Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Natia Gavardashvili

11 Analysis and Evaluation of the Water Catch Basins of the Erosive-Mudflow Rivers of Georgia on the Example of the River Vere

Authors: Natia Gavardashvili


On June 13-14 of 2015, a landslide in village Akhaldaba was formed as a result of the intense rains in the water catch basin of the river Vere. As a result of the landslide movement, freshets and mudflows originated, and unfortunately, there were victims: zoo animals and birds were drawn in the flood and 12 people died due to the flooded motor road. The goal of the study is to give the analysis of the results of the field and scientific research held in 2015-2017 and to generalize them to the water catch basins of the erosive-mudflow rivers of other mountain landscapes of Georgia. By considering the field and scientific works, the main geographic, geological, climatic, hydrological and hydraulic properties of the erosive-mudflow tributaries of the water catch basin of the river Vere were evaluated and the probabilities of mudflow formation by considering relevant risk-factors were identified. The typology of the water catch basins of erosive-mudflow rivers of Georgia was identified on the example of the river Vere based on the field and scientific study, and their genesis, frequency of mudflow formation and volume of the drift material was identified. By using the empirical and theoretical dependencies, the amount of solid admixtures in the mudflow formed in the gorge of the river Jokhona, the right tributary of the river Vere was identified by considering the shape of the stones.

Keywords: water catchment basin, erosion, mudflow, typology

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10 Field Studies of 2017 in the Water Catch Basin in the River Vere to Safeguard the Population of Tbilisi against the Erosive-Mudflow Processes and Its Evaluation

Authors: Natia Gavardashvili


From April through June of 2017, the field-scientific studies to ensure the safety of the population of Tbilisi were accomplished in the water catch basin of the river Vere, in the water catch basin of the river Jakhana dry gully. 5 sensitive sites were identified, and areas, 20x20 m each, were marked around them, with their locations fixed with GPS coordinates. The gained areas were plotted on a digital map, and the state of the surface was explored by considering the evaluation of erosive processes. Aiming at evaluating the soils and grounds of the sensitive areas, the ground samples were taken, and average diameter was identified, with its value changing to D0 = 4,67-15,48 mm, and integral curves of the grain size were drafted. By using the obtained data, the transporting capability of mudflow can be identified at the next stage to use to calculate mudflow peak discharges of different provisions in developing the new designs of mudflow-protection structures with the goal of ensuring the safety of Tbilisi population. The studies were accomplished under the financing of Young Scientists’ Grant of Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation 'The study of erosive-mudflow processes in the water catch basin in the river Vere to ensure the safety of the population of Tbilisi and their consideration in developing new environmental protection plans' (YS15_2.1.5_8)

Keywords: water catch basin, mudflow-protection structures, erosive-mudflow processes, safety

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9 What Defines Acceptable European Values for Georgia

Authors: Maia Kipiani, Tamari Beridze, Natalia Tchanturia, Bella Goderdzishvili, Sophio Beridze, Natia Kuparadze


Europe has concrete examples how small nations can survive and maintain their identity in its area. Values are eternal guides of our life and source of its perfection. European values are universal and relevant for every epoch, society or state. Values, such as personal freedom, human dignity, sovereignty of law, national or cultural identity are universal and eternal. Even superficial review of history of Georgian culture clearly shows that western values, including fundamental human rights. This paper discusses the approach and findings of choice of values in Georgia. Georgia is still quite far away from perfectly established values. Georgia has walked the hardest road till XXI century. Country survived miraculously many times. The study shows that the only way to survive is to strengthen national, traditional values and should not forget global factors. It is clear that for achievement of goals is important European education, legislative and economic reforms, peacefully and democratically develop Georgia.

