Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Hikmet Cicek

14 The Tribological Behaviors of Vacuum Gas Nitriding Titanium and Steel Substrates at Different Process Temperatures

Authors: Hikmet Cicek


Metal nitrides show excellence tribological properties and they used for especially on machine parts. In this work, the vacuum gas nitriding proses were applied to the titanium, D2 and 52100 steel substrates at three different proses temperatures (500 °C, 600°C and 700 °C). Structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the samples were characterized. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were conducted to determine structural properties. Microhardness test and pin-on-disc wear test were made to observe tribological properties. Coefficient of friction, wear rate and wear traces were examined comparatively. According to the test results, the process temperature very effective parameter for the vacuum gas nitriding method.

Keywords: gas nitriding, tribology, wear, coating

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13 Multipass Scratch Characterization of TiNbVN Thin Coatings Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: Hikmet Cicek


Transition metal nitrides are widely used as protective coatings on machine parts and cutting tools to protect the surfaces from abrasion and corrosion for decades. In this study, the ternary TiNbVN thin coatings were produced with closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system and their structural, mechanical and fatigue-like (multi-pass scratch test) properties were investigated. Two different substrates (M2 and H13 steels) were used to explore substrates effects. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used for the structural and chemical analysis of the coatings. Nanohardness tests were proceed for mechanical properties. The fatigue-like properties of the coatings obtained from the multi-scratch test under three different cycle passes. The results showed that TiNbVN films have excellent fatigue resistance and the coatings deposited on M2 steel substrate have higher hardness and better fatigue resistance.

Keywords: physical vapor deposition, fatigue, metal nitride, multipass scratch test

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12 UV Resistibility of a Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composite

Authors: A. Evcin, N. Çiçek Bezir, R. Duman, N. Duman


Nowadays, a great concern is placed on the harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which attacks human bodies. Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene, have been considered promising alternatives to shielding materials because of their excellent electrical conductivities, very high surface areas and low densities. In the present work, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. We present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding CNF/polymer composites. The content of CNF filler has been varied from 0.2% to 0.6 % by weight. UV Spectroscopy has been performed to study the effect of composition on the transmittance of polymer composites.

Keywords: electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, characterization, composites, nanofiber, ultraviolet radiation

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11 Optimum Design of Attenuator of Spun-Bond Production System

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Abdullah Bolek, Oktay Yilmaz, Ertan Oznergiz, Hikmet Kocabas, Safak Yilmaz


Nanofibers are effective material which have frequently been investigated to produce high quality air filters. As an environmental approach our aim is to achieve nanofibers by melting. In spun-bond systems extruder, spin-pump, nozzle package and attenuator are used. Molten polymer which flows from extruder is made steady by spin-pump. Regular melt passes through nozzle holes and forms fibers under high pressure. The fibers pulled from nozzle are shrunk to micron size by an attenuator, after solidification they are collected on a conveyor. In this research different designs of attenuator system have been studied and also CFD analysis have been done on them. Afterwards, one of these designs tested and finally some optimizations have been done to reduce pressure loss and increase air velocity.

Keywords: attenuator, nanofiber, spun-bond, extruder

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10 Optimization of E-motor Control Parameters for Electrically Propelled Vehicles by Integral Squared Method

Authors: Ibrahim Cicek, Melike Nikbay


Electrically propelled vehicles, either road or aerial vehicles are studied on contemporarily for their robust maneuvers and cost-efficient transport operations. The main power generating systems of such vehicles electrified by selecting proper components and assembled as e-powertrain. Generally, e-powertrain components selected considering the target performance requirements. Since the main component of propulsion is the drive unit, e-motor control system is subjected to achieve the performance targets. In this paper, the optimization of e-motor control parameters studied by Integral Squared Method (ISE). The overall aim is to minimize power consumption of such vehicles depending on mission profile and maintaining smooth maneuvers for passenger comfort. The sought-after values of control parameters are computed using the Optimal Control Theory. The system is modeled as a closed-loop linear control system with calibratable parameters.

Keywords: optimization, e-powertrain, optimal control, electric vehicles

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9 Fibers Presence Effects on Air Flow of Attenuator of Spun-Bond Production System

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Abdullah Bolek, Oktay Yilmaz, Ertan Oznergiz, Hikmet Kocabas, Safak Yilmaz


High quality air filters production using nanofibers, as a functional material, has frequently been investigated. As it is more environmentally friendly, melting method has been selected to produce nanofibers. Spun-bond production systems consist of extruder, spin-pump, nozzle package and attenuators. Spin-pump makes molten polymer steady, which flows through extruder. Fibers are formed by regular melts passing through nuzzle holes under high pressure. Attenuator prolongs fibers to micron size to be collected on a conveyor. Different designs of attenuator systems have been studied in this research; new analysis have been done on existed designs considering fibers effect on air flow; it was comprehended that, at fibers presence, there is an air flow which agglomerates fibers as a negative effect. So some new representations have been designed and CFD analysis have been done on them. Afterwards, one of these representations selected as the most optimum and effective design which is brought in this paper.

