Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 131

Search results for: typology

131 The Interrelations between Niemeyer’s Works and the Concept of Typology: A Computer Based Analysis of Form and Structure

Authors: Aline M. C. Santoro, João C. Pantoja, Eduardo P. Rossetti

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While the aim of the modernist movement was to deny known typology, the creation of a new formal language also gave it new meaning, which was now related to Form. This is specifically true in the modern capital of Brazil, where Niemeyer sought to demonstrate the manner in which the new materials available, such as reinforced concrete, were able to produce innovative forms. With this study, we aim to demonstrate the relationship between Niemeyer’s forms and the topological typology known as tessellation, through the presentation of two case studies, the Monument to Caxias and the Saint George Orthodox Church. At a first glance, our purpose is to present the definition of Form, especially with relationship to the works of Niemeyer, seeking to identify in them the concepts presented by Moussavi. Afterwards, we will use a computer-based approach to study and model the forms of two of his buildings with the McNeel Rhinoceros program, where, with the aid of diagrams and renderings, we will be able to clearly and legibly represent their organic forms and further understand their structural systems. When we recognise the concept of typology as a starting point for structural form, it can be concluded that the case studies presented here are encompassed by the typology presented by Moussavi since they derive from his basic structural systems.

Keywords: form, Niemeyer, structure, typology, topology

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130 A Comparative Case Study on the Relationship between Solar Energy Potential and Block Typology and Density in Shanghai Context

Authors: Dan Zhu, Jie Shi

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This study explores the relationship between solar potential and block typology and density by analyzing sixteen existing typical street blocks with different topologies and densities in Shanghai, a representative high-density urban in China. Several indicators are proposed to quantify, and a methodology is conducted to evaluate and compare the solar potential both on façade and roof across various selected urban forms. 1) The importance of appropriate solar energy indicators and geometric parameters to be used in comparative studies, and 2) the relationship between urban typology, density, and solar performance are discussed. In this way, the results reveal the key design attributes contributing to increasing solar potential.

Keywords: block typology, geometric parameters, high-density urban, solar potential

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129 Recommending Appropriate Type of Green Roof Considering Urban Typology and Climatic Zoning in Iran

Authors: Ghazal Raheb

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Population growth in big cities of Iran has led to limitation of land resources, more consumption of non-renewable sources of energy and many environmental problems. Emerging of overbuilt urban areas and decreasing amount of green spaces cause the appearance of an undesirable landscape in the cities. Green roof technology is a solution to improve environmental concerns in urban areas which combines green spaces with buildings as the private or semi-private spaces. Successful implementation in different areas definitely depends on accommodation of green roof type with the environment and urban and building typology in Iran. This paper is aiming to provide some recommendation for selecting appropriate type of green roof and executive solutions considering to climatic zoning and urban situation in Iran. Two main aspects which have been considered are environmental and urban typology factors.

Keywords: green roof, urban typology, climate zone, landscape

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128 Typology of Customers in Fitness Centres

Authors: Josef Voracek, Jan Sima

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The main purpose of our study is to state the basic types of fitness customers. This paper aims to create a specific customer typology in today’s fitness centres in the region of Prague. Our suggested typology of Prague fitness centres customers is based on answers to the questions: What are the customers like, what are their preferences, and what kinds of services do they use more often in Prague fitness centres? These are the main aspects of the presented typology. A survey was conducted on a sample of 1004 respondents from 48 fitness centres, which ran during May 2012. We used questionnaires and latent class analysis for the assessment and interpretation of data. Gender was especially the main filter criterion. In the population, there were 522 males and 482 females. Data were analysed using the LCA method. We identified 6 segments of typical customers, of which three are male and three are female. Each segment is influenced primarily by the age of customers, from which we can develop further characteristics, such as education, income, marital status, etc. Male segments use the main workout area above all, whilst female segments use a much wider range of services offered, for example, group exercises, personal training, and cardio theatres. LCA method was found to be the most suitable tool, because cluster analysis is very limited in the forms and numbers of variables and indicators. Models of 3 latent classes for each gender are optimal, as it is demonstrated by entropy indices and matrices of the likelihood of the membership to the classes. A probable weak point of the survey is the selection of fitness centres, because of the market in Prague is really specific.