Keywords: democracy, economical reforms, European values, human dignity, science, society, sovereignty of law, well-being

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8 Results of the Field-and-Scientific Study in the Water Area of the Estuaries of the Major Rivers of the Black Sea and Sea Ports on the Territory of Georgia

Authors: Ana Gavardashvili


The field-and-scientific studies to evaluate the modern ecological state in the water area of the estuaries of the major water-abundant rivers in the coastal line of the Black Sea (Chorokhi, Kintrishi, Natanebi, Supsa, Khobistskali, Rioni and Enguri) and sea ports (Batumi, Poti) and sea terminals of the oil pipeline (Baku-Tbilisi-Supsa, Kulevi) were accomplished in the months of June and July of 2015. GPS coordinates and GIS programs were used to fix the areas of the estuaries of the above-listed rivers on a digital map, with their values varying within the limits of 0,861 and 20,390 km2. Water samples from the Black Sea were taken from the river estuaries and sea ports during the field works, with their statistical series of 125 points. The temperatures of air (t2) and water in the Black Sea (t1) were measured locally, and their relative value is (t1 /t2 ) = 0,69 – 0,92. 125 water samples taken from the study object in the Black Sea coastal line were subject to laboratory analysis, and it was established that the Black Sea acidity (pH) changes within the limits of 7,71 – 8,22 in the river estuaries and within 8,42 - 8,65 in the port water areas and at oil terminals. As for the Sea water salinity index (TDS), it changes within the limits of 6,15 – 12,67 in the river estuaries, and (TDS) = 11,80 – 13,67 in the port water areas and at oil terminals. By taking the gained data and climatic changes into account, by using the theories of reliability and risk at the following stage, the nature of the changes of the function of the Black Sea ecological parameters will be established.

Keywords: acidity, estuary, salinity, sea

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7 The Research of Water Levels in the Zhinvali Water Reservoir and Results of Field Research on the Debris Flow Tributaries of the River Tetri Aragvi Flowing in It

Authors: Givi Gavardashvili, Eduard Kukhalashvili, Tamriko Supatashvili, Giorgi Natroshvili, Konstantine Bziava, Irma Qufarashvili


In the article to research water levels in the Zhinvali water reservoirs by field and theoretical research and using GPS and GIS technologies has been established dynamic of water reservoirs changes in the suitable coordinates and has been made water reservoir maps and is lined in the 3D format. By using of GPS coordinates and digital maps has been established water horizons of Zhinvali water reservoir in the absolute marks and has been calculated water levels volume. To forecast the filling of the Zhinvali water reservoir by solid sediment in 2018 conducted field experimental researches in the catchment basin of river Tetri (White) Aragvi. It has been established main hydrological and hydraulic parameters of the active erosion-debris flow tributaries of river Tetri Aragvi. It has been calculated erosion coefficient considering the degradation of the slope. By calculation is determined, that in the river Tetri Aragvi catchment basin the value of 1% maximum discharge changes Q1% = 70,0 – 550,0 m3/sec, and erosion coefficient - E = 0,73 - 1,62, with suitable fifth class of erosion and intensity 50-100 tone/hectare in the year.

Keywords: Zhinvali soil dam, water reservoirs, water levels, erosion, debris flow

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6 Study of the Hydraulic Concrete Physical-Mechanical Properties by Using Admixtures

Authors: Natia Tabatadze


The research aim is to study the physical - mechanical characteristics of structural materials, in particular, hydraulic concrete in the surface active environment and receiving of high strength concrete, low-deformable, resistant to aggressive environment concrete due application of nano technologies. The obtained concrete with additives will by possible to apply in hydraulic structures. We used cement (compressive strength R28=39,42 mPa), sand (0- 5 mm), gravel (5-10 mm, 10-20 mm), admixture CHRYSO® Fuge B 1,5% dosage of cement. CHRYSO® Fuge B renders mortar and concrete highly resistant to capillary action and reduces, or even eliminates infiltration of water under pressure. The fine particles that CHRYSO® Fuge B contains combine with the lime in the cement to form water repellent particles. These obstruct the capillary action within concrete. CHRYSO® Fuge B does not significantly modify the characteristics of the fresh concrete and mortar, nor the compressive strength. As result of research, the alkali-silica reaction was improved (relative elongation 0,122 % of admixture instead of 0,126 % of basic concrete after 14 days). The aggressive environment impact on the strength of heavy concrete, fabricated on the basis of the hydraulic admixture with the penetrating waterproof additives also was improved (strength on compression R28=47,5 mPa of admixture instead of R28=35,8 mPa), as well as the mass water absorption (W=3,37 % of admixture instead of W=1,41 %), volume water absorption (W=1,41 % of admixture instead of W=0,59 %), water tightness (R14=37,9 mPa instead R14=28,7 mPa) and water-resistance (B=18 instead B=12). The basic parameters of concrete with admixture was improved in comparison with basic concrete.

