Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 623

Search results for: crack initiation

623 Experimental Characterization of Fatigue Crack Initiation of AA320 Alloy under Combined Thermal Cycling (CTC) and Mechanical Loading (ML) during Four Point Rotating and Bending Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Rana Atta Ur Rahman, Daniel Juhre


Initiation of crack during fatigue of casting alloys are noticed mainly on the basis of experimental results. Crack initiation and strength of fatigue of AA320 are summarized here. Load sequence effect is applied to notify initiation phase life. Crack initiation at notch root and fatigue life is calculated under single & two-step mechanical loading (ML) with and without combined thermal cycling (CTC). An Experimental setup is proposed to create the working temperature as per alloy applications. S-N curves are plotted, and a comparison is made between crack initiation leading to failure under different ML with & without thermal loading (TL).

Keywords: fatigue, initiation, SN curve, alloy

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622 Methodologies for Crack Initiation in Welded Joints Applied to Inspection Planning

Authors: Guang Zou, Kian Banisoleiman, Arturo González


Crack initiation and propagation threatens structural integrity of welded joints and normally inspections are assigned based on crack propagation models. However, the approach based on crack propagation models may not be applicable for some high-quality welded joints, because the initial flaws in them may be so small that it may take long time for the flaws to develop into a detectable size. This raises a concern regarding the inspection planning of high-quality welded joins, as there is no generally acceptable approach for modeling the whole fatigue process that includes the crack initiation period. In order to address the issue, this paper reviews treatment methods for crack initiation period and initial crack size in crack propagation models applied to inspection planning. Generally, there are four approaches, by: 1) Neglecting the crack initiation period and fitting a probabilistic distribution for initial crack size based on statistical data; 2) Extrapolating the crack propagation stage to a very small fictitious initial crack size, so that the whole fatigue process can be modeled by crack propagation models; 3) Assuming a fixed detectable initial crack size and fitting a probabilistic distribution for crack initiation time based on specimen tests; and, 4) Modeling the crack initiation and propagation stage separately using small crack growth theories and Paris law or similar models. The conclusion is that in view of trade-off between accuracy and computation efforts, calibration of a small fictitious initial crack size to S-N curves is the most efficient approach.

Keywords: crack initiation, fatigue reliability, inspection planning, welded joints

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621 Cycle Number Estimation Method on Fatigue Crack Initiation Using Voronoi Tessellation and the Tanaka Mura Model

Authors: Mohammad Ridzwan Bin Abd Rahim, Siegfried Schmauder, Yupiter HP Manurung, Peter Binkele, Meor Iqram B. Meor Ahmad, Kiarash Dogahe


This paper deals with the short crack initiation of the material P91 under cyclic loading at two different temperatures, concluded with the estimation of the short crack initiation Wöhler (S/N) curve. An artificial but representative model microstructure was generated using Voronoi tessellation and the Finite Element Method, and the non-uniform stress distribution was calculated accordingly afterward. The number of cycles needed for crack initiation is estimated on the basis of the stress distribution in the model by applying the physically-based Tanaka-Mura model. Initial results show that the number of cycles to generate crack initiation is strongly correlated with temperature.

Keywords: short crack initiation, P91, Wöhler curve, Voronoi tessellation, Tanaka-Mura model

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620 Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys: Effect of Heat Treatment Condition

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab


In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. At initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress.

Keywords: fatigue crack initiation, al-alloy, mean stress, heat treatment state

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619 Numerical Modelling of Crack Initiation around a Wellbore Due to Explosion

Authors: Meysam Lak, Mohammad Fatehi Marji, Alireza Yarahamdi Bafghi, Abolfazl Abdollahipour


A wellbore is a hole that is drilled to aid in the exploration and recovery of natural resources including oil and gas. Occasionally, in order to increase productivity index and porosity of the wellbore and reservoir, the well stimulation methods have been used. Hydraulic fracturing is one of these methods. Moreover, several explosions at the end of the well can stimulate the reservoir and create fractures around it. In this study, crack initiation in rock around the wellbore has been numerically modeled due to explosion. One, two, three, and four pairs of explosion have been set at the end of the wellbore on its wall. After each stage of the explosion, results have been presented and discussed. Results show that this method can initiate and probably propagate several fractures around the wellbore.