Keywords: customer, fitness, latent class analysis, typology

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127 A Typology System to Diagnose and Evaluate Environmental Affordances

Authors: Falntina Ahmad Alata, Natheer Abu Obeid

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This paper is a research report of an experimental study on a proposed typology system to diagnose and evaluate the affordances of varying architectural environments. The study focused on architectural environments which have been developed with a shift in their use of adaptive reuse. The novelty in the newly developed environments was tested in terms of human responsiveness and interaction using a variety of selected cases. The study is a follow-up on previous research by the same authors, in which a typology of 16 categories of environmental affordances was developed and introduced. The current study introduced other new categories, which together with the previous ones establish what could be considered a basic language of affordance typology. The experiment was conducted on ten architectural environments while adopting two processes: 1. Diagnostic process, in which the environments were interpreted in terms of their affordances using the previously developed affordance typology, 2. The evaluation process, in which the diagnosed environments were evaluated using measures of emotional experience and architectural evaluation criteria of beauty, economy and function. The experimental study demonstrated that the typology system was capable of diagnosing different environments in terms of their affordances. It also introduced new categories of human interaction: “multiple affordances,” “conflict affordances,” and “mix affordances.” The different possible combinations and mixtures of categories demonstrated to be capable of producing huge numbers of other newly developed categories. This research is an attempt to draw a roadmap for designers to diagnose and evaluate the affordances within different architectural environments. It is hoped to provide future guidance for developing the best possible adaptive reuse according to the best affordance category within their proposed designs.

Keywords: affordance theory, affordance categories, architectural environments, architectural evaluation criteria, adaptive reuse environment, emotional experience, shift in use environment

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126 A Study of New Window Typology for Palestinian Residential Building for More Sustainable Building

Authors: Nisreen Ardda

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Fenestrations are one of the main building envelope elements that play an important role in home social-ecological l factors. They play a vital role in providing natural lighting and ventilation, visual, thermal, and acoustical comfort, and also provide weather-tightness, privacy, a feeling of openness. In most home buildings, fenestrations are controlled manually by the occupants, which significantly impacts occupants' comfort and energy use. Culture plays a central role in the Palestinians window operation behavior. Improved windows design that provides the desired privacy while maintaining the appropriate function of fenestration (natural lighting, thermal comfort, and visual openness) is becoming a necessity. Therefore, this paper proposes a window typology to achieve the social and environmental factors in residential buildings in the West Bank. The window typology and reference building were designed in Rivet 2021, and natural ventilation was carried out in Design Builder 4.3.0.039. The results showed that the proposed typology provides the desired privacy and the feeling of openness without compromising natural ventilation as the existing window did.

Keywords: window design, passive design, sustainable built environment, building material

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125 Transition Economies, Typology, and Models: The Case of Libya

Authors: Abderahman Efhialelbum

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The period since the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, and the collapse of the former Soviet Union in December 1985 has seen a major change in the economies and labour markets of Eastern Europe. The events also had reverberating effects across Asia and South America and parts of Africa, including Libya. This article examines the typologies and the models of transition economies. Also, it sheds light on the Libyan transition in particular and the impact of Qadhafi’s regime on the transition process. Finally, it illustrates how the Libyan transition process followed the trajectory of other countries using economic indicators such as free trade, property rights, and inflation.

Keywords: transition, economy, typology, model, Libya

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124 Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology

Authors: Beate Niemann, Fabian Pramel

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The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.

Keywords: composition, congruence, identity, paradigm, spatial condition, urban design, urban development, urban waterfront

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123 Organizational Performance and Impact of Social Innovation

Authors: Alfonso Unceta, Javier Castro-Spila

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This paper offers a conceptual and empirical exploration between the organizational performance and the impact of social innovation. The paper contributes on the social innovation field in three domains: a) It provides analytical and empirical evidence linking organizational performance to the impact of social innovation; b) it provides a first outline of impact assessment of social innovation when it is developed by a diversity of heterogeneous actors (systemic social innovation); c) it provides a first outline for the development of innovation policies to support social innovations according to a typology of organizations and a typology of impact.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, social innovation impact, organizational performance, RESINDEX, Basque Country

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122 Identity Formation Towards Design Typology of Malay Traditional House in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Authors: Noor Hayati Binti Ismail, Mastor Bin Surat, Raja Nafida Binti Raja Shahminan, Shahrul Kamil Bin Yunus