Keywords: structural materials, hydraulic concrete, low-deformable, water absorption for mass, water absorption for volume

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5 The Significance of Ernest Hemingway's Writing Style in the Development of Georgian Prose of 1950-1960s

Authors: Natia Kvachakidze


The given research aims to study and analyze the influence of Ernest Hemingway’s writing style on Georgian prose of 1950s and 1960s. It is universally known that Ernest Hemingway’s unique writing style has had an enormous effect on various writers. His work remains highly relevant and influential even today. This is especially true about the works written in English, but literary prose created in other languages is not an exception. Certain stylistic peculiarities characteristic for Hemingway’s writing can be traced in literary works written in various languages. It is particularly interesting for us, Georgians, how all these aspects were reflected in Georgian prose of the second-half of XX century. This particular paper (which is a part of a larger research) focuses on major significant peculiarities of Georgian prose of 1950-1960s that might be connected to Hemingway's writing. In this respect, GuramRcheulishvili’s (1934-1960) works should be particularly distinguished (especially his short fiction), but literary works of other Georgian authors are not at all less important. The research involves the analysis of the prose works of some Georgian writers of the given period in the context of tracing similarities and parallels between them and the characteristic features of Ernest Hemingway’s writing style. The use of everyday language as well as short and simple sentences, a concise and sparse style, repetitions, intense dialogues are some of the essential traits in question. Themes like birth and death, war and violence, family, nature, disillusionment also prove to be vitally important for this research. Complex interconnections between the author, the narrator, and the protagonist (often autobiographical) provide another interesting subject to study. At the same time, this paper aims at studying and revealing how Hemingway’s method was reflected and transformed in Georgian prose. In this respect, it is interesting to trace not only the direct effect of Hemingway’s style but also the role of certain Georgian translations of the works of this American writer.

Keywords: hemingway, prose, georgian writers, writing style

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4 Sustainable Development and Modern Challenges of Higher Educational Institutions in the Regions of Georgia

Authors: Natia Tsiklashvili, Tamari Poladashvili


Education is one of the fundamental factors of economic prosperity in all respects. It is impossible to talk about the sustainable economic development of the country without substantial investments in human capital and investment into higher educational institutions. Education improves the standard of living of the population and expands the opportunities to receive more benefits, which will be equally important for both the individual and the society as a whole. There are growing initiatives among educated people such as entrepreneurship, technological development, etc. At the same time, the distribution of income between population groups is improving. The given paper discusses the scientific literature in the field of sustainable development through higher educational institutions. Scholars of economic theory emphasize a few major aspects that show the role of higher education in economic growth: a) Alongside education, human capital gradually increases which leads to increased competitiveness of the labor force, not only in the national but also in the international labor market (Neoclassical growth theory), b) The high level of education can increase the efficiency of the economy, investment in human capital, innovation, and knowledge are significant contributors to economic growth. Hence, it focuses on positive externalities and spillover effects of a knowledge-based economy which leads to economic development (endogenous growth theory), c) Education can facilitate the diffusion and transfer of knowledge. Hence, it supports macroeconomic sustainability and microeconomic conditions of individuals. While discussing the economic importance of education, we consider education as the spiritual development of the human that advances general skills, acquires a profession, and improves living conditions. Scholars agree that human capital is not only money but liquid assets, stocks, and competitive knowledge. The last one is the main lever in the context of increasing human competitiveness and high productivity. To address the local issues, the present article researched ten educational institutions across Georgia, including state and private HEIs. Qualitative research was done by analyzing in-depth interweaves of representatives from each institution, and respondents were rectors/vice-rectors/heads of quality assurance service at the institute. The result shows that there is a number of challenges that institution face in order to maintain sustainable development and be the strong links to education and the labor market. Mostly it’s contacted with bureaucracy, insufficient finances they receive, and local challenges that differ across the regions.