Keywords: attenuator, CFD, nanofiber, spun-bond

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8 Effects of Some Legume Flours and Gums on Some Properties of Turkish Noodle

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nermin Bilgiçli, Tayyibe Erten, Perihan Kübra Çiçek


In this research, different wheat-legume flour blends were used in Turkish noodle preparation with the aid of some gums (xanthan and guar). Chickpea, common bean and soy flours were used in noodle formulation at 20% level with and without gum (1%) addition. Some physical, chemical and sensory properties of noodles were determined. Water uptake, volume increase and cooking loss values of the noodles changed between 92.03-116.37%, 125.0-187.23% and 4.88-8.10%, respectively. Xanthan or guar gam addition decreased cooking loss values of legume fortified noodles. Both legume flour and gum addition significantly (p<0.05) affected the color values of the noodles. The lowest lightness (L*), redness (a*) and the highest yellowness (b*) values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. Protein and ash values of noodles ranged between 15.14 and 21.82%; 1.62 and 2.50%, respectively, and the highest values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. As a result of sensory evaluation, noodles containing chickpea flour and guar gum were rated with higher taste, odor, appearance and texture scores compared to other noodle samples.

Keywords: noodle, legume, soy, chickpea, common bean, gum

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7 Relationship between Joint Hypermobility and Balance in Patients with Down’s Syndrome

Authors: Meltem Ramoglu, Ertugrul Safran, Hikmet Ucgun, Busra Kepenek Varol, Hulya Nilgun Gurses


Down’s syndrome (DS) is a human genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra chromosome 21. Many patients with DS have musculoskeletal problems that affect weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and ligament laxity. This leads to excessive joint hypermobility and decreased position sense (proprioception). Lack of proprioception may cause balance problems. The aim of our study was to investigate how does joint hypermobility affect balance in patients with DS. Our study conducted with 13 DS patients age between 18 to 40 years. Demographic data were recorded. Beighton Hypermobility Score (BHS) was used to evaluate joint hypermobility. Balance score of participants was evaluated with Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Mean age of our participants was 29,8±3,57 year. Average score of body mass index and BHS were; 33,23 ±3,78 kg/m2 and 7,61±1,04, respectively. Out of a maximum possible score of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale, scores of participants with DS ranged from 36–51, with a mean of 43±4,45. Significant correlation was found between BHS and BBS (r: -,966, p=0.00). All of our participants have 6/9 or higher grade from BHS. As a conclusion of our study; joint hypermobility may affect balance score in patients with DS. The results suggest that people with DS have worse balance scores which affected by hypermobility. Further studies need larger population for more reliable results.

Keywords: adults, balance, Down's syndrome, joint hypermobility

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6 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Carbazole Schiff Bases (OLED)

Authors: Baki Cicek, Umit Calisir


Carbazoles have been replaced lots of studies from 1960's to present and also still continues. In 1987, the first diode device had been developed. Thanks to that study, light emitting devices have been investigated and developed and also have been used on commercial applications. Nowadays, OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) technology is using on lots of electronic screen such as (mobile phone, computer monitors, televisions, etc.) Carbazoles were subject a lot of study as a semiconductor material. Although this technology is used commen and widely, it is still development stage. Metal complexes of these compounds are using at pigment dyes because of colored substances, polymer technology, medicine industry, agriculture area, preparing rocket fuel-oil, determine some of biological events, etc. Becides all of these to preparing of schiff base synthesis is going on intensely. In this study, some of novel carbazole schiff bases were synthesized starting from carbazole. For that purpose, firstly, carbazole was alkylated. After purification of N-substituted-carbazole was nitrated to sythesized 3-nitro-N-substituted and 3,6-dinitro-N-substituted carbazoles. At next step, nitro group/groups were reduced to amines. Purified with using a type of silica gel-column chromatography. At the last step of our study, with sythesized 3,6-diamino-N-substituted carbazoles and 3-amino-N-substituted carbazoles were reacted with aldehydes to condensation reactions. 3-(imino-p-hydroxybenzyl)-N-isobutyl -carbazole, 3-(imino-2,3,4-trimethoxybenzene)-N-butylcarbazole, 3-(imino-3,4-dihydroxybenzene)-N-octylcarbazole, 3-(imino-2,3-dihydroxybenzene)-N-octylkarbazole and 3,6-di(α-imino-β-naphthol) -N-hexylcarbazole compounds were synthesized. All of synthesized compounds were characterized with FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC-MS.