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Traditional Malay house built in the various custom and culture for every state in Malaysia. Each state has its characteristics, design and different concepts that form the distinctive identity. The uniqueness of a traditional house design is a symbolize of Negeri Sembilan society. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the feature, a traditional Malay house in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This typology will describe five types of traditional Malay houses in Negeri Sembilan by briefly about the concept of a traditional Malay house design. The design represents a variety of purposes that are often associated with its own culture and customs practiced by the community. In addition, the design of long tapering roof with both ends of the roof went up a little bit architecture has become an identity of its own in Negeri Sembilan. The study involves several villages of traditional houses in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Data collection was obtained through a process of observation, interviews, questionnaire and taking photos related. Through this research, We are expected to provide awareness and also a reference to the next generation of traditional houses in Malaysia especially in Negeri Sembilan. Identity and uniqueness of traditional houses Negeri Sembilan increasingly difficult to maintain and can be kept from being lost in their own land.

Keywords: design, identity, traditional Malay house, typology

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121 Typology of Gaming Tourists Based on the Perception of Destination Image

Authors: Mi Ju Choi

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This study investigated the perception of gaming tourists toward Macau and developed a typology of gaming tourists. The 1,497 responses from tourists in Macau were collected through convenience sampling method. The dimensions of multi-culture, convenience, economy, gaming, and unsafety, were subsequently extracted as the factors of perception of gaming tourists in Macau. Cluster analysis was performed using the delineated factors (perception of tourists on Macau). Four heterogonous groups were generated, namely, gaming lovers (n = 467, 31.2%), exotic lovers (n = 509, 34.0%), reasonable budget seekers (n = 269, 18.0%), and convenience seekers (n = 252, 16.8%). Further analysis was performed to investigate any difference in gaming behavior and tourist activities. The findings are expected to contribute to the efforts of destination marketing organizations (DMOs) in establishing effective business strategies, provide a profile of gaming tourists in certain market segments, and assist DMOs and casino managers in establishing more effective marketing strategies for target markets.

Keywords: destination image, gaming tourists, Macau, segmentation

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120 The Typology of Social Enterprise: Case Study of Community-Development Enterprise in Indonesia

Authors: Aluisius Pratono, Deddy Marciano, Suyanto Suyanto

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The emerging model of community development social enterprise is one of the social enterprise models. However, a precise view of the community development enterprise is still lacking. Hence, this study was aimed at deepening the concept of the community development social enterprise model at the place management and development context. Multiple case studies in Indonesia context were observed to explore the typical criteria of the community development enterprise model in place-making practices. The research paradigm used interpretative approach, which involves dialectic process between the researchers and research participants. This study highlights some principles in the community-development enterprise, which cover an entrepreneurial dimension, social goals, participatory governance, and co-management. The result makes a contribution to conceptual literature occurs at the criteria of social enterprises by highlighting the typology of community development enterprise.

Keywords: community development enterprise, social purposes, economic project, participatory governance

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119 Analyzing Apposition and the Typology of Specific Reference in Newspaper Discourse in Nigeria

Authors: Monday Agbonica Bello Eje

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The language of the print media is characterized by the use of apposition. This linguistic element function strategically in journalistic discourse where it is communicatively necessary to name individuals and provide information about them. Linguistic studies on the language of the print media with bias for apposition have largely dwelt on other areas but the examination of the typology of appositive reference in newspaper discourse. Yet, it is capable of revealing ways writers communicate and provide information necessary for readers to follow and understand the message. The study, therefore, analyses the patterns of appositional occurrences and the typology of reference in newspaper articles. The data were obtained from The Punch and Daily Trust Newspapers. A total of six editions of these newspapers were collected randomly spread over three months. News and feature articles were used in the analysis. Guided by the referential theory of meaning in discourse, the appositions identified were subjected to analysis. The findings show that the semantic relation of coreference and speaker coreference have the highest percentage and frequency of occurrence in the data. This is because the subject matter of news reports and feature articles focuses on humans and the events around them; as a result, readers need to be provided with some form of detail and background information in order to identify as well as follow the discourse. Also, the non-referential relation of absolute synonymy and speaker synonymy no doubt have fewer occurrences and percentages in the analysis. This is tied to a major feature of the language of the media: simplicity. The paper concludes that appositions is mainly used for the purpose of providing the reader with much detail. In this way, the writer transmits information which helps him not only to give detailed yet concise descriptions but also in some way help the reader to follow the discourse.

