: Between January and December 2012, ninety-nine patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes were evaluated. All patients underwent FDG-PET, MRI, ultrasound followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Results: Using axillary lymph node assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 51.4% (95% CI, 41.3% to 65.6%) and 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI and ultrasound were 57.1% (95% CI, 39.4% to 73.7%), 67.2% (95% CI, 54.3% to 78.4%) and 42.86% (95% CI, 26.3% to 60.7%), 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%). Stratification according to hormone receptor status showed an increase in specificity when negative (FDG-PET: 42.3% to 77.8%, MRI 50% to 77.8%, ultrasound 34.6% to 66.7%). Also, positive HER2 status was associated with an increase in specificity (FDG-PET: 42.9% to 85.7%, MRI 50% to 85.7%, ultrasound 35.7% to 71.4%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET compared with MRI and ultrasound was high. However, FDG-PET is not sufficiently accurate to appropriately identify lymph node metastases. This study suggests that FDG-PET scanning cannot replace histologic staging in early-stage breast cancer, but might have a role in evaluating axillary lymph node status in hormone receptor negative or HER-2 overexpressing subtypes.

Keywords: axillary lymph node metastasis, FDG-PET, MRI, ultrasound

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340 Non-Destructive Testing of Metal Pipes with Ultrasonic Sensors Based on Determination of Maximum Ultrasonic Frequency

Authors: Herlina Abdul Rahim, Javad Abbaszadeh, Ruzairi Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

In this research, the non-invasive ultrasonic transmission tomography is investigated. In order to model the ultrasonic wave scattering for different thickness of metal pipes, two-dimensional (2D) finite element modeling (FEM) has been utilized. The wall thickness variation of the metal pipe and its influence on propagation of the ultrasonic pressure wave are explored in this paper, includes frequency analysing in order to find the maximum applicable frequency. The simulation results have been compared to experimental data and are shown to provide key insight for this well-defined experimental case by explaining the achieved reconstructed images from experimental setup. Finally, the experimental results which are useful for further investigation for the application of ultrasonic transmission tomography in industry are illustrated.

Keywords: ultrasonic transmission tomography, ultrasonic sensors, ultrasonic wave, non-invasive tomography, metal pipe

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339 Assessment of the Response of Seismic Refraction Tomography and Resistivity Imaging to the Same Geologic Environment: A Case Study of Zaria Basement Complex in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, I. B. Osazuwa, S. O. Ibe, G. N. Egwuonwu, C. D. Ani, E. C. Chii

Abstract:

The study area is Zaria, located in the basement complex of northern Nigeria. The rock type forming the major part of the Zaria batholith is granite. This research work was carried out to compare the responses of seismic refraction tomography and resistivity tomography in the same geologic environment and under the same conditions. Hence, the choice of the site that has a visible granitic outcrop that extends across a narrow stream channel and is flanked by unconsolidated overburden, a neutral profile that was covered by plain overburden and a site with thick lateritic cover became necessary. The results of the seismic and resistivity tomography models reveals that seismic velocity and resistivity does not always simultaneously increase with depth, but their responses in any geologic environment are determined by changes in the mechanical and chemical content of the rock types rather than depth.

Keywords: environment, resistivity, response, seismic, velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
338 Measuring of the Volume Ratio of Two Immiscible Liquids Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

Authors: Jiri Primas, Michal Malik, Darina Jasikova, Michal Kotek, Vaclav Kopecky

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Authors of this paper discuss the measuring of volume ratio of two immiscible liquids in the homogenous mixture using the industrial Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) system ITS p2+. In the first part of the paper, the principle of EIT and the basic theory of conductivity of mixture of two components are stated. In the next part, the experiment with water and olive oil mixed with Rushton turbine is described, and the measured results are used to verify the theory. In the conclusion, the results are discussed in detail, and the accuracy of the measuring method and its advantages are also mentioned.

Keywords: conductivity, electrical impedance tomography, homogenous mixture, mixing process

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337 Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering

Authors: Prasannakumar Palaniappan, Dong Ho Shin, Chul Gyu Song

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The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.