Keywords: higher education, higher educational institutions, sustainable development, regions, Georgia

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3 Modified Graphene Oxide in Ceramic Composite

Authors: Natia Jalagonia, Jimsher Maisuradze, Karlo Barbakadze, Tinatin Kuchukhidze


At present intensive scientific researches of ceramics, cermets and metal alloys have been conducted for improving materials physical-mechanical characteristics. In purpose of increasing impact strength of ceramics based on alumina, simple method of graphene homogenization was developed. Homogeneous distribution of graphene (homogenization) in pressing composite became possible through the connection of functional groups of graphene oxide (-OH, -COOH, -O-O- and others) and alumina superficial OH groups with aluminum organic compounds. These two components connect with each other with -O-Al–O- bonds, and by their thermal treatment (300–500°C), graphene and alumina phase are transformed. Thus, choosing of aluminum organic compounds for modification is stipulated by the following opinion: aluminum organic compounds fragments fixed on graphene and alumina finally are transformed into an integral part of the matrix. By using of other elements as modifier on the matrix surface (Al2O3) other phases are transformed, which change sharply physical-mechanical properties of ceramic composites, for this reason, effect caused by the inclusion of graphene will be unknown. Fixing graphene fragments on alumina surface by alumoorganic compounds result in new type graphene-alumina complex, in which these two components are connected by C-O-Al bonds. Part of carbon atoms in graphene oxide are in sp3 hybrid state, so functional groups (-OH, -COOH) are located on both sides of graphene oxide layer. Aluminum organic compound reacts with graphene oxide at the room temperature, and modified graphene oxide is obtained: R2Al-O-[graphene]–COOAlR2. Remaining Al–C bonds also reacts rapidly with surface OH groups of alumina. In a result of these process, pressing powdery composite [Al2O3]-O-Al-O-[graphene]–COO–Al–O–[Al2O3] is obtained. For the purpose, graphene oxide suspension in dry toluene have added alumoorganic compound Al(iC4H9)3 in toluene with equimolecular ratio. Obtained suspension has put in the flask and removed solution in a rotary evaporate presence nitrogen atmosphere. Obtained powdery have been researched and used to consolidation of ceramic materials based on alumina. Ceramic composites are obtained in high temperature vacuum furnace with different temperature and pressure conditions. Received ceramics do not have open pores and their density reaches 99.5 % of TD. During the work, the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), device of spark-plasma synthesis, induction furnace, Electronic Scanning Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM-800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dynasizer and others.

Keywords: graphene oxide, alumo-organic, ceramic

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2 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Based on Siloxane Matrix

Authors: Natia Jalagonia, Tinatin Kuchukhidze


Polymer electrolytes (PE) play an important part in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells. To achieve optimal performance, the PE must maintain a high ionic conductivity and mechanical stability at both high and low relative humidity. The polymer electrolyte also needs to have excellent chemical stability for long and robustness. According to the prevailing theory, ionic conduction in polymer electrolytes is facilitated by the large-scale segmental motion of the polymer backbone, and primarily occurs in the amorphous regions of the polymer electrolyte. Crystallinity restricts polymer backbone segmental motion and significantly reduces conductivity. Consequently, polymer electrolytes with high conductivity at room temperature have been sought through polymers which have highly flexible backbones and have largely amorphous morphology. The interest in polymer electrolytes was increased also by potential applications of solid polymer electrolytes in high energy density solid state batteries, gas sensors and electrochromic windows. Conductivity of 10-3 S/cm is commonly regarded as a necessary minimum value for practical applications in batteries. At present, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based systems are most thoroughly investigated, reaching room temperature conductivities of 10-7 S/cm in some cross-linked salt in polymer systems based on amorphous PEO-polypropylene oxide copolymers.. It is widely accepted that amorphous polymers with low glass transition temperatures Tg and a high segmental mobility are important prerequisites for high ionic conductivities. Another necessary condition for high ionic conductivity is a high salt solubility in the polymer, which is most often achieved by donors such as ether oxygen or imide groups on the main chain or on the side groups of the PE. It is well established also that lithium ion coordination takes place predominantly in the amorphous domain, and that the segmental mobility of the polymer is an important factor in determining the ionic mobility. Great attention was pointed to PEO-based amorphous electrolyte obtained by synthesis of comb-like polymers, by attaching short ethylene oxide unit sequences to an existing amorphous polymer backbone. The aim of presented work is to obtain of solid polymer electrolyte membranes using PMHS as a matrix. For this purpose the hydrosilylation reactions of α,ω-bis(trimethylsiloxy)methyl¬hydrosiloxane with allyl triethylene-glycol mo¬nomethyl ether and vinyltriethoxysilane at 1:28:7 ratio of initial com¬pounds in the presence of Karstedt’s catalyst, platinum hydrochloric acid (0.1 M solution in THF) and platinum on the carbon catalyst in 50% solution of anhydrous toluene have been studied. The synthesized olygomers are vitreous liquid products, which are well soluble in organic solvents with specific viscosity ηsp ≈ 0.05 - 0.06. The synthesized olygomers were analysed with FTIR, 1H, 13C, 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Synthesized polysiloxanes were investigated with wide-angle X-ray, gel-permeation chromatography, and DSC analyses. Via sol-gel processes of doped with lithium trifluoromethylsulfonate (triflate) or lithium bis¬(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)¬imide polymer systems solid polymer electrolyte membranes have been obtained. The dependence of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature and salt concentration was investigated and the activation energies of conductivity for all obtained compounds are calculated