Keywords: apposition, discourse, newspaper, Nigeria, reference

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118 Traditional Values and Their Adaptation in Social Housing Design: Towards a New Typology and Establishment of 'Airhouse' Standard in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Firrdhaus Mohd Sahabuddin, Cristina Gonzalez-Longo

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Large migration from rural areas to urban areas like Kuala Lumpur has led to some implications for economic, social and cultural development. This high population has placed enormous demand on the existing housing stocks, especially for low-income groups. However, some issues arise, one of which is overheated indoor air temperature. This problem contributes to the high-energy usage that forces huge sums of money to be spent on cooling the house by using mechanical equipment. Therefore, this study focuses on thermal comfort in social housing, and incorporates traditional values into its design to achieve a certain measurement of natural ventilation in a house. From the study, the carbon emission and energy consumption for an air-conditioned house is 67%, 66% higher than a naturally ventilated house. Therefore, this research has come up with a new typology design, which has a large exposed wall area and full-length openings on the opposite walls to increase cross ventilation. At the end of this research, the measurement of thermal comfort for a naturally ventilated building called ‘AirHouse’ has been identified.

Keywords: tropical architecture, natural ventilation, passive design, AirHouse, social housing design

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117 Analysis and Evaluation of the Water Catch Basins of the Erosive-Mudflow Rivers of Georgia on the Example of the River Vere

Authors: Natia Gavardashvili

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On June 13-14 of 2015, a landslide in village Akhaldaba was formed as a result of the intense rains in the water catch basin of the river Vere. As a result of the landslide movement, freshets and mudflows originated, and unfortunately, there were victims: zoo animals and birds were drawn in the flood and 12 people died due to the flooded motor road. The goal of the study is to give the analysis of the results of the field and scientific research held in 2015-2017 and to generalize them to the water catch basins of the erosive-mudflow rivers of other mountain landscapes of Georgia. By considering the field and scientific works, the main geographic, geological, climatic, hydrological and hydraulic properties of the erosive-mudflow tributaries of the water catch basin of the river Vere were evaluated and the probabilities of mudflow formation by considering relevant risk-factors were identified. The typology of the water catch basins of erosive-mudflow rivers of Georgia was identified on the example of the river Vere based on the field and scientific study, and their genesis, frequency of mudflow formation and volume of the drift material was identified. By using the empirical and theoretical dependencies, the amount of solid admixtures in the mudflow formed in the gorge of the river Jokhona, the right tributary of the river Vere was identified by considering the shape of the stones.

Keywords: water catchment basin, erosion, mudflow, typology

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116 Social Interaction Dynamics Exploration: The Case Study of El Sherouk City

Authors: Nardine El Bardisy, Wolf Reuter, Ayat Ismail

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In Egypt, there is continuous housing demand as a result of rapid population growth. In 1979, this forced the government to establish new urban communities in order to decrease stress around delta. New Urban Communities Authority (NUCA) was formulated to take the responsibly of this new policy. These communities suffer from social life deficiency due to their typology, which is separated island with barriers. New urban communities’ typology results from the influence of neoliberalism movement and modern city planning forms. The lack of social interaction in these communities at present should be enhanced in the future. On a global perspective, sustainable development calls for creating more sustainable communities which include social, economic and environmental aspects. From 1960, planners were highly focusing on the promotion of the social dimension in urban development plans. The research hypothesis states: “It is possible to promote social interaction in new urban communities through a set of socio-spatial recommended strategies that are tailored for Greater Cairo Region context”. In order to test this hypothesis, the case of El-Sherouk city is selected, which represents the typical NUCA development plans. Social interaction indicators were derived from literature and used to explore different social dynamics in the selected case. The tools used for exploring case study are online questionnaires, face to face questionnaires, interviews, and observations. These investigations were analyzed, conclusions and recommendations were set to improve social interaction.

