Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 234

Search results for: intentions

234 Work Engagement Reducing Employee Turnover Intentions in Telecommunication Sector: The Moderator Role of Human Resource Development Climate between Work Engagement and Turnover Intentions

Authors: Pirzada Sami Ullah Sabri

Abstract:

The present study examines the relationship between work engagement (WE) and employee turnover intentions (TI) in telecommunication sector using human resource development climate (HRDC) as a moderator. Based on 538 employees of telecommunication sector Hierarchal regression analysis is employed to examine the influence of HRDC on the relationship of work engagement and turnover intentions. The result indicates the negative correlation between work engagement and turnover intentions; HRD climate support as a powerful moderator increases the work engagement and lessens the turnover intentions. The study shows the importance of favorable and supportive HRD climate which foster the work engagement of the employees in the organization. By understanding the importance of human resource development climate and work engagement in reducing the turnover intentions can increase the productivity and performance of the organization.

Keywords: turnover intentions, work engagement, human resource development, climate, hierarchal regression analysis, telecommunication sector

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233 Predicting Entrepreneurial Intentions among Undergraduates Using Theory of Planned Behaviour

Authors: Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli

Abstract:

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is a useful tool for predicting entrepreneurial intentions among individuals or groups of people. In view of the Nigerian government’s renewed educational policies and programs to prepare Nigerian undergraduates towards self-reliance and employers of labor after graduation, it becomes pertinent to empirically examine and predict the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions at graduation. Thus, this study primarily examines the undergraduates entrepreneurial intentions using TPB, which includes perceived desirability, perceived social norm, and perceived feasibility factors. In so doing, a questionnaire research method was adopted in which 219 copies of a questionnaire distributed to final year undergraduates were belonging to five departments with a total population of 487 students. A combination of relative frequency, mean standard deviation and multiple regression statistical tools were employed for data analysis. The study found that TPB components exert a significant composite effect on undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions. Based on individual contribution of the independent variables, Perceived Desirability is the strongest predictor of the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions, while Perceived Social Norm is a strong predictor of the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions. However, Perceived Feasibility is not a strong predictor of student’s entrepreneurial intentions. The study therefore, recommends that the Perceived desirability, which is formed and shaped by ones level of education and skills acquisition, be improved upon to create the expected positive impact on graduates entrepreneurial intentions and possible venture creation.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial intentions, planned behaviour, prediction, Nigeria

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232 Behavioral Intentions and Cognitive-Affective Effects of Exposure to YouTube Advertisements among College Students

Authors: Abd El-Basit Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud, Othman Fekry Abdelbaki

Abstract:

This study attempts to investigate the exposure to YouTube ads among Egyptian college students, their attitudes towards these ads, behavioral intentions to watch them, and the effects of this exposure and to examine the relationships among these variables as well. The current study is theoretically guided by the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and cognitive-affective behavioral model (CAB) through a questionnaire survey administered to a convenience sample of 390 college students who watch YouTube videos from Cairo University, Egypt from February to May 2019. The results showed that 98.7% of respondents exposed to YouTube ads, and both of their attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and their intentions to this exposure were moderately positive. The findings also indicated that respondents' gender had a significant impact on their intention to expose these ads. One-way ANOVA indicated that their attitudes towards exposure to YouTube ads influenced their behavioral intentions to watch these ads, and it also demonstrated that their behavioral intentions to watch these ads had an impact on the exposure to such ads. Pearson correlation revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between respondents' attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and the cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects of this exposure.

Keywords: attitudes, behavioral intentions, theory of reasoned action, YouTube ads

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231 The Mediating Impact of Entrepreneurial Alertness on Relationship between Entrepreneurial Education and Intentions

Authors: Altaf Hussain, Norashidah Hashim

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An important aspect needed for promoting entrepreneurship is to encourage individuals for becoming entrepreneurs by endowing them with the required skills and knowledge for identifying the opportunities and turning these opportunities into successful ventures. Literature has recognized entrepreneurship education has significant role in motivating individual’s intention to become an entrepreneurs. Developing upon the insights based on dynamic view of human capital theory, this conceptual paper explores the role of entrepreneurial alertness in a linkage between entrepreneurial education and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Prior knowledge which can be acquired through entrepreneurship education and or experience is an antecedent for developing specific human capital of alertness for identifying the opportunities which impact on individual intentions. This suggests cause & effect relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions through entrepreneurial alertness by impacting on the attitude, social norms and perceived behavioral control of an individual which can motivate individual intention of becoming an entrepreneur. Thus, alertness skill acquired through entrepreneurship education for identifying the profitable opportunities mediates the relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, alertness, intentions, human capital

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230 Emotional Labor Strategies and Intentions to Quit among Nurses in Pakistan

Authors: Maham Malik, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Asif

Abstract:

Current study aims to examine the relationship of emotional labor strategies - deep acting and surface acting - with employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intentions to quit. The study also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment for relationship of emotional labor strategies with intentions to quit. Data were conveniently collected from 307 nurses by using self-administered questionnaire. Linear regression test was applied to find the relationship between the variables. Mediation was checked through Baron and Kenny Model and Sobel test. Results prove the existence of partial mediation of job satisfaction between the emotional labor strategies and quitting intentions. The study recommends that deep acting should be promoted because it is positively associated with quality of work life, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior of employees.