Keywords: synthesis, PMHS, membrane, electrolyte

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1 Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Poly (Ester-Amide)s and Their Potential Biomedical Applications as Drug Delivery Containers and Antibacterial

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Tamar Memanishvili, Natia Ochkhikidze, David Tugushi, Zaal Kokaia, Ramaz Katsarava


Amino acid-based Biodegradable poly(ester-amide)s (PEAs) have gained considerable interest as a promising materials for numerous biomedical applications. These polymers reveal a high biocompatibility and easily form small particles suitable for delivery various biological, as well as elastic bio-erodible films serving as matrices for constructing antibacterial coatings. In the present work we have demonstrated a potential of the PEAs for two applications: 1. cell therapy for stroke as vehicles for delivery and sustained release of growth factors, 2. bactericidal coating as prevention biofilm and applicable in infected wound management. Stroke remains the main cause of adult disability with limited treatment options. Although stem cell therapy is a promising strategy, it still requires improvement of cell survival, differentiation and tissue modulation. .Recently, microspheres (MPs) made of biodegradable polymers have gained significant attention for providing necessary support of transplanted cells. To investigate this strategy in the cell therapy of stroke, MPs loaded with transcription factors Wnt3A/BMP4 were prepared. These proteins have been shown to mediate the maturation of the cortical neurons. We have suggested that implantation of these materials could create a suitable microenvironment for implanted cells. Particles with spherical shape, porous surface, and 5-40 m in size (monitored by scanning electron microscopy) were made on the basis of the original PEA composed of adipic acid, L-phenylalanine and 1,4-butanediol. After 4 months transplantation of MPs in rodent brain, no inflammation was observed. Additionally, factors were successfully released from MPs and affected neuronal cell differentiation in in vitro. The in vivo study using loaded MPs is in progress. Another severe problem in biomedicine is prevention of surgical devices from biofilm formation. Antimicrobial polymeric coatings are most effective “shields” to protect surfaces/devices from biofilm formation. Among matrices for constructing the coatings preference should be given to bio-erodible polymers. Such types of coatings will play a role of “unstable seating” that will not allow bacteria to occupy the surface. In other words, bio-erodible coatings would be discomfort shelter for bacteria that along with releasing “killers of bacteria” should prevent the formation of biofilm. For this purpose, we selected an original biodegradable PEA composed of L-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and sebacic acid as a bio-erodible matrix, and nanosilver (AgNPs) as a bactericidal agent (“killer of bacteria”). Such nanocomposite material is also promising in treatment of superficial wound and ulcer. The solubility of the PEA in ethanol allows to reduce AgNO3 to NPs directly in the solution, where the solvent served as a reductive agent, and the PEA served as NPs stabilizer. The photochemical reduction was selected as a basic method to form NPs. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). According to the UV-data and TEM data the photochemical reduction resulted in spherical AgNPs with wide particle size distribution with a high contribution of the particles below 10 nm that are known as responsible for bactericidal activity of AgNPs. DLS study showed that average size of nanoparticles formed after photo-reduction in ethanol solution ranged within ca. 50 nm.

Keywords: biodegradable polymers, microparticles, nanocomposites, stem cell therapy, stroke

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