Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6671

Search results for: policy tool

6671 Peculiar Implications of Self Perceived Identity as Policy Tool for Transgender Recognition in Pakistan

Authors: Hamza Iftikhar

Abstract:

The research study focuses on the transgender community's gender recognition challenges. It is one of the issues for the transgender community, interacting directly with the difficulties of gender identity and the lives of these people who are facing gender disapproval from society. This study investigates the major flaws of the transgender act. The study's goal is to look into the strange implications of self-perceived identity as a policy tool for transgender recognition. This policy tool jeopardises the rights of Pakistan's indigenous gender-variant people as well as the country's legal and social framework. Qualitative research using semi structured interviews will be carried out. This study proposes developing a scheme for mainstreaming gender-variant people on the basis of the Pakistani Constitution, Supreme Court guidelines, and internationally recognised principles of law. This would necessitate a thorough review of current law using a new approach and reference point.

Keywords: transgender act, self perceived identity, gender variant, policy tool

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6670 Policy Innovation and its Determinants: A Literature Review

Authors: Devasheesh Mathur

Abstract:

The presentation reviews the literature on the phenomenon of policy innovation. Policy innovation refers to a shift in the way policy is made or executed. The paper covers comprehensively on the definition and also the various types of policy innovations. The emphasis is on the antecedents or the determinants of innovation in policies. The author has then made an effort to discover the knowledge gap in the field of policy innovation so as to identify the future scope of research. The objective is to lend more clarity in the area of policy innovation and help in creating a framework for policy-makers as well as academics.

Keywords: literature review, policy innovation, determinants, antecedents

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
6669 Patching and Stretching: Development of Policy Mixes for Entrepreneurship in China

Authors: Jian Shao

Abstract:

The effect of entrepreneurship on economic, innovation, and employment has been widely acknowledged by scholars and governments. As an essential factor of influencing entrepreneurship activities, entrepreneurship policy creates a conducive environment to support and develop entrepreneurship. However, the challenge in developing entrepreneurship policy is that policy is normally a combination of many different goals and instruments. Instead of examining the effect of individual policy instruments, we argue that attention to a policy mix is necessary. In recent years, much attention has been focused on comparing a single policy instrument to a policy mix, evaluating the interactions between different instruments within a mix or assessment of particular policy mixes. However, another required step in understanding policy mixes is to understand how and why mixes evolve and change over time and to determine whether any changes are an improvement. In this paper, we try to trace the development of the policy mix for entrepreneurship in China by mapping the policy goals and instruments and reveal the process of policy mix changing over time. We find two main process mechanisms of the entrepreneurship policy mix in China: patching and stretching. Compared with policy repackaging, patching and stretching are more realistic processes in the real world of the policy mix, and they are possible to achieve effectiveness by avoiding conflicts and promoting synergies among policy goals and instruments.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, China, policy design, policy mix, policy patching

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6668 An Empirical Analysis on the Evolution Characteristics and Textual Content of Campus Football Policy in China

Authors: Shangjun Zou, Zhiyuan Wang, Songhui You

Abstract:

Introduction In recent years, the Chinese government has issued several policies to promote the institutional reform and innovation of the development of campus football, but many problems have been exposed in the process of policy implementation. Therefore, this paper attempts to conduct an empirical analysis of the campus football policy texts to reveal the dynamic development of the microsystem in the process of policy evolution. Methods The selected policy contents are coded by constructing a two-dimensional analysis framework of campus football policy tool-policy objective. Specifically, the X dimension consists of three oriented policy tools: environment, supply and demand, while the Y dimension is divided into six aspects of policy objectives, including institution, competition, player teaching, coach training, resource guarantee and popularization. And the distribution differences of textual analysis units on X and Y dimensions are tested by using SPSS22.0 so as to evaluate the characteristics and development trend of campus football policy on respective subjects. Results 1) In the policy evolution process of campus football stepping into the 2.0 Era, there were no significant differences in the frequency distribution of policy tools(p=0.582) and policy objectives(p=0.603). The collaborative governance of multiple participants has become the primary trend, and the guiding role of Chinese Football Association has gradually become prominent. 2) There were significant differences in the distribution of policy tools before the evolution at a 95% confidence level(p=0.041). With environmental tools always maintaining the dominant position, the overall synergy of policy tools increased slightly. 3) There were significant differences in the distribution of policy objectives after the evolution at a 90% confidence level(p=0.069). The competition system of policy objective has not received enough attention while the construction of institution and resource guarantee system has been strengthened. Conclusion The upgraded version of campus football should adhere to the education concept of health first, promote the coordinated development of youth cultural learning and football skills, and strive to achieve more solid popularization, more scientific institution, more comprehensive resource guarantee and adequate integration. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative allocation of policy tools and reasonable planning of policy objectives so as to promote the high quality and sustainable development of campus football in the New Era. Endnote The policy texts selected in this paper are “Implementation Opinions on Accelerating the Development of Youth Campus Football” and “Action Plans for the Construction of Eight Systems of National Youth Campus Football”, which were promulgated on August 13, 2015 and September 25, 2020 respectively.