Keywords: emotional labor strategies, intentions to quit, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, nursing

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229 Institutional Levels Entrepreneurial Orientations and Social Entrepreneurial Intentions: Understanding the Mediating Role of Empathy

Authors: Paulson Young Ofenimu Okhawere

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Research suggests that the main trait differentiating social entrepreneurs from traditional entrepreneurs is empathy. And although prior research has established the relevance of empathy in predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in different contexts, its usefulness at predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in emerging economy like Nigeria is yet to be well established. Whereas, it is well known that students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria (e.g. Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education) are given entrepreneurial orientations by being made to offer compulsory courses in entrepreneurship, research focusing on the effect of such students’ entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intentions is scant. To address this gap in the entrepreneurship literature, this study attempts to enhance our understanding by focusing on students selected from one University of Technology, one Polytechnic, and one College of Education in Niger State of Nigeria. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the mechanism through which students’ institutional level entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions and the role empathy plays in this relationship. Building on complexity theory (Satish & Streufert, 2003, 2001), this study proposes empathy as a proximal antecedent of social entrepreneurial intentions and that it is the mechanism through which the students’ entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions. Data collected from 598 respondents were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modelling with Mplus version 7.3. The findings reveal that (i) although students’ entrepreneurial orientation directly relates to their social entrepreneurial intentions, this relationship differs according to the kind of institution; and (ii) students’ entrepreneurial orientations positively relates to social entrepreneurial intentions indirectly through empathy. Finally, the paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings, highlights the study’s strengths and limitations, and then maps out some directions for future research.

Keywords: institutional level, entrepreneurial orientation, empathy, social entrepreneurial intentions

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228 The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Nimra Parvez, Nawaz Ahmed

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Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.

Keywords: bullying, organizational commitment, turnover intention, workplace aggression

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227 Families’ Entrepreneurial Background as a Moderator between Entrepreneurial Intentions and Its Antecedents among Undergraduate Students in Ethiopia

Authors: Messele Kumilachew Aga, Amanpreet Singh

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This study investigates the effect of attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on entrepreneurial intentions and examines the moderating role of families’ entrepreneurial background in this causal relationship. Three hundred thirty-five undergraduate students from four universities in Ethiopia filled and returned a self-administrated questionnaire which was analyzed through independent sample t-test and process macro. The result obtained indicated that there was no mean difference in entrepreneurial intentions and its antecedents between students who have families with an entrepreneurial background and not. Besides, the study shows that families’ entrepreneurial background has no moderating effect on entrepreneurial intentions due to attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Hence, the study suggests no need of considering families’ entrepreneurial background in nurturing entrepreneurship for undergraduate students in Ethiopian universities.

Keywords: attitude toward entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, families’ entrepreneurial background, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm

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226 Optimism and Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Neta Kela Madar, Tali Teeni-Harari, Tamar Icekson, Yaron Sela

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This paper proposes and empirically tests a theoretical model positing relationships between dispositional optimism, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial intention. To author's best knowledge, this study examined for the first time the role of dispositional optimism together with emotional intelligence as predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. The study findings suggest that optimism may increase entrepreneurial intentions indirectly by enhancing emotional intelligence/ model formulation is based on a random survey of students (N= 227). Model parameter estimation was supported by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results indicate that students’ optimism and emotional intelligence are associated with increased levels of entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the present study argues that emotional intelligence mediates the positive relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. Theoretical and practical implications of this model are discussed.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions, emotional intelligence, optimism, dispositional optimism

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225 Relationships among Tourists’ Needs for Uniqueness, Perceived Authenticity and Behavioral Intentions

Authors: Deniz Karagöz Yüncü

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This study tested a structural model which investigates the relationships among tourists’ need for uniqueness, perceived authenticity (object-based authenticity and existential authenticity) and behavioral intentions to consume cultural and heritage destinations. The sample of the study comprised of 281 participants in a cultural heritage site, in Cappadocia, Turkey. The data were provided via face to face interviews in two months (September and October) which considered the high season. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the causal relationships among the hypotheses. Findings revealed tourists’ creative choice had an influence on object-based authenticity and existential authenticity. Tourists’ avoidance had an influence on object-based authenticity. The study concluded that two dimensions, namely, the object based authenticity and existential authenticity had significant impact on behavioral intentions.