Keywords: crack initiation, explosion, finite difference modelling, well productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
618 Failure Analysis of a Medium Duty Vehicle Leaf Spring

Authors: Gül Çevik


This paper summarizes the work conducted to assess the root cause of the failure of a medium commercial vehicle leaf spring failed in service. Macro- and micro-fractographic analyses by scanning electron microscope as well as material verification tests were conducted in order to understand the failure mechanisms and root cause of the failure. Findings from the fractographic analyses indicated that failure mechanism is fatigue. Crack initiation was identified to have occurred from a point on the top surface near to the front face and to the left side. Two other crack initiation points were also observed, however, these cracks did not propagate. The propagation mode of the fatigue crack revealed that the cyclic loads resulting in crack initiation and propagation were unidirectional bending. Fractographic analyses have also showed that the root cause of the fatigue crack initiation and propagation was loading the part above design stress. Material properties of the part were also verified by chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and hardness tests.

Keywords: leaf spring, failure analysis, fatigue, fractography

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617 Effect of Inclusions in the Ultrasonic Fatigue Endurance of Maraging 300 Steel

Authors: G. M. Dominguez Almaraz, J. A. Ruiz Vilchez, M. A. Sanchez Miranda


Ultrasonic fatigue tests have been carried out in the maraging 300 steel. Experimental results show that fatigue endurance under this modality of testing is closely related to the nature and geometrical properties of inclusions present in this alloy. A model was proposed to correlate the ultrasonic fatigue endurance with the nature and geometrical properties of the crack initiation inclusion. Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were obtained on the fracture surfaces, in order to assess the crack initiation inclusion and to introduce these parameters in the proposed model, with good agreement for the fatigue life prediction.

Keywords: inclusions, ultrasonic fatigue, maraging 300 steel, crack initiation

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616 Simulation the Stress Distribution of Wheel/Rail at Contact Region

Authors: Norie A. Akeel, Z. Sajuri, A. K. Ariffin


This paper discusses the effect of different loading analysis on crack initiation life of wheel/rail in the contact region. A simulated three dimensional (3D) elasto plastic model of a wheel/rail contact is modeled using the fine mesh technique in the contact region by using Finite Element Method FEM code ANSYS 11.0 software. Different loads of approximately from 70 to 140 KN was applied on the wheel tread through the running surface on the railhead surface to simulate stress distribution (Von Mises) and a life prediction of the crack initiation under rolling contact motion. Stress analysis is achieved and the fatigue life to the rail head surface is calculated numerically by using a multi-axial fatigue life of crack initiation model. All results obtained from the previous researches are compared with this research.

Keywords: FEM, rolling contact, rail track, stress distribution, fatigue life

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615 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari


Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis

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614 Uncertainty Quantification of Crack Widths and Crack Spacing in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Marcel Meinhardt, Manfred Keuser, Thomas Braml


Cracking of reinforced concrete is a complex phenomenon induced by direct loads or restraints affecting reinforced concrete structures as soon as the tensile strength of the concrete is exceeded. Hence it is important to predict where cracks will be located and how they will propagate. The bond theory and the crack formulas in the actual design codes, for example, DIN EN 1992-1-1, are all based on the assumption that the reinforcement bars are embedded in homogeneous concrete without taking into account the influence of transverse reinforcement and the real stress situation. However, it can often be observed that real structures such as walls, slabs or beams show a crack spacing that is orientated to the transverse reinforcement bars or to the stirrups. In most Finite Element Analysis studies, the smeared crack approach is used for crack prediction. The disadvantage of this model is that the typical strain localization of a crack on element level can’t be seen. The crack propagation in concrete is a discontinuous process characterized by different factors such as the initial random distribution of defects or the scatter of material properties. Such behavior presupposes the elaboration of adequate models and methods of simulation because traditional mechanical approaches deal mainly with average material parameters. This paper concerned with the modelling of the initiation and the propagation of cracks in reinforced concrete structures considering the influence of transverse reinforcement and the real stress distribution in reinforced concrete (R/C) beams/plates in bending action. Therefore, a parameter study was carried out to investigate: (I) the influence of the transversal reinforcement to the stress distribution in concrete in bending mode and (II) the crack initiation in dependence of the diameter and distance of the transversal reinforcement to each other. The numerical investigations on the crack initiation and propagation were carried out with a 2D reinforced concrete structure subjected to quasi static loading and given boundary conditions. To model the uncertainty in the tensile strength of concrete in the Finite Element Analysis correlated normally and lognormally distributed random filed with different correlation lengths were generated. The paper also presents and discuss different methods to generate random fields, e.g. the Covariance Matrix Decomposition Method. For all computations, a plastic constitutive law with softening was used to model the crack initiation and the damage of the concrete in tension. It was found that the distributions of crack spacing and crack widths are highly dependent of the used random field. These distributions are validated to experimental studies on R/C panels which were carried out at the Laboratory for Structural Engineering at the University of the German Armed Forces in Munich. Also, a recommendation for parameters of the random field for realistic modelling the uncertainty of the tensile strength is given. The aim of this research was to show a method in which the localization of strains and cracks as well as the influence of transverse reinforcement on the crack initiation and propagation in Finite Element Analysis can be seen.