Keywords: contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection

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336 Detecting Rat’s Kidney Inflammation Using Real Time Photoacoustic Tomography

Authors: M. Y. Lee, D. H. Shin, S. H. Park, W.C. Ham, S.K. Ko, C. G. Song

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Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) is a promising medical imaging modality that combines optical imaging contrast with the spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can also distinguish the changes in biological features. But, real-time PAT system should be confirmed due to photoacoustic effect for tissue. Thus, we have developed a real-time PAT system using a custom-developed data acquisition board and ultrasound linear probe. To evaluate performance of our system, phantom test was performed. As a result of those experiments, the system showed satisfactory performance and its usefulness has been confirmed. We monitored the degradation of inflammation which induced on the rat’s kidney using real-time PAT.

Keywords: photoacoustic tomography, inflammation detection, rat, kidney, contrast agent, ultrasound

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335 Diagnostic Value of Different Noninvasive Criteria of Latent Myocarditis in Comparison with Myocardial Biopsy

Authors: Olga Blagova, Yuliya Osipova, Evgeniya Kogan, Alexander Nedostup

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Purpose: to quantify the value of various clinical, laboratory and instrumental signs in the diagnosis of myocarditis in comparison with morphological studies of the myocardium. Methods: in 100 patients (65 men, 44.7±12.5 years) with «idiopathic» arrhythmias (n = 20) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 80) were performed 71 endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), 13 intraoperative biopsy, 5 study of explanted hearts, 11 autopsy with virus investigation (real-time PCR) of the blood and myocardium. Anti-heart antibodies (AHA) were also measured as well as cardiac CT (n = 45), MRI (n = 25), coronary angiography (n = 47). The comparison group included of 50 patients (25 men, 53.7±11.7 years) with non-inflammatory heart diseases who underwent open heart surgery. Results. Active/borderline myocarditis was diagnosed in 76.0% of the study group and in 21.6% of patients of the comparison group (p < 0.001). The myocardial viral genome was observed more frequently in patients of comparison group than in study group (group (65.0% and 40.2%; p < 0.01. Evaluated the diagnostic value of noninvasive markers of myocarditis. The panel of anti-heart antibodies had the greatest importance to identify myocarditis: sensitivity was 81.5%, positive and negative predictive value was 75.0 and 60.5%. It is defined diagnostic value of non-invasive markers of myocarditis and diagnostic algorithm providing an individual assessment of the likelihood of myocarditis is developed. Conclusion. The greatest significance in the diagnosis of latent myocarditis in patients with 'idiopathic' arrhythmias and DCM have AHA. The use of complex of noninvasive criteria allows estimate the probability of myocarditis and determine the indications for EMB.

Keywords: myocarditis, "idiopathic" arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial biopsy, viral genome, anti-heart antibodies

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334 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

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By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy

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333 Optical Assessment of Marginal Sealing Performance around Restorations Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: Rima Zakzouk, Yasushi Shimada, Yasunori Sumi, Junji Tagami

Abstract:

Background and purpose: The resin composite has become the main material for the restorations of caries in recent years due to aesthetic characteristics, especially with the development of the adhesive techniques. The quality of adhesion to tooth structures is depending on an exchange process between inorganic tooth material and synthetic resin and a micromechanical retention promoted by resin infiltration in partially demineralized dentin. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for obtaining cross-sectional images that produce high-resolution of the biological tissue at the micron scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gap formation at adhesive/tooth interface of two-step self-etch adhesives that are preceded with or without phosphoric acid pre-etching in different regions of teeth using SS-OCT. Materials and methods: Round tapered cavities (2×2 mm) were prepared in cervical part of bovine incisors teeth and divided into 2 groups (n=10): first group self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) was applied for SE group and second group treated with acid etching before applying the self-etch adhesive for PA group. Subsequently, both groups were restored with Estelite Flow Quick Flowable Composite Resin and observed under OCT. Following 5000 thermal cycles, the same section was obtained again for each cavity using OCT at 1310-nm wavelength. Scanning was repeated after two months to monitor the gap progress. Then the gap length was measured using image analysis software, and the statistics analysis were done between both groups using SPSS software. After that, the cavities were sectioned and observed under Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) to confirm the result of OCT. Results: Gaps formed at the bottom of the cavity was longer than the gap formed at the margin and dento-enamel junction in both groups. On the other hand, pre-etching treatment led to damage the DEJ regions creating longer gap. After 2 months the results showed almost progress in the gap length significantly at the bottom regions in both groups. In conclusions, phosphoric acid etching treatment did not reduce the gap lrngth in most regions of the cavity. Significance: The bottom region of tooth was more exposed to gap formation than margin and DEJ regions, The DEJ damaged with phosphoric acid treatment.