Keywords: needs for uniqueness, perceived existential authenticity, emotions, behavioral intentions

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224 A Conceptual Model of Social Entrepreneurial Intention Based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory

Authors: Anh T. P. Tran, Harald Von Korflesch

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Entrepreneurial intention play a major role in entrepreneurship academia and practice. The spectrum ranges from the first model of the so-called Entrepreneurial Event, then the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Theory of Planned Behavior Entrepreneurial Model, and the Social Cognitive Career Theory to some typical empirical studies with more or less diverse results. However, little is known so far about the intentions of entrepreneurs in the social areas of venture creation. It is surprising that, since social entrepreneurship is an emerging field with growing importance. Currently, all around the world, there is a big challenge with a lot of urgent soaring social and environmental problems such as poor households, people with disabilities, HIV/AIDS infected people, the lonely elderly, or neglected children, some of them even actual in the Western countries. In addition, the already existing literature on entrepreneurial intentions demonstrates a high level of theoretical diversity in general, especially the missing link to the social dimension of entrepreneurship. Seeking to fill the mentioned gaps in the social entrepreneurial intentions literature, this paper proposes a conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intentions based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory with two main factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions namely self-efficacy and outcome expectation. Moreover, motives, goals and plans do not arise from empty nothingness, but are shaped by interacting with the environment. Hence, personalities (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness) as well as contextual factors (e.g., role models, education, and perceived support) are also considered as the antecedents of social entrepreneurship intentions.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intention, social cognitive career theory, social entrepreneurial intention, social entrepreneurship

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223 Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Employee Engagement in Determining Turnover Intentions of Employees

Authors: Prashant Das, Tushar Singh, Virendra Byadwal

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The present study attempted to understand the role of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement in predicting employees’ turnover intentions. Employee turnover is a significant problem that many organizations are facing these days. Employee turnover is not only extremely expensive for the employer but also results in poor production levels. In developing countries like India, organizations once believed to have most stable employees, are facing major turnover problems. One such organization is banking organizations. Due to globalization, banks are now changing their work scenarios under which the employees have many different roles to perform. Cognitive flexibility which refers to an individual’s ability to shift cognitive sets and to adapt to one’s changing environment, thus seems to be an important factor that are responsible for the employee turnover in organizations. It is hypothesized that those with higher cognitive flexibility would be more able to adapt to the changing work demands of the organizations and thus would show less turnover intentions. Another factor that seems to be important in predicting turnover is employee engagement. Kahn referred to engagement in terms of the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles [by which they] employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances. Studies have shown a strong relationship between employee engagement and turnover intentions. Those with higher engagement with their jobs have found to show low turnover intentions. This study thus hypothesizes that employees with higher engagement will show lower levels of turnover intentions. A total of 150 bank employees (75 from private and 75 from public) participated in this study. They were administered Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Gallup Questionnaire and Intention to Stay Questionnaire along with another questionnaire asking for their demographic details. Results of the study revealed that employees with higher levels of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement show lover levels of turnover intentions. However, the effect is more prominent in case of employees of private banks. Demographic characteristics such as level of the employee and years of engagement in the current job have also been found to be influencing the relationship between cognitive flexibility, employee engagement and turnover intentions. Results of the study are interpreted in accordance to the prevalent literature and theoretical positions.

Keywords: cognitive flexibility, employee engagement, organization, turnover intentions

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222 Observational Learning in Ecotourism: An Investigation into Ecotourists' Environmentally Responsible Behavioral Intentions in South Korea

Authors: Benjamin Morse, Michaela Zint, Jennifer Carman

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This study proposes a behavioral model in which ecotourists’ level of observational learning shapes their subsequent environmentally responsible behavioral intentions through ecotourism participation. Unlike past studies that have focused on individual attributes such as attitudes, locus of control, personal responsibility, knowledge, skills or effect, this present study explores select social attributes as potential antecedents to environmentally responsible behaviors. A total of 207 completed questionnaires were obtained from ecotourists in Korea and path analyses were conducted to explore the degree in which the hypothesized model directly and indirectly explained ecotourists’ environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. Results suggest that observational learning and its associated predictors (i.e., engagement, observation, reproduction and reinforcement) are key determinants of ecotourists environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The application of observational learning proved to be informative, and has a number of implications for improving ecotourism programs. Our model also lays out a theoretical framework for future research.