Keywords: crack initiation, crack modelling, crack propagation, cracks, numerical simulation, random fields, reinforced concrete, stochastic

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613 Substantial Fatigue Similarity of a New Small-Scale Test Rig to Actual Wheel-Rail System

Authors: Meysam Naeimi, Zili Li, Roumen Petrov, Rolf Dollevoet, Jilt Sietsma, Jun Wu


The substantial similarity of fatigue mechanism in a new test rig for rolling contact fatigue (RCF) has been investigated. A new reduced-scale test rig is designed to perform controlled RCF tests in wheel-rail materials. The fatigue mechanism of the rig is evaluated in this study using a combined finite element-fatigue prediction approach. The influences of loading conditions on fatigue crack initiation have been studied. Furthermore, the effects of some artificial defects (squat-shape) on fatigue lives are examined. To simulate the vehicle-track interaction by means of the test rig, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is built up. The nonlinear material behaviour of the rail steel is modelled in the contact interface. The results of FE simulations are combined with the critical plane concept to determine the material points with the greatest possibility of fatigue failure. Based on the stress-strain responses, by employing of previously postulated criteria for fatigue crack initiation (plastic shakedown and ratchetting), fatigue life analysis is carried out. The results are reported for various loading conditions and different defect sizes. Afterward, the cyclic mechanism of the test rig is evaluated from the operational viewpoint. The results of fatigue life predictions are compared with the expected number of cycles of the test rig by its cyclic nature. Finally, the estimative duration of the experiments until fatigue crack initiation is roughly determined.

Keywords: fatigue, test rig, crack initiation, life, rail, squats

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612 Multiaxial Fatigue Analysis of a High Performance Nickel-Based Superalloy

Authors: P. Selva, B. Lorraina, J. Alexis, A. Seror, A. Longuet, C. Mary, F. Denard


Over the past four decades, the fatigue behavior of nickel-based alloys has been widely studied. However, in recent years, significant advances in the fabrication process leading to grain size reduction have been made in order to improve fatigue properties of aircraft turbine discs. Indeed, a change in particle size affects the initiation mode of fatigue cracks as well as the fatigue life of the material. The present study aims to investigate the fatigue behavior of a newly developed nickel-based superalloy under biaxial-planar loading. Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) tests are performed at different stress ratios so as to study the influence of the multiaxial stress state on the fatigue life of the material. Full-field displacement and strain measurements as well as crack initiation detection are obtained using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques. The aim of this presentation is first to provide an in-depth description of both the experimental set-up and protocol: the multiaxial testing machine, the specific design of the cruciform specimen and performances of the DIC code are introduced. Second, results for sixteen specimens related to different load ratios are presented. Crack detection, strain amplitude and number of cycles to crack initiation vs. triaxial stress ratio for each loading case are given. Third, from fractographic investigations by scanning electron microscopy it is found that the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation does not depend on the triaxial stress ratio and that most fatigue cracks initiate from subsurface carbides.