Keywords: new urban communities, modern planning, social interaction, social life

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115 A (Morpho) Phonological Typology of Demonstratives: A Case Study in Sound Symbolism

Authors: Seppo Kittilä, Sonja Dahlgren

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In this paper, a (morpho)phonological typology of proximal and distal demonstratives is proposed. Only the most basic proximal (‘this’) and distal (‘that’) forms have been considered, potential more fine-grained distinctions based on proximity are not relevant to our discussion, nor are the other functions the discussed demonstratives may have. The sample comprises 82 languages that represent the linguistic diversity of the world’s languages, although the study is not based on a systematic sample. Four different major types are distinguished; (1) Vowel type: front vs. back; high vs. low vowel (2) Consonant type: front-back consonants (3) Additional element –type (4) Varia. The proposed types can further be subdivided according to whether the attested difference concern only, e.g., vowels, or whether there are also other changes. For example, the first type comprises both languages such as Betta Kurumba, where only the vowel changes (i ‘this’, a ‘that’) and languages like Alyawarra (nhinha vs. nhaka), where there are also other changes. In the second type, demonstratives are distinguished based on whether the consonants are front or back; typically front consonants (e.g., labial and dental) appear on proximal demonstratives and back consonants on distal demonstratives (such as velar or uvular consonants). An example is provided by Bunaq, where bari marks ‘this’ and baqi ‘that’. In the third type, distal demonstratives typically have an additional element, making it longer in form than the proximal one (e.g., Òko òne ‘this’, ònébé ‘that’), but the type also comprises languages where the distal demonstrative is simply phonologically longer (e.g., Ngalakan nu-gaʔye vs. nu-gunʔbiri). Finally, the last type comprises cases that do not fit into the three other types, but a number of strategies are used by the languages of this group. The two first types can be explained by iconicity; front or high phonemes appear on the proximal demonstratives, while back/low phonemes are related to distal demonstratives. This means that proximal demonstratives are pronounced at the front and/or high part of the oral cavity, while distal demonstratives are pronounced lower and more back, which reflects the proximal/distal nature of their referents in the physical world. The first type is clearly the most common in our data (40/82 languages), which suggests a clear association with iconicity. Our findings support earlier findings that proximal and distal demonstratives have an iconic phonemic manifestation. For example, it has been argued that /i/ is related to smallness (small distance). Consonants, however, have not been considered before, or no systematic correspondences have been discovered. The third type, in turn, can be explained by markedness; the distal element is more marked than the proximal demonstrative. Moreover, iconicity is relevant also here: some languages clearly use less linguistic substance for referring to entities close to the speaker, which is manifested in the longer (morpho)phonological form of the distal demonstratives. The fourth type contains different kinds of cases, and systematic generalizations are hard to make.

Keywords: demonstratives, iconicity, language typology, phonology

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114 Systematic Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis of Interorganizational Employee Mobility Determinants

Authors: Iva Zdrilić, Petra Došenović Bonča, Darija Aleksić

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Since the boundaryless career, with its emphasis on cross-employer movements, was introduced as a new paradigm of career development, inter-organizational employee mobility has been increasing. Although this phenomenon may have positive implications for individual careers and destination organizations, the consequences for the source organizations losing workers are less clear. The aim of this paper is thus to develop a comprehensive typology of possible inter-organizational employee mobility determinants. Since the most common classification differentiates between mobility determinants at different levels (i.e., economic, organizational, and individual), this paper focuses on building a comprehensive multi-level typology of inter-organizational mobility determinants across diverse sectors and industries. By using a structured literature review approach and bibliometric analysis, the paper reveals both intricate relationships between different mobility determinants and the complexity of inter-organizational networks and social ties. The latter appears as both a mobility determinant (at the organizational and individual level) and a mobility effect. Indeed, inter-organizational employee mobility leads to the formation of networks between source and destination organizations. These networks are practically based on the social ties between mobile employees and their colleagues and, in this way, they close the "inter-organizational employee mobility - inter-organizational network/ties" circle. The paper contributes to the career development literature by uncovering hitherto underexplored diverse determinants of intra- and inter-sectoral mobility as well as the conflicting results of the existing studies on some factors (e.g., inter-organizational networks and/or social ties) that appear both as a mobility determinant and a mobility effect.