Keywords: ecotourism, observational learning, environmentally responsible behavior, social learning theory

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221 Exploring the Effects of Cuisine Experience, Emotions, Place Attachment on Heritage Tourists’ Revisit Behavioral Intentions: The Case Study of Lu-Kang

Authors: An-Na Li, Ying-Yu Chen, Yu-Lung Lin

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Food tourism is one of the growing industries in the tourism industry today. The Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) are aware of the importance of gastronomy to stimulate local and regional economic development. From the heritage and cultural aspects, gastronomy is becoming a more important part of the cultural heritage of the region. Heritage destinations provide culinary heritage, which fits the current interest in traditional food, and cuisine is a part of a general desire for authentic experience. However, few studies have empirically examined antecedents of food tourists’ behavioral intentions. This study examined the effects of cuisine experience; emotions, place attachment and tourists’ revisit behavioral intentions. A total of 408 individuals responded to the on-site survey in the historic town of Lu-Kang in Taiwan. The results indicated that tourists’ cuisine experience include place flavor, media recommendation, local learning, life transfer and interpersonal share. In addition, cuisine experience had significant impacts on emotions and place attachment, emotions had significant effects on place attachment, furthermore, which in turn place attachment had significant effects on tourists’ revisit behavioral intentions. The findings suggested that the cuisine experience is a multi-dimensions construct. On the other hands, the good quality of cuisine experience could evoke tourists’ positive emotions and it could play a significant role in promoting tourist revisit intentions or word of mouth. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: culinary tourism, cuisine experiences, emotions, revisit intentions

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220 Television, Internet, and Internet Social Media Direct-To-Consumer Prescription Medication Advertisements: Intention and Behavior to Seek Additional Prescription Medication Information

Authors: Joshua Fogel, Rivka Herzog

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Although direct-to-consumer prescription medication advertisements (DTCA) are viewed or heard in many venues, there does not appear to be any research for internet social media DTCA. We study the association of traditional media DTCA and digital media DTCA including internet social media of YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter with three different outcomes. There was one intentions outcome and two different behavior outcomes. The intentions outcome was the agreement level for seeking additional information about a prescription medication after seeing a DTCA. One behavior outcome was the agreement level for obtaining additional information about a prescription medication after seeing a DTCA. The other behavior outcome was the frequency level for obtaining additional information about a prescription medication after seeing a DTCA. Surveys were completed by 635 college students. Predictors included demographic variables, theory of planned behavior variables, health variables, and advertisements seen or heard. Also, in the behavior analyses, additional predictors of intentions and sources for seeking additional prescription drug information were included. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. We found that increased age was associated with increased behavior, women were associated with increased intentions, and Hispanic race/ethnicity was associated with decreased behavior. For the theory of planned behavior variables, increased attitudes were associated with increased intentions, increased social norms were associated with increased intentions and behavior, and increased intentions were associated with increased behavior. Very good perceived health was associated with increased intentions. Advertisements seen in spam mail were associated with decreased intentions. Advertisements seen on traditional or cable television were associated with decreased behavior. Advertisements seen on television watched on the internet were associated with increased behavior. The source of seeking additional information of reading internet print content was associated with increased behavior. No internet social media advertisements were associated with either intentions or behavior. In conclusion, pharmaceutical brand managers and marketers should consider these findings when tailoring their DTCA advertising campaigns and directing their DTCA advertising budget towards young adults such as college students. They need to reconsider the current approach for traditional television DTCA and also consider dedicating a larger advertising budget toward internet television DTCA. Although internet social media is a popular place to advertise, the financial expenditures do not appear worthwhile for DTCA when targeting young adults such as college students.

Keywords: brand managers, direct-to-consumer advertising, internet, social media

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219 Analyzing the Critical Factors Influencing Employees' Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Sharing Intentions for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Systematic Review and a Conceptual Framework

Authors: Made Ayu Aristyana Dewi

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Due to the importance of knowledge in today’s competitive world, an understanding of how to enhance employee knowledge sharing has become critical. This study discerning employees’ knowledge sharing intentions according to the type of knowledge to be shared, whether tacit or explicit. This study provides a critical and systematic review of the current literature on knowledge sharing, with a particular focus on the most critical factors influencing employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions. The extant literature was identified through four electronic databases, from 2006 to 2016. The findings of this review reveal that most of the previous studies only focus on individual and social factors as the antecedents of knowledge sharing intention. Therefore, those previous studies did not consider some other potential factors, like organizational and technological factors that may hinder the progress of knowledge sharing processes. Based on the findings of the critical review, a conceptual framework is proposed, which presents the antecedents of employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions and its impact on innovation and sustainable competitive advantage.