Keywords: cruciform specimen, multiaxial fatigue, nickel-based superalloy

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611 Repair of Cracked Aluminum Plate by Composite Patch

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, A. Zeggane, H. Kebir


In this work, repaired crack in 6061-T6 aluminum plate with composite patches presented, firstly we determine the displacement, strain, and stress, also the first six mode shape of the plate, secondly we took the same model adding central crack initiation, which is located in the center of the plate, its size vary from 20 mm to 60 mm and we compare the first results with second. Thirdly, we repair various cracks with the composite patch (carbon/epoxy) and for (2 layers, 4 layers). Finally, the comparison of stress, strain, displacement and six first natural frequencies between un-cracked specimen, crack propagation and composite patch repair.

Keywords: composite patch repair, crack growth, aluminum alloy plate, stress

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610 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao


In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft

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609 Prediction of Crack Propagation in Bonded Joints Using Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi


In this work, Fracture Mechanics is used to predict crack propagation in the adhesive jointing aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate. Therefore 2*3=6 cases are considered and their results are compared. The debonding initiation load, complete debonding load, crack face profile and load-displacement diagram have been compared for the six cases.

Keywords: fracture, adhesive joint, debonding, APDL, LEFM

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608 Crack Initiation Assessment during Fracture of Heat Treated Duplex Stainless Steels

Authors: Faraj Ahmed E. Alhegagi, Anagia M. Khamkam Mohamed, Bassam F. Alhajaji


Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are widely employed in industry for apparatus working with sea water in petroleum, refineries and in chemical plants. Fracture of DSS takes place by cleavage of the ferrite phase and the austenite phase ductile tear off. Pop-in is an important feature takes place during fracture of DSS. The procedure of Pop-ins assessment plays an important role in fracture toughness studies. In present work, Zeron100 DSS specimens were heat treated at different temperatures, cooled and pulled to failure to assess the pop-ins criterion in crack initiation prediction. The outcome results were compared to the British Standard (BS 7448) and the ASTEM standard (E1290) for Crack-Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness measurement. Pop-in took place during specimens loading specially for those specimens heat treated at higher temperatures. The standard BS7448 was followed to check specimen validity for fractured toughness assessment by direct determination of KIC. In most cases, specimens were invalid for KIC measurement. The two procedures were equivalent only when single pop-ins were assessed. A considerable contrast in fracture toughness value between was observed where multiple pop-ins were assessed.

Keywords: fracture toughness, stainless steels, pop ins, crack assessment

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607 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang


In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force

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606 Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of the Harmfulness of Defects in Oil Pipes

Authors: B. Medjadji, L. Aminallah, B. Serier, M. Benlebna


In this study, the finite element method in 3-D is used to calculate the integral J in the semi-elliptical crack in a pipe subjected to internal pressure. The stress-strain curve of the pipe has been determined experimentally. The J-integral was calculated in two fronts crack (Ф = 0 and Ф = π/2). The effect of the configuration of the crack on the J integral is analysed. The results show that an external longitudinal crack in a pipe is the most dangerous. It also shows that the increase in the applied pressure causes a remarkable increase of the integral J. The effect of the depth of the crack becomes important when the ratio between the depth of the crack and the thickness of the pipe (a / t) tends to 1.

Keywords: J integral, pipeline, crack, MEF

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605 Finite Element and Experimental Investigation of Ductile Crack Growth of Surface Cracks

Authors: Osama A. Terfas, Abdelhakim A. Hameda, Abdusalam A. Alktiwi


An investigation on ductile crack growth of shallow semi-elliptical surface cracks with a/w=0.2, a/c=0.33 under bending was carried out, where a is the crack depth, w is the plate thickness and c is the crack length at surface. Finite element analysis and experiments were modelling and the crack growth model were verified with experimental data. The results showed that the initial crack shape was no longer maintained as the crack developed under ductile tearing. The maximum growth at the deepest point at early stages was stopped when the crack depth reached half thickness and growth occurred beneath surface. Excellent agreement in the crack shape patterns was observed between the experiments and the crack growth model.