Keywords: optical coherence tomography, self-etch adhesives, bottom, dento enamel junction

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332 Comparison of Back-Projection with Non-Uniform Fast Fourier Transform for Real-Time Photoacoustic Tomography

Authors: Moung Young Lee, Chul Gyu Song

Abstract:

Photoacoustic imaging is the imaging technology that combines the optical imaging and ultrasound. This provides the high contrast and resolution due to optical imaging and ultrasound imaging, respectively. We developed the real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using linear-ultrasound transducer and digital acquisition (DAQ) board. There are two types of algorithm for reconstructing the photoacoustic signal. One is back-projection algorithm, the other is FFT algorithm. Especially, we used the non-uniform FFT algorithm. To evaluate the performance of our system and algorithms, we monitored two wires that stands at interval of 2.89 mm and 0.87 mm. Then, we compared the images reconstructed by algorithms. Finally, we monitored the two hairs crossed and compared between these algorithms.

Keywords: back-projection, image comparison, non-uniform FFT, photoacoustic tomography

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331 Image Processing Approach for Detection of Three-Dimensional Tree-Rings from X-Ray Computed Tomography

Authors: Jorge Martinez-Garcia, Ingrid Stelzner, Joerg Stelzner, Damian Gwerder, Philipp Schuetz

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Tree-ring analysis is an important part of the quality assessment and the dating of (archaeological) wood samples. It provides quantitative data about the whole anatomical ring structure, which can be used, for example, to measure the impact of the fluctuating environment on the tree growth, for the dendrochronological analysis of archaeological wooden artefacts and to estimate the wood mechanical properties. Despite advances in computer vision and edge recognition algorithms, detection and counting of annual rings are still limited to 2D datasets and performed in most cases manually, which is a time consuming, tedious task and depends strongly on the operator’s experience. This work presents an image processing approach to detect the whole 3D tree-ring structure directly from X-ray computed tomography imaging data. The approach relies on a modified Canny edge detection algorithm, which captures fully connected tree-ring edges throughout the measured image stack and is validated on X-ray computed tomography data taken from six wood species.

Keywords: ring recognition, edge detection, X-ray computed tomography, dendrochronology

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330 Non-Invasive Imaging of Tissue Using Near Infrared Radiations

Authors: Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal

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NIR Light is non-ionizing and can pass easily through living tissues such as breast without any harmful effects. Therefore, use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function. This blurred reconstructed image has been enhanced using a digital filter which is optimal in mean square sense.

Keywords: least-squares optimization, filtering, tomography, laser interaction, light scattering

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329 Detecting the Blood of Femoral and Carotid Artery of Swine Using Photoacoustic Tomography in-vivo

Authors: M. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, S. M. Yu, H. S. Jo, C. G. Song

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Photoacoustic imaging is the imaging technology that combines the optical imaging with ultrasound. It also provides the high contrast and resolution due to optical and ultrasound imaging, respectively. For these reasons, many studies take experiment in order to apply this method for many diagnoses. We developed the real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using linear-ultrasound transducer. In this study, we conduct the experiment using swine and detect the blood of carotid artery and femoral artery. We measured the blood of femoral and carotid artery of swine and reconstructed the image using 950nm due to the HbO₂ absorption coefficient. The photoacoustic image is overlaid with ultrasound image in order to match the position. In blood of artery, major composition of blood is HbO₂. In this result, we can measure the blood of artery.

Keywords: photoacoustic tomography, swine artery, carotid artery, femoral artery

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
328 Assessment of Hepatosteatosis Among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Using Biochemical Parameters and Noninvasive Imaging Techniques

Authors: Tugba Sevinc Gamsiz, Emine Koroglu, Ozcan Keskin

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Aim: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common chronic liver disease in the general population. The higher mortality and morbidity among NAFLD patients and lack of symptoms makes early detection and management important. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between noninvasive imaging and biochemical markers in diabetic and nondiabetic patients diagnosed with NAFLD. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from (September 2017) to (December 2017) on adults admitted to Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology outpatient clinics with hepatic steatosis reported on ultrasound or transient elastography within the last six months that exclude patients with other liver diseases or alcohol abuse. The data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Number cruncher statistical system (NCSS) 2007 program was used for statistical analysis. Results: 116 patients were included in this study. Diabetic patients compared to nondiabetics had significantly higher Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP), Liver Stiffness Measurement (LSM) and fibrosis values. Also, hypertension, hepatomegaly, high BMI, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, high A1c, and hyperuricemia were found to be risk factors for NAFLD progression to fibrosis. Advanced fibrosis (F3, F4) was present in 18,6 % of all our patients; 35,8 % of diabetic and 5,7 % of nondiabetic patients diagnosed with hepatic steatosis. Conclusion: Transient elastography is now used in daily clinical practice as an accurate noninvasive tool during follow-up of patients with fatty liver. Early diagnosis of the stage of liver fibrosis improves the monitoring and management of patients, especially in those with metabolic syndrome criteria.