Keywords: antecedents, explicit knowledge, individual factors, innovation, intentions, knowledge sharing, organizational factors, social factors, sustainable competitive advantage, tacit knowledge, technological factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
218 Chinese Travelers’ Outbound Intentions to Visit Short-and-Long Haul Destinations: The Impact of Cultural Distance

Authors: Lei Qin

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Culture has long been recognized as a possible reason to influence travelers’ decisions, which explains why travelers in different countries make distinct decisions. Cultural distance is a concept illustrating how much difference there is between travelers’ home culture and that of the destination, but the research in distinguishing short-and-long haul travel destinations is limited. This study explored the research gap by examining the impact of cultural distance on Chinese travelers’ intentions to visit short-haul and long-haul destinations, respectively. Six cultural distance measurements, including five measurements calculated from secondary database (Kogut & Singh, Developed Kogut & Singh, Euclidean distance Index (EDI), world value survey index (WVS), social axioms measurement (SAM)) and perceived cultural distance (PCD) collected from the primary survey. Of the six measurements, culture distance has the opposite impact on Chinese outbound travelers’ intentions in the short-haul and long haul. For short-haul travel, travelers’ intentions for traveling can be positive influenced by cultural distance; a possible reason is that travelers’ novelty-seeking satisfaction is greater than the strangeness obtained from overseas regions. For long-haul travel, travelers’ intentions for traveling can be negative influenced by cultural distance, a possible explanation is that travelers’ uncertainty, risk, and language concerns of farther destinations.

Keywords: cultural distance, intention, outbound travel, short-long haul

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
217 Understanding the Effective of Cuisine Experience, Emotions on Revisit Intentions: The Case Study of Lu-Kang

Authors: An-Na Li, Ying-Yu Chen, Chang-Kuang Chiou

Abstract:

Food tourism is one of the growing industries and areas of interest in the tourism industry today. The Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs) are aware of the importance of gastronomy in order to stimulate local and regional economic development. From the heritage and cultural aspects, gastronomy is becoming a more important part of the cultural heritage of region and countries. Heritage destinations provide culinary heritage, which fits the current interest in traditional food, and cuisine is part of a general desire for authentic experiences. However, few studies have empirically examining food tourist’s behavior. This study examined the effects of cuisine experience, emotions and tourists’ revisit intentions. A total of 402 individuals responded to the on-site survey in the historic town of Lu-Kang in Taiwan. The results indicated that tourists’ cuisine experience include place flavor, media recommended local learning, life transfer and interpersonal share. In addition, cuisine experience had significant impacts on emotions, which in turn cuisine experience and emotions had significant effects on tourists’ revisit intentions. The findings suggested that the cuisine experience is a multi- dimensions construct. On the other hands, the good quality of cuisine experience could evoke tourists’ positive emotions and it plays a significant role in promote tourist revisit intentions and word of mouth. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: culinary tourism, cuisine experience, emotions, revisit intentions

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
216 Analysing the Moderating Effect of Customer Loyalty on Long Run Repurchase Intentions

Authors: John Akpesiri Olotewo

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One of the controversies in existing marketing literatures is on how to retain existing and new customers to have repurchase intention in the long-run; however, empirical answer to this question is scanty in existing studies. Thus, this study investigates the moderating effect of consumer loyalty on long-run repurchase intentions in telecommunication industry using Lagos State environs. The study adopted field survey research design using questionnaire to elicit responses from 250 respondents who were selected using random and stratified random sampling techniques from the telecommunication industry in Lagos State, Nigeria. The internal consistency of the research instrument was verified using the Cronbach’s alpha, the result of 0.89 implies the acceptability of the internal consistency of the survey instrument. The test of the research hypotheses were analyzed using Pearson Product Method of Correlation (PPMC), simple regression analysis and inferential statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0 (SPSS). The study confirmed that customer satisfaction has a significant relationship with customer loyalty in the telecommunication industry; also Service quality has a significant relationship with customer loyalty to a brand; loyalty programs have a significant relationship with customer loyalty to a network operator in Nigeria and Customer loyalty has a significant effect on the long run repurchase intentions of the customer. The study concluded that one of the determinants of long term profitability of a business entity is the long run repurchase intentions of its customers which hinges on the level of brand loyalty of the customer. Thus, it was recommended that service providers in Nigeria should improve on factors like customer satisfaction, service quality, and loyalty programs in order to increase the loyalty of their customer to their brands thereby increasing their repurchase intentions.

Keywords: customer loyalty, long run repurchase intentions, brands, service quality and customer satisfaction

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215 Role of Social Capital on Consumer Attitudes, Peer Influence and Behavioral Intentions: A Social Media Perspective

Authors: Qazi Mohammed Ahmed, Osman Sadiq Paracha, Iftikhar Hussain

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The study aims to explore the unaddressed relationship between social capital and consumers’ underlying behavioral intentions. The study postulates that this association is mediated by the role of attitudes and peer influence. The research attains evidence from a usable sample of 673 responses. The majority consists of the young and energetic social media users of Pakistan that utilize virtual communities as a way of life. A variance based structural equation modeling has been applied through SmartPLS 3. The results reveal that social capital exerts a statistically supportive association with both attitudes and peer influence. Contrastingly, this predictor variable shows an insignificant linkage with behavioral intentions but this relationship is fully mediated by consumer attitudes and peer influence. The paper enhances marketing literature with respect to an unexplored society of Pakistan. It also provides a lens for the contemporary advertisers, in terms of supporting their social media campaigns with affiliative and cohesive elements. The study also identifies a series of predictor variables that could further be tested with attitudes, subjective norms and behavioral responses.