Keywords: inter-organizational mobility, social ties, inter-organizational network, knowledge transfer

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113 Toward Discovering an Architectural Typology Based on the Theory of Affordance

Authors: Falntina Ahmad Alata, Natheer Abu Obeid

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This paper revolves around the concept of affordance. It aims to discover and develop an architectural typology based on the ecological concept of affordance. In order to achieve this aim, an analytical study is conducted and two sources were taken into account: 1- Gibson's definition of the concept of affordance and 2- The researches that are concerned on the affordance categorisation. As a result, this paper concluded 16 typologies of affordances, including the possibilities of mixing them based on both sources. To clarify these typologies and provide further understanding, a wide range of architectural examples are presented and proposed in the paper. To prove this vocabulary’s capability to diagnose and evaluate the affordance of different environments, an experimental study with two processes have been adapted: 1. Diagnostic process: the interpretation of the environments with regards to its affordance by using the new vocabulary (the developed typologies). 2. Evaluating process: the evaluation of the environments that have been interpreted and classified with regards to their affordances. By using the measures of emotional experience (the positive affect ‘PA’ and the negative affect ‘NA’) and the architectural evaluation criteria (beauty, economy and function). The experimental study proves that the typologies are capable of reading the affordance within different environments. Additionally, it explains how these different typologies reflect different interactions based on the previous processes. The data which are concluded from the evaluation of measures explain how different typologies of affordance that have already reflected different environments had different evaluations. In fact, some of them are recommended while the others are not. In other words, the paper draws a roadmap for designers to diagnose, evaluate and analyse the affordance into different architectural environments. After that, it guides them through adapting the best interaction (affordance category), which they intend to adapt into their proposed designs.

Keywords: Affordance theory, Affordance categories, Architectural environments, Architectural Evaluation Criteria (AEC), emotional experience (PA, NA)

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112 Geographic Information System (GIS) for Structural Typology of Buildings

Authors: Néstor Iván Rojas, Wilson Medina Sierra

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Managing spatial information is described through a Geographic Information System (GIS), for some neighborhoods in the city of Tunja, in relation to the structural typology of the buildings. The use of GIS provides tools that facilitate the capture, processing, analysis and dissemination of cartographic information, product quality evaluation of the classification of buildings. Allows the development of a method that unifies and standardizes processes information. The project aims to generate a geographic database that is useful to the entities responsible for planning and disaster prevention and care for vulnerable populations, also seeks to be a basis for seismic vulnerability studies that can contribute in a study of urban seismic microzonation. The methodology consists in capturing the plat including road naming, neighborhoods, blocks and buildings, to which were added as attributes, the product of the evaluation of each of the housing data such as the number of inhabitants and classification, year of construction, the predominant structural systems, the type of mezzanine board and state of favorability, the presence of geo-technical problems, the type of cover, the use of each building, damage to structural and non-structural elements . The above data are tabulated in a spreadsheet that includes cadastral number, through which are systematically included in the respective building that also has that attribute. Geo-referenced data base is obtained, from which graphical outputs are generated, producing thematic maps for each evaluated data, which clearly show the spatial distribution of the information obtained. Using GIS offers important advantages for spatial information management and facilitates consultation and update. Usefulness of the project is recognized as a basis for studies on issues of planning and prevention.

Keywords: microzonation, buildings, geo-processing, cadastral number

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111 An Introduction to Giulia Annalinda Neglia Viewpoint on Morphology of the Islamic City Using Written Content Analysis Approach

Authors: Mohammad Saber Eslamlou

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Morphology of Islamic cities has been extensively studied by researchers of Islamic cities, and different theories could be found about it. In this regard, there exist much difference in the method of analysis, classification, recognition, confrontation, and comparative method of urban morphology. The present paper aims to examine the previous methods, approaches, and insights and that how Dr. Giulia Annalinda Neglia dealt with the analysis of morphology of Islamic cities. Neglia is assistant professor in University of Bari, Italy (UNIBA), who has published numerous papers and books on Islamic cities. I introduce her works in the field of morphology of Islamic cities. And then, her thoughts, insights, and research methodologies are presented and analyzed in critical perspective. This is a qualitative research on her written works, which have been classified in three major categories. The first category consists mainly of her works on the morphology and physical shape of Islamic cities. The results of her works’ review suggest that she has used Moratoria typology in investigating the morphology of Islamic cities. Moreover, the overall structure of the cities under investigation is often described linear; however, she’s against to define a single framework for recognition of morphology in Islamic cities. She states that ‘to understand the physical complexity and irregularities in Islamic cities, it is necessary to study the urban fabric by typology method, focusing on transformation processes of the buildings’ form and their surrounding open spaces’ and she believes that fabric of each region in the city follows from the principles of an specific period or urban pattern, in particular, Hellenistic and Roman structures. Furthermore, she believes that it is impossible to understand the morphology of a city without taking into account the obvious and hidden developments associated with it, because form of building and their surrounding open spaces are written history of the city.