Keywords: diabetes, elastography, fatty liver, fibrosis, metabolic syndrome

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327 The Potential for Cyclotron and Generator-produced Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals: An Overview

Authors: Ng Yen, Shafii Khamis, Rehir Bin Dahalan

Abstract:

Cyclotrons in the energy range 10-30 MeV are widely used for the production of clincally relevant radiosiotopes used in positron emission tomography (PET) nuclear imaging. Positron emmision tomography is a powerful nuclear imaging tool that produces high quality 3-dimentional images of functional processes of body. The advantage of PET among all other imaging devices is that it allows the study of an impressive array of discrete biochemical and physiologic processes, within a single imaging session. The number of PET scanner increases every year globally due to high clinical demand. However, not all PET centers can afford a cyclotron, due to the expense associated with operation of an in-house cyclotron. Therefore, current research has also focused on the development of parent/daughter generators that can reliably provide PET nuclides. These generators (68Ge/68Ga generator, 62Zn/62Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, etc) can provide even short-lived radionuclides at any time on demand, without the need of an ‘in-house cyclotron’. The parent isotope is produced at a cyclotron/reactor facility, and can be shipped to remote clinical sites (regionally/overseas), where the daughter isotope is eluted, a model similar to the 99Mo/99mTc generator system. The specific aim for this presentation is to talk about the potential for both of the cyclotron and generator-produced PET radiopharmaceuticals used in clinical imaging.

Keywords: positron emission tomography, radiopharmaceutical, cyclotron, generator

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326 Active Surface Tracking Algorithm for All-Fiber Common-Path Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: Bang Young Kim, Sang Hoon Park, Chul Gyu Song

Abstract:

A conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has limited imaging depth, which is 1-2 mm, and suffers unwanted noise such as speckle noise. The motorized-stage-based OCT system, using a common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (CP-FD-OCT) configuration, provides enhanced imaging depth and less noise so that we can overcome these limitations. Using this OCT systems, OCT images were obtained from an onion, and their subsurface structure was observed. As a result, the images obtained using the developed motorized-stage-based system showed enhanced imaging depth than the conventional system, since it is real-time accurate depth tracking. Consequently, the developed CP-FD-OCT systems and algorithms have good potential for the further development of endoscopic OCT for microsurgery.

Keywords: common-path OCT, FD-OCT, OCT, tracking algorithm

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325 Application of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Tunnel Seismic Prediction 303 Methods for Detection Fracture Zones Ahead of Tunnel: A Case Study

Authors: Nima Dastanboo, Xiao-Qing Li, Hamed Gharibdoost

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate about the geological properties ahead of a tunnel face with using Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT and Tunnel Seismic Prediction TSP303 methods. In deep tunnels with hydro-geological conditions, it is important to study the geological structures of the region before excavating tunnels. Otherwise, it would lead to unexpected accidents that impose serious damage to the project. For constructing Nosoud tunnel in west of Iran, the ERT and TSP303 methods are employed to predict the geological conditions dynamically during the excavation. In this paper, based on the engineering background of Nosoud tunnel, the important results of applying these methods are discussed. This work demonstrates seismic method and electrical tomography as two geophysical techniques that are able to detect a tunnel. The results of these two methods were being in agreement with each other but the results of TSP303 are more accurate and quality. In this case, the TSP 303 method was a useful tool for predicting unstable geological structures ahead of the tunnel face during excavation. Thus, using another geophysical method together with TSP303 could be helpful as a decision support in excavating, especially in complicated geological conditions.

Keywords: tunnel seismic prediction (TSP303), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), seismic wave, velocity analysis, low-velocity zones

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324 Non-Invasive Imaging of Human Tissue Using NIR Light

Authors: Ashwani Kumar

Abstract:

Use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function.

Keywords: NIR light, tissue, blurring, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 420