Keywords: social capital, consumer attitudes, peer influence, behavioral intentions

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214 The Impact of Website Quality on Customers' Usage and Purchasing Intentions: The Case of Airlines and Online Travel Agencies

Authors: Nermin A. Morsy, Amany N. Beshay

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The tourism industry has seen considerable transformations due to the emergency of e-commerce. For instance, airlines are increasingly dependent on achieving online sales instead of their traditional platform. Online travel agencies’ (OTAs) websites have been able to reach a broader range of customers and generate more revenue. Therefore, website quality plays an important role in attaining website effectiveness. It is now considered as a critical factor in attracting customers' attention and build loyalty. Customers are more likely to visit and purchase at websites that exhibit highly desirable qualities. A user-friendly website can help tourists find their target information easily and make decisions quickly. This research focuses on analyzing the impact of airline and OTAs’ websites quality on the actual customer usage and purchase intentions. An online survey was distributed among internet users to assess the various dimensions of website quality in the context of online booking and their effect on customer’s usage and purchase intentions. The data from the survey was analyzed statistically using correlation, t-tests and other statistical tests. Results revealed the direct impact of website quality on customer usage and purchase intentions.

Keywords: airlines, OTAs, purchasing intention, website quality

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213 Expounding on the Role of Sustainability Values (SVs) on Consumers’ Switching Intentions Regarding Disruptive 5G Technology in China

Authors: Sayed Kifayat Shah, Tang Zhongjun, Mohammad Ahmad, Sohaib Mostafa

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This article investigates consumer’s intention to shift to 5G in the light of disruptive technology innovation. To switch from 4G (Existing) technology to 5G (Disruptive) technology requires not just economic benefits and costs but involves other values too, which aren't yet experienced in the framework of technology innovation. This study extended the valued adaptation (VAM) model by proposing the sustainability values (SVs) construct. The model was examined on data from 361 Chinese consumers using the partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique. The outcomes prove the significant correlation of sustainability values (SVs) which influences consumer’s switching intentions toward 5G disruptive technology. The findings of this research will be helpful to telecoms firms in developing consumer retention strategies. Some limitations and the importance of the research for scholars and managers are also discussed.

Keywords: value adaptation model (VAM), sustainability values (SVs), disruptive 5G technology, switching intentions (SI), partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM)

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212 Teaching Ethical Behaviour: Conversational Analysis in Perspective

Authors: Nikhil Kewalkrishna Mehta

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In the past researchers have questioned the effectiveness of ethics training in higher education. Also, there are observations that support the view that ethical behaviour (range of actions)/ethical decision making models used in the past make use of vignettes to explain ethical behaviour. The understanding remains in the perspective that these vignettes play a limited role in determining individual intentions and not actions. Some authors have also agreed that there are possibilities of differences in one’s intentions and actions. This paper makes an attempt to fill those gaps by evaluating real actions rather than intentions. In a way this study suggests the use of an experiential methodology to explore Berlo’s model of communication as an action along with orchestration of various principles. To this endeavor, an attempt was made to use conversational analysis in the pursuance of evaluating ethical decision making behaviour among students and middle level managers. The process was repeated six times with the set of an average of 15 participants. Similarities have been observed in the behaviour of students and middle level managers that calls for understanding that both the groups of individuals have no cognizance of their actual actions. The deliberations derived out of conversation were taken a step forward for meta-ethical evaluations to portray a clear picture of ethical behaviour among participants. This study provides insights for understanding demonstrated unconscious human behaviour which may fortuitously be termed both ethical and unethical.

Keywords: ethical behaviour, unethical behavior, ethical decision making, intentions and actions, conversational analysis, human actions, sensitivity

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211 Competition for Talent: Retaining Graduates in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine

Authors: Julia Reinold, Inge Hooijen, Christoph Meng, Melissa Siegel

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This paper investigates whether or not students intend to stay in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR) after graduation taking into account the role of hard and soft locational factors, social factors as well as demographic aspects in shaping their mobility preferences. Since graduates are considered a convenient source of human capital in today’s knowledge based economy, it is crucial to understand what drives their mobility intentions in order to retain larger numbers of graduates. This is particularly true for peripheral regions, which need to compete with assumed more attractive economic centres. This paper adds a euregional perspective to the existing literature on graduate migration. Using survey data from 2015 from five higher education institutions in the EMR, this paper finds that mobility intentions are determined by students’ perceptions of the quality of life, openness and career opportunities in the euroregion. In addition, distance to the partner and other social ties such as family and friends influence migration intentions.