Keywords: city, islamic city, giulia annalinda neglia, morphology

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110 Idea Thinking Integrated Typology Technology of 6 Sigma, TRIZ, and Visual Planning

Authors: Dongkyu Lee, Doan-Quoc Hoan, Soomi Shin

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This study shows an easy R&D innovation-activity methodology which embodies the methodological strategy of supplementing the disadvantages of 6 sigma by TRIZ and considers the acceptance of employees through the change in the concept of innovation-activity methodology from the focus of chapter development to that of stepwise executed task.

Keywords: idea thinking, 6 sigma, triz, visual planning, R&D, innovation-activity

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109 Tracing the Courtyard Typology from the Past: Highlighting a Need for Conservation in Case of Historic Settlement in Historic Town of Gwalior

Authors: Shivani Dolas, A. Richa Mishra

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The existence of Courtyards in India can be traced back to ‘Indus valley civilization’ and various layers of history bearing implications like socio-cultural, traditional, religious, climatic, etc., moreover serving as a breathing space in case of historical core areas. Over time, with the overlay of various historic layers within the historic urban cores and the present high density populace, the cores are getting congested day by day. In this case, courtyards may emerge out as an efficient medium to provide quality of life through livable spaces. Presently, with the growing population of the historic town of Gwalior, town in Madhya Pradesh holds remarkable essence of courtyards with its multiple concepts over time. Its scale and function varies from an imposing grand appearance in palatial form, up to functional practices as residential. Its privilege can also be drawn in urban forms, in sharing single space by multiple dwellings and in temples which can be sketched specifically in the region. Moreover, the effectiveness of courtyards has proven balance and control of micro-climate in such composite climate region. The research paper aims to underline the concept of courtyards in case of a mixed use neighborhood, Naya bazar, in Lashkar area of Gwalior, which developed during 19th century, highlighting the need of its preservation. The paper also elaborates its various implications on user-space relationship as in the present context, and growing congestion in the area, user and space relationship is seen lost. The noticeable change in the behavioral context in buildings and users can be noticed with the downfall of courtyards, isolating users with land. Also, a concern has been expressed on negligence of courtyard planning in future development, suggesting recommendations on preserving the courtyard typology as heritage.

Keywords: courtyards, Gwalior, historic settlement, heritage

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108 A Future Urban Street Design in Baltimore, Maryland Based on a Hierarchy of Functional Needs and the Context of Autonomous Vehicles, Green Infrastructure, and Evolving Street Typologies

Authors: Samuel Quick

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The purpose of this paper is to examine future urban street design in the context of developing technologies, evolving street typologies, and projected transportation trends. The goal was to envision a future urban street in the year 2060 that addresses the advent and implementation of autonomous vehicles, the promotion of new street typologies, and the projection of current transportation trends. Using a hierarchy of functional needs for urban streets, the future street was designed and evaluated based on the functions the street provides to the surrounding community. The site chosen for the future street design is an eight-block section of West North Avenue in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Three different conceptual designs were initially completed and evaluated leading to a master plan for West North Avenue as well as street designs for connecting streets that represent different existing street types. Final designs were compared with the existing street design and evaluated with the adapted ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ theory. The review of the literature and the results from this paper indicate that urban streets will have to become increasingly multi-functional to meet the competing needs of the environment and community. Future streets will have to accommodate multimodal transit which will include mass transit, walking, and biking. Furthermore, a comprehensive implementation of green infrastructure within the urban street will provide access to nature for urban communities and essential stormwater management. With these developments, the future of an urban street will move closer to a greenway typology. Findings from this study indicate that urban street design will have to be policy-driven to promote and implement autonomous bus-rapid-transit in order to conserve street space for other functions. With this conservation of space, urban streets can then provide more functions to the surrounding community, taking a holistic approach to urban street design.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, greenway, green infrastructure, multi-modality, street typology

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107 Digitization of European SMEs in Tourism and Hospitality: The Case of Greek Hoteliers

Authors: Joanna K. Konstantinou

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The aim of this study is to explore the need of small and medium-sized businesses in tourism and hospitality industry to adopt technology and enhance their degree of digitalization, along with the main benefits enjoyed by technology and the main challenges that hinder its adoption. Within a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three hotel owners and the focus was to identify the main reasons of adoption of technology, enablers and barriers. The findings were grouped with the goal of identifying typology of business practices in using and adopting technology.