Keywords: crack growth, ductile tearing, mean stress, surface cracks

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604 Crack Width Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Members under Shrinkage Effect by Pseudo-Discrete Crack Model

Authors: F. J. Ma, A. K. H. Kwan


Crack caused by shrinkage movement of concrete is a serious problem especially when restraint is provided. It may cause severe serviceability and durability problems. The existing prediction methods for crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement are mainly numerical methods under simplified circumstances, which do not agree with each other. To get a more unified prediction method applicable to more sophisticated circumstances, finite element crack width analysis for shrinkage effect should be developed. However, no existing finite element analysis can be carried out to predict the crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement because of unsolved reasons of conventional finite element analysis. In this paper, crack width analysis implemented by finite element analysis is presented with pseudo-discrete crack model, which combines traditional smeared crack model and newly proposed crack queuing algorithm. The proposed pseudo-discrete crack model is capable of simulating separate and single crack without adopting discrete crack element. And the improved finite element analysis can successfully simulate the stress redistribution when concrete is cracked, which is crucial for predicting crack width, crack spacing and crack number.

Keywords: crack queuing algorithm, crack width analysis, finite element analysis, shrinkage effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
603 Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism

Authors: Roselyn Zaman, Mobarak Hossain


A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force, and unbalanced force orientation

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602 Mechanism of Failure of Pipeline Steels in Sour Environment

Authors: Abhishek Kumar


X70 pipeline steel was electrochemically charged with hydrogen for different durations in order to find crack nucleation and propagation sites. After 3 hours charging, suitable regions for crack initiation and propagation were found. These regions were studied by OM, SEM, EDS and later Vicker hardness test was done. The results brought out that HIC cracks nucleated from regions rich of inclusions and further propagated through the segregation area of some elements, such as manganese, carbon, silicon and sulfur. It is worth-mentioning that all these potential sites for crack nucleation and propagation appeared at the centre of cross section of the specimens. Additionally, cracked area has harder phase than the non-cracked area which was confirmed by hardness test.

Keywords: X70 steel, morphology of inclusions, SEM/EDS/OM, simulation, statistical data

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601 Concrete Cracking Simulation Using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element Method

Authors: R. Z. Wang, B. C. Lin, C. H. Huang


This study proposes a new method to simulate the crack propagation under mode-I loading using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element (VFIFE) method. A new idea which is expected to combine both VFIFE and J-integral is proposed to calculate the stress density factor as the crack critical in elastic crack. The procedure of implement the cohesive crack propagation in VFIFE based on the fictitious crack model is also proposed. In VFIFIE, the structure deformation is described by numbers of particles instead of elements. The strain energy density and the derivatives of the displacement vector of every particle is introduced to calculate the J-integral as the integral path is discrete by particles. The particle on the crack tip separated into two particles once the stress on the crack tip satisfied with the crack critical and then the crack tip propagates to the next particle. The internal force and the cohesive force is applied to the particles.

Keywords: VFIFE, crack propagation, fictitious crack model, crack critical

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600 Effect the Use of Steel Fibers (Dramix) on Reinforced Concrete Slab

Authors: Faisal Ananda, Junaidi Al-Husein, Oni Febriani, Juli Ardita, N. Indra, Syaari Al-Husein, A. Bukri


Currently, concrete technology continues to grow and continue to innovate one of them using fibers. Fiber concrete has advantages over non-fiber concrete, among others, strong against the effect of shrinkage, ability to reduce crack, fire resistance, etc. In this study, concrete mix design using the procedures listed on SNI 03-2834-2000. The sample used is a cylinder with a height of 30 cm and a width of 15cm in diameter, which is used for compression and tensile testing, while the slab is 400cm x 100cm x 15cm. The fiber used is steel fiber (dramix), with the addition of 2/3 of the thickness of the slabs. The charging is done using a two-point loading. From the result of the research, it is found that the loading of non-fiber slab (0%) of the initial crack is the maximum crack that has passed the maximum crack allowed with a crack width of 1.3 mm with a loading of 1160 kg. The initial crack with the largest load is found on the 1% fiber mixed slab, with the initial crack also being a maximum crack of 0.5mm which also has exceeded the required maximum crack. In the 4% slab the initial crack of 0.1 mm is a minimal initial crack with a load greater than the load of a non-fiber (0%) slab by load1200 kg. While the maximum load on the maximum crack according to the applicable maximum crack conditions, on the 5% fiber mixed slab with a crack width of 0.32mm by loading 1250 kg.