Keywords: Euroregion, graduate migration, highly skilled migration, human capital

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210 How Unpleasant Emotions, Morals and Normative Beliefs of Severity Relate to Cyberbullying Intentions

Authors: Paula C. Ferreira, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Nádia Pereira, Aristides Ferreira, Alexandra Marques Pinto, Alexandra Barros, Vitor Martinho

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Cyberbullying is a phenomenon of worldwide concern regarding children and adolescents’ mental health and risk behavior. Bystanders of this phenomenon can help diminish the incidence of this phenomenon if they engage in pro-social behavior. However, different social-cognitive and affective bystander reactions may surface because of the lack of contextual information and emotional cues in cyberbullying situations. Hence, this study investigated how cyberbullying bystanders’ unpleasant emotions could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions to cyberbully or defend the victim. It also proposed to investigate how their normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior could be related to their personal moral beliefs and their behavioral intentions. Three groups of adolescents participated in this study, namely a first of group 402 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.12; SD = 2.19; 55.7% girls) to compute explorative factorial analyses of the instruments used; a second group of 676 students (5th – 12th graders; Mage = 14.10; SD = 2.74; 55.5% were boys) to run confirmatory factor analyses; and a third group (N = 397; 5th – 12th graders; Mage = 13.88 years; SD = 1.45; 55.5% girls) to perform the main analyses to test the research hypotheses. Self-report measures were used, such as the Personal moral beliefs about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Normative beliefs of perceived severity about cyberbullying behavior questionnaire, the Unpleasant emotions about cyberbullying incidents questionnaires, and the Bystanders’ behavioral intentions in cyberbullying situations questionnaires. Path analysis results revealed that unpleasant emotions were mediators of the relationship between adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ personal moral beliefs and their intentions to help the victims in cyberbullying situations. Moreover, adolescent cyberbullying bystanders’ normative beliefs of gravity were mediators of the relationship between their personal moral beliefs and their intentions to cyberbully others. These findings provide insights for the development of prevention and intervention programs that promote social and emotional learning strategies as a means to prevent and intervene in cyberbullying.

Keywords: cyberbullying, normative beliefs of perceived severity, personal moral beliefs, unpleasant emotions

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209 The Salespeople's Reactions to Customer Sexual Harassment: A Case Study of Taiwan's Life Insurance Industry

Authors: Yi-Ling Lin, Lu-Ming Tseng

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Customer sexual harassment is recognized as a serious problem in the personal selling industry. At a personal level, customer sexual harassment could have very negative impacts on the salespeople's physical and mental health. At the organizational level, customer sexual harassment is destructive in terms of organizational reputation. Therefore, this research takes Taiwan's life insurance salesperson as the research sample and explores the impacts of customer power and perceived behavioral control on the life insurance salespeople's whistleblowing intentions to report quid pro quo and hostile work environment types of customer sexual harassment. This study then investigates how personal factors (such as gender difference) may relate to the intentions. Questionnaires are often used as a data collection instrument in studies on workplace sexual harassment. This study collects data through questionnaire surveys, and the research sample of this research is the full-time life insurance salespeople in Taiwan. The hypotheses are examined by using PLS regression approach. The main results show that the types of customer sexual harassment, customer power, and gender are related to the whistleblowing intentions. To our best knowledge, this is the first empirical study to test the relationships among customer reward power, customer coercive power, perceived behavioral control, and the salespeople's whistleblowing intentions toward customer sexual harassment. The findings may provide some implications for the researchers and official authorities.

Keywords: customer sexual harassment, life insurance salespeople, perceived behavioral control, PLS regression

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208 Predicting Intentions of Physical Activity in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control

Authors: Shadi Kanan, Ghada Shahrour, Barbara Broome, Donna Bernert, Muntaha Alibrahim, Dana Hansen

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Coronary artery disease is responsible for over 7 million deaths a year worldwide. In developing countries, such as Jordan, the incidence of coronary artery disease exceeds that of developed countries. One contributing factor to this disparity is decreased physical activity among the population, for reasons related to specific cultural and religious values. Using the theory of planned behaviour, the purpose of this study was to investigate the intentions of Jordanian patients with coronary artery disease regarding physical activity. A total of 109 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited for this cross-sectional study from King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan. A 15-item questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour was used to assess participants’ attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions towards engagement in physical activity. Perceived behavioural control was found to have the strongest significant relationship with participants’ intentions to engage in physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included lack of time, lack of support from family or friends, and feelings of exhaustion. Lifestyle interventions for patients with coronary artery disease should focus on fostering a sense of control over the environment to encourage patients to engage in physical activity.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, perceived behavioural control, subjective norms, theory of planned behaviour