Keywords: digitization, SMEs, tourism and hospitality, challenges, benefits

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106 Strategic Management for Corporate Social Responsibility in Colombian Industries: A Typology of CSR

Authors: Iris Maria Velez Osorio

Abstract:

There has been in the last decade a concern about the environment, particularly about clean and enough water for human consumption but, some enterprises had some trouble to understand the limited resources in the environment. This research tries to understand how some industries are better oriented to the preservation of the environment through investment for strategic management of scarce resources and try in the best way possible, the contaminants. It was made an industry classification since four different group of theories for Corporate Social Responsibility agree with variables of: investment in environmental care, water protection, and residues treatment finding different levels of commitment with CSR.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, environment, strategic management, water

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105 The Integration of Prosecutorial Discretion in the Anti-Money Laundering Regime in Nigeria: A Focus on Politically Exposed Persons

Authors: Chineduum Okpala

Abstract:

Nigeria, since her independence, has been engulfed in financial crimes of different forms. From embezzlement and conversion of public funds by public servants to stealing, contract inflation, and money laundering. Money laundering in Nigeria, particularly by political exposed persons, has been an issue of concern since independence. Corruption has been endemic, and Nigeria needs to integrate pro-active measures to show to the international community that it is ready to move against this vice. This paper discusses the negative effect of corruption and its effect on prosecutorial discretion. It also takes cognisance of the policy and aims of the anti-money laundering (AML) policy as enacted in Nigeria. It also takes as valid the assumption that the effective application of the rule of law will improve the efficacy of the Nigerian regime. In this regard, the perspective is internal to the Nigerian regime and its internal policy discourse which also reflect its policy discourse at international level. This paper takes notice of the typology of money laundering (ML) offences that most affect Nigeria, which hinges on corruption and abuse of office by a specific type of person, politically exposed persons (PEP). This typology of money laundering offence appears to be the most prevalent in developing nations like Nigeria. The application of essential principles of law provides an opportunity for the internalisation of the rule of law in the anti-money laundering regime in Nigeria, which could aid the successful prosecution of politically exposed persons on money laundering offences. The rule of law and how well the Nigerian legal system manages to deal with the interface between high level politics and the criminal justice system in Nigeria cannot be understood from internal sources but must be developed as a genuine but critical account informed by perspectives external to the Nigerian regime. If the efficacy of the regime is to be assessed in view of notorious failures of the regime, an external assessment is needed. Hence the paper discusses the need to integrate the essential principles of law in the application of prosecutorial discretion in the anti-money laundering regime in Nigeria, particularly with politically exposed persons. The paper highlights jurisdiction where prosecutorial discretion is integrated into the anti-money laundering regime in accordance to the rule of law which forms a basis for comparative analysis of the success of the anti-money laundering regime in Nigeria. This paper discusses why the application of prosecutorial discretion should not be used as a tool to extricate or avail the rich and powerful in the society from justice. The paper aims to argue that the successful prosecution of politically exposed persons, will raise the confidence of the citizens and the international community in the anti-money laundering regime in Nigeria.

Keywords: money laundering, politically exposed persons, corruption, Nigeria

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104 Aligning Organizational Culture and Compensation Strategies

Authors: Giuseppe Maria Russo, Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Antônio Linhares, André Moreira Santos

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Alignment between management strategies, policies and practices with organizational cultures holds great potential to meet the challenges of retaining professionals and maintaining their commitment. In this article, authors consider that when it is aligned with company strategy, compensation acts as an incentive for developing common visions within the organizational culture. This article verified the correlation between types of culture and compensation’s strategic components and provided inputs for the definition of strategies aligned with cultural typologies. We conclude that the impact of compensation variables varies according to the type of organizational culture. This result reinforces the theory that different cultures define different organizational strategies. Thus, compensation strategies may explain types of organizational culture.

Keywords: compensation, Handy’s cultural typology, organizational culture, rewards

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103 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia

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Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

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102 Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem

Authors: A. V. Dolzhikova

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The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.

Keywords: comprehensive exam, migration policy, migration legislation, Russia's national security

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