Keywords: carbazole, carbazol schiff base, condensation reactions, OLED

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5 A Piebald Cladistic Portray of Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Haplogroups in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Shahzad Bhatti, M. Aslamkhan, Sana Abbas, Marcella Attimonelli, Hikmet Hakan Aydin, Erica Martinha Silva de Souza,


Despite being situated at the crossroad of Asia, Pakistan has gained crucial importance because of its pivotal role in subsequent migratory events. To highlight the genetic footprints and to contribute an enigmatic picture of the relative population expansion pattern among four major Pashtun tribes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa viz., Bangash, Khattak, Mahsuds and Orakzai, the complete mitochondrial control region of 100 Pashtun were analyzed. All Pashtun tribes studied here revealed high genetic diversity; that was comparable to the other Central Asian, Southeast Asian and European populations. The configuration of genetic variation and heterogeneity further unveiled through Multidimensional Scaling, Principal Component Analysis, and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that the Pashtun is a composite mosaic of West Eurasian ancestry of numerous geographic origin. They received substantial gene flow during different invasions and have a high element of the Western provenance. The most common haplogroups reported in this study are: South Asian haplogroup M (28%) and R (8%); whereas, West Asians haplogroups are present, albeit in high frequencies (67%) and widespread over all; HV (15%), U (17%), H (9%), J (8%), K (8%), W (4%), N (3%) and T (3%). Herein we linked the unexplored genetic connection between Ashkenazi Jews and Pashtun. The presence of specific haplotypes J1b (4%) and K1a1b1a (5%) point to a genetic connection of Jewish conglomeration with Khattak tribe. This was a result of an ancient genetic influx in the early Neolithic period that led to the formation of a diverse genetic substratum in present day Pashtun.

Keywords: mtDNA haplogroups, control region, Pakistan, KPK, ethnicity

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4 Evaluation of the Relationship between Fluorosis and Stylohyoid Ligament Calcification Detected on Panoramic Radiograph

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Ozlem Gormez, Umit Memis, Selma Demer, Hikmet Orhan


Stylohyoid ligament is a connective tissue extending from apex of the styloid process to small horn of the hyoid bone. The normal length of styloid process ranges from 20 to 30 mm and measurements more than 30 mm is named stylohyoid ligament calcification (SLC). Fluorosis is a health problem that arises in individuals who intake large amounts of fluor long periods of time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluorosis on SLC. This study has been conducted on 100 patients who had SLC detected on panoramic radiograph. The study group was consisted of 50 patients with dental fluorosis and control group was consisted of 50 patients without dental fluorosis. Length and thickness of SLC were measured and the type of SLC was determined on panoramic radiographs. There was no statistically significant differences between the study and control group for SLC length, thickness and type. The thickness of left and right SLC of severe dental fluorosis group was statistically significant higher than moderate dental fluorosis group (p < 0,05). Cervicopharyngeal trauma, tonsillectomy, endocrine disease in menopause, persistent mesenchymal tissue, mechanical stress have reported as etiology of SLC in the literature and studies are still ongoing. It was reported that fluorosis as a factor on calcification of some ligaments in body (posterior longitudunal ligament, ligamentum flavum and transverse atlantal ligament) previously but relationship between fluorosis with SLC was not investigated. Our study is unique because it is the first study on SLC thickness measurements on panoramic radiographs and the relationship between fluorosis and SLC to our knowledge. According to the obtained results, it is thought that fluorosis may have an effect on SLC in thickness due to the relationship between dental fluorosis severity with SLC thickness and this study will contribute to the progress of the future studies.

Keywords: calcification, fluorosis, ligament, stylohyoid

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3 Comparative Study on Daily Discharge Estimation of Soolegan River

Authors: Redvan Ghasemlounia, Elham Ansari, Hikmet Kerem Cigizoglu


Hydrological modeling in arid and semi-arid regions is very important. Iran has many regions with these climate conditions such as Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province that needs lots of attention with an appropriate management. Forecasting of hydrological parameters and estimation of hydrological events of catchments, provide important information that used for design, management and operation of water resources such as river systems, and dams, widely. Discharge in rivers is one of these parameters. This study presents the application and comparison of some estimation methods such as Feed-Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN), Multi Linear Regression (MLR), Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Bayesian Network (BN) to predict the daily flow discharge of the Soolegan River, located at Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, in Iran. In this study, Soolegan, station was considered. This Station is located in Soolegan River at 51° 14՜ Latitude 31° 38՜ longitude at North Karoon basin. The Soolegan station is 2086 meters higher than sea level. The data used in this study are daily discharge and daily precipitation of Soolegan station. Feed Forward Back Propagation Neural Network(FFBPNN), Multi Linear Regression (MLR), Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Bayesian Network (BN) models were developed using the same input parameters for Soolegan's daily discharge estimation. The results of estimation models were compared with observed discharge values to evaluate performance of the developed models. Results of all methods were compared and shown in tables and charts.