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207 Theorizing about the Determinants of Sustainable Entrepreneurship Intention and Behavior

Authors: Mariella Pinna

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Sustainable entrepreneurship is an innovative corporate approach to create value combining economic, social and environmental goals over time. In the last two decades, the interest in sustainable entrepreneurship has flourished thanks to its potential to answer the current challenges of sustainable development. As a result, scholars are increasingly interested in understanding the determinants of the intentions to become a sustainable entrepreneur and consistent behavior. To date, prior studies provided empirical evidence for the influence of attitudes, perceived feasibility and desirability, values, and personality traits on the decision-making process of becoming a sustainable entrepreneur. Conversely, scant effort has been provided to understand which factors inhibit sustainable entrepreneurial intentions and behaviors. Therefore a global understanding of the sustainable entrepreneurship decision-making process is missing. This paper contributes to the debate on sustainable entrepreneurship by proposing a conceptual model that combines the factors which are predicted to facilitate and hinder the proclivity of individuals to become sustainable entrepreneurs. More in particular, the proposed framework theorizes about the role of the characteristics of the prospective sustainable entrepreneur (e.g., socio-demographic, psychological, cultural), the positive antecedents (e.g., attitude, social feasibility and desirability, among others) and the negative precursors (e.g., neutralization) in influencing sustainable entrepreneurship intentions and subsequent behavior. The proposed framework is expected to shed further light on the decision-making process of becoming a sustainable entrepreneur, which in turn, is of practical relevance for public policy institutions and the society as a whole to enhance the favorable conditions to create new sustainable ventures.

Keywords: sustainable entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurial decision-making, antecedents of entrepreneurial intention and behavior

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206 How Cultural Tourists Perceive Authenticity in World Heritage Historic Centers: An Empirical Research

Authors: Odete Paiva, Cláudia Seabra, José Luís Abrantes, Fernanda Cravidão

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There is a clear ‘cult of authenticity’, at least in modern Western society. So, there is a need to analyze the tourist perception of authenticity, bearing in mind the destination, its attractions, motivations, cultural distance, and contact with other tourists. Our study seeks to investigate the relationship among cultural values, image, sense of place, perception of authenticity and behavior intentions at World Heritage Historic Centers. From a theoretical perspective, few researches focus on the impact of cultural values, image and sense of place on authenticity and intentions behavior in tourists. The intention of this study is to help close this gap. A survey was applied to collect data from tourists visiting two World Heritage Historic Centers – Guimarães in Portugal and Cordoba in Spain. Data was analyzed in order to establish a structural equation model (SEM). Discussion centers on the implications of model to theory and managerial development of tourism strategies. Recommendations for destinations managers and promoters and tourist organizations administrators are addressed.

Keywords: authenticity perception, behavior intentions, cultural tourism, cultural values, world heritage historic centers

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205 Hope for Technological Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: Perceived Motivations, Intentions and Decisions in Africa

Authors: Umugwaneza Francoise, Ntamazeze Janviere, Donghong Ding

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Entrepreneurship has been considered by majority people from developing world as “no other option” kind of career. Consequently, for a long time entrepreneurship in developing countries has been mainly practiced by people who have low or not at all formal education. Even today, to some extent, much of the actions taken by governments, donors and some societies have tendency to consider entrepreneurship as an instrument to lift up the most vulnerable population including uneducated women, school drop outers, people with disabilities and other groups who live with some sort of vulnerability. However, there is a shortage of knowledge based and know-how entrepreneurship in developing countries. Although, the entrepreneurship done with formal educated people would contribute indispensably and sustain the development, the low numbers of formal educated people become entrepreneurs in developing countries. Empirically, this paper investigated the influential factors affecting the entrepreneurial motivation, intentions and decision among African scientists and engineers postgraduate from china universities since 1995 to 2014. Results revealed that 39% are entrepreneurs, 43% work for private sectors and 18% work for governments. Only 6% of respondents are in technological entrepreneurship related to their field of graduation. Study location, mentors or research supervisors and life style are the major factors influenced their decisions to become entrepreneurs whereas complex financial systems and political instability pushed some to employments. Interestingly, significant number of entrepreneurs did not have any entrepreneurial intentions. This paper concludes with suggestions to policy makers and investors in order to encouraging technological entrepreneurs which will provide more opportunities, create jobs and improve people’s quality of life.

Keywords: technological entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial motivation, entrepreneurship decision making, entrepreneurship intentions, formal education

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