Keywords: crack, dramix, fiber, load, slab

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599 J-Integral Method for Assessment of Structural Integrity of a Pressure Vessel

Authors: Karthik K. R, Viswanath V, Asraff A. K


The first stage of a new-generation launch vehicle of ISRO makes use of large pressure vessels made of Aluminium alloy AA2219 to store fuel and oxidizer. These vessels have many weld joints that may contain cracks or crack-like defects during their fabrication. These defects may propagate across the vessel during pressure testing or while in service under the influence of tensile stresses leading to catastrophe. Though ductile materials exhibit significant stable crack growth prior to failure, it is not generally acceptable for an aerospace component. There is a need to predict the initiation of stable crack growth. The structural integrity of the vessel from fracture considerations can be studied by constructing the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) that accounts for both brittle fracture and plastic collapse. Critical crack sizes of the pressure vessel may be highly conservative if it is predicted from FAD alone. If the J-R curve for material under consideration is available apriori, the critical crack sizes can be predicted to a certain degree of accuracy. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to predict the integrity of a weld in a pressure vessel made of AA2219 material. Fracture parameter ‘J-integral’ at the crack front, evaluated through finite element analyses, is used in the new procedure. Based on the simulation of tension tests carried out on SCT specimens by NASA, a cut-off value of J-integral value (J?ᵤₜ_ₒ??) is finalised. For the pressure vessel, J-integral at the crack front is evaluated through FE simulations incorporating different surface cracks at long seam weld in a cylinder and in dome petal welds. The obtained J-integral, at vessel level, is compared with a value of J?ᵤₜ_ₒ??, and the integrity of vessel weld in the presence of the surface crack is firmed up. The advantage of this methodology is that if SCT test data of any metal is available, the critical crack size in hardware fabricated using that material can be predicted to a better level of accuracy.

Keywords: FAD, j-integral, fracture, surface crack

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598 Influence of Maximum Fatigue Load on Probabilistic Aspect of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life at Specified Grown Crack in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


The principal purpose of this paper is to find the influence of maximum fatigue load on the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack in magnesium alloys. The experiments of fatigue crack propagation are carried out in laboratory air under different conditions of the maximum fatigue loads to obtain the fatigue crack propagation data for the statistical analysis. In order to analyze the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life, the goodness-of fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack is implemented through Anderson-Darling test. The good probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is also verified under the conditions of the maximum fatigue loads.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load, probability

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597 Study of the Toughening by Crack Bridging in Mullite Alumina Zirconia Ceramics

Authors: F. Gheldane, S. Bouras


Crack propagation behaviour of alumina mullite zirconia ceramic is investigated under monotonic and cyclic loading by means SENB bending method. This material show R-curve effects, i.e. an increase in crack growth resistance with increasing crack depth. The morphological study showed that the resistance of the crack propagation is mainly connected to the crack bridging. The value of bridging stress is in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, cyclic-loading fatigue is caused by a decrease in the stress-shielding effect, due to degradation of bridging sites under cyclic loading.

Keywords: alumina mullite zirconia, R-curve, bridging, toughening, crack

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
596 Finite Element Analysis of Debonding Propagation in FM73 Joint under Static Loading

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi


In this work, Fracture Mechanics is used to predict crack propagation in the adhesive joining aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate. Therefore, 2*3=6 cases are considered and their results are compared. The debonding initiation load, complete debonding load, crack face profile and load-displacement diagram have been compared for the six cases.

Keywords: adhesive joint, debonding, fracture, LEFM, APDL

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
595 Interaction between the Main Crack and Dislocation in the Glass Material

Authors: A. Mezzidi, H. Hamli Benzahar


The present study evaluates the stress and stress intensity factor during the propagation of a crack at presence of a dislocation near of crack tip. The problem is formulated using a glass material having an equivalent elasticity modulus and a Poisson ratio. In this research work, the proposed material is a plate form with a main crack in one of these ends and a dislocation near this crack, subjected to tensile stresses according to the mode 1 opening. For each distance between the two cracks, we can determine these stresses. This study is treated by finite elements method by using the software (ABAQUS) rate. It is shown here in that obtained results agreed with those determined by other researchers

Keywords: crack, dislocation, finite element, glass

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594 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed and the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life is presented. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, load ratio, magnesium alloys, probability distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 560