Keywords: ANN, multi linear regression, Bayesian network, forecasting, discharge, gene expression programming

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2 Topographic Characteristics Derived from UAV Images to Detect Ephemeral Gully Channels

Authors: Recep Gundogan, Turgay Dindaroglu, Hikmet Gunal, Mustafa Ulukavak, Ron Bingner


A majority of total soil losses in agricultural areas could be attributed to ephemeral gullies caused by heavy rains in conventionally tilled fields; however, ephemeral gully erosion is often ignored in conventional soil erosion assessments. Ephemeral gullies are often easily filled from normal soil tillage operations, which makes capturing the existing ephemeral gullies in croplands difficult. This study was carried out to determine topographic features, including slope and aspect composite topographic index (CTI) and initiation points of gully channels, using images obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. The study area was located in Topcu stream watershed in the eastern Mediterranean Region, where intense rainfall events occur over very short time periods. The slope varied between 0.7 and 99.5%, and the average slope was 24.7%. The UAV (multi-propeller hexacopter) was used as the carrier platform, and images were obtained with the RGB camera mounted on the UAV. The digital terrain models (DTM) of Topçu stream micro catchment produced using UAV images and manual field Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements were compared to assess the accuracy of UAV based measurements. Eighty-one gully channels were detected in the study area. The mean slope and CTI values in the micro-catchment obtained from DTMs generated using UAV images were 19.2% and 3.64, respectively, and both slope and CTI values were lower than those obtained using GPS measurements. The total length and volume of the gully channels were 868.2 m and 5.52 m³, respectively. Topographic characteristics and information on ephemeral gully channels (location of initial point, volume, and length) were estimated with high accuracy using the UAV images. The results reveal that UAV-based measuring techniques can be used in lieu of existing GPS and total station techniques by using images obtained with high-resolution UAVs.

Keywords: aspect, compound topographic index, digital terrain model, initial gully point, slope, unmanned aerial vehicle

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1 Applicability of Polyisobutylene-Based Polyurethane Structures in Biomedical Disciplines: Some Calcification and Protein Adsorption Studies

Authors: Nihan Nugay, Nur Cicek Kekec, Kalman Toth, Turgut Nugay, Joseph P. Kennedy


In recent years, polyurethane structures are paving the way for elastomer usage in biology, human medicine, and biomedical application areas. Polyurethanes having a combination of high oxidative and hydrolytic stability and excellent mechanical properties are focused due to enhancing the usage of PUs especially for implantable medical device application such as cardiac-assist. Currently, unique polyurethanes consisting of polyisobutylenes as soft segments and conventional hard segments, named as PIB-based PUs, are developed with precise NCO/OH stoichiometry (∽1.05) for obtaining PIB-based PUs with enhanced properties (i.e., tensile stress increased from ∽11 to ∽26 MPa and elongation from ∽350 to ∽500%). Static and dynamic mechanical properties were optimized by examining stress-strain graphs, self-organization and crystallinity (XRD) traces, rheological (DMA, creep) profiles and thermal (TGA, DSC) responses. Annealing procedure was applied for PIB-based PUs. Annealed PIB-based PU shows ∽26 MPa tensile strength, ∽500% elongation, and ∽77 Microshore hardness with excellent hydrolytic and oxidative stability. The surface characters of them were examined with AFM and contact angle measurements. Annealed PIB-based PU exhibits the higher segregation of individual segments and surface hydrophobicity thus annealing significantly enhances hydrolytic and oxidative stability by shielding carbamate bonds by inert PIB chains. According to improved surface and microstructure characters, greater efforts are focused on analyzing protein adsorption and calcification profiles. In biomedical applications especially for cardiological implantations, protein adsorption inclination on polymeric heart valves is undesirable hence protein adsorption from blood serum is followed by platelet adhesion and subsequent thrombus formation. The protein adsorption character of PIB-based PU examines by applying Bradford assay in fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin solutions. Like protein adsorption, calcium deposition on heart valves is very harmful because vascular calcification has been proposed activation of osteogenic mechanism in the vascular wall, loss of inhibitory factors, enhance bone turnover and irregularities in mineral metabolism. The calcium deposition on films are characterized by incubating samples in simulated body fluid solution and examining SEM images and XPS profiles. PIB-based PUs are significantly more resistant to hydrolytic-oxidative degradation, protein adsorption and calcium deposition than ElastEonTM E2A, a commercially available PDMS-based PU, widely used for biomedical applications.

Keywords: biomedical application, calcification, polyisobutylene, polyurethane, protein adsorption

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