Keywords: campus football, content analysis, evolution characteristics, policy objective, policy tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
6667 A System Dynamics Model for Assessment of Alternative Energy Policy Measures: A Case of Energy Management System as an Energy Efficiency Policy Tool

Authors: Andra Blumberga, Uldis Bariss, Anna Kubule, Dagnija Blumberga

Abstract:

European Union Energy Efficiency Directive provides a set of binding energy efficiency measures to reach. Each of the member states can use either energy efficiency obligation scheme or alternative policy measures or combination of both. Latvian government has decided to divide savings among obligation scheme (65%) and alternative measures (35%). This decision might lead to significant energy tariff increase hence impact on the national economy. To assess impact of alternative policy measures focusing on energy management scheme based on ISO 50001 and ability to decrease share of obligation scheme a System Dynamics modeling was used. Simulation results show that energy efficiency goal can be met with alternative policy measure to large energy consumers in industrial, tertiary and public sectors by applying the energy tax exemption for implementers of energy management system. A delay in applying alternative policy measures plays very important role in reaching the energy efficiency goal. One year delay in implementation of this policy measure reduces cumulative energy savings from 2016 to 2017 from 5200 GWh to 3000 GWh in 2020.

Keywords: system dynamics, energy efficiency, policy measure, energy management system, obligation scheme

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6666 Geographic Information Systems as a Tool to Support the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Gulnara N. Nabiyeva, Stephen M. Wheeler

Abstract:

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a multipurpose computer-based tool that provides a sophisticated ability to map and analyze data on different spatial layers. However, GIS is far more easily applied in some policy areas than others. This paper seeks to determine the areas of sustainable development, including environmental, economic, and social dimensions, where GIS has been used to date to support efforts to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and to discuss potential areas where it might be used more. Based on an extensive analysis of published literature, we ranked the SDGs according to how frequently GIS has been used to study related policy. We found that SDG#15 “Life on Land” is most often addressed with GIS, following by SDG#11 “Sustainable Cities and Communities”, and SDG#13 “Climate Action”. On the other hand, we determined that SDG#2 “Zero Hunger”, SDG#8 “Decent Work and Economic Growth”, and SDG#16 “Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions” are least addressed with GIS. The paper outlines some specific ways that GIS might be applied to the SDGs least linked to this tool currently.

Keywords: GIS, GIS application, sustainable community development, sustainable development goals

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
6665 Privacy Policy Prediction for Uploaded Image on Content Sharing Sites

Authors: Pallavi Mane, Nikita Mankar, Shraddha Mazire, Rasika Pashankar

Abstract:

Content sharing sites are very useful in sharing information and images. However, with the increasing demand of content sharing sites privacy and security concern have also increased. There is need to develop a tool for controlling user access to their shared content. Therefore, we are developing an Adaptive Privacy Policy Prediction (A3P) system which is helpful for users to create privacy settings for their images. We propose the two-level framework which assigns the best available privacy policy for the users images according to users available histories on the site.

Keywords: online information services, prediction, security and protection, web based services

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
6664 Public Policy Making Process in Developing Countries: Case Study of Turkish Health System

Authors: Hakan Akin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the policy making process in Turkish Health System. This policy making process will be examined through public policy change theories. Since political actors played in the formulation of public policies also explains the type of policy change, this actors will be inspected in the supranational and national basis. Also the transformation of public policy in the Turkish health care system will be analysed under the concepts of New right ideology, neo-liberalism, neo-conservatism and governance. And after this analyse, the outputs and outcomes of this transformation will be discussed in the context of developing countries.

Keywords: policy transfer, policy diffusion, policy convergence, new right, governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
6663 Simulating Economic Order Quantity and Reorder Point Policy for a Repairable Items Inventory System

Authors: Mojahid F. Saeed Osman

Abstract:

Repairable items inventory system is a management tool used to incorporate all information concerning inventory levels and movements for repaired and new items. This paper presents development of an effective simulation model for managing the inventory of repairable items for a production system where production lines send their faulty items to a repair shop considering the stochastic failure behavior and repair times. The developed model imitates the process of handling the on-hand inventory of repaired items and the replenishment of the inventory of new items using Economic Order Quantity and Reorder Point ordering policy in a flexible and risk-free environment. We demonstrate the appropriateness and effectiveness of the proposed simulation model using an illustrative case problem. The developed simulation model can be used as a reliable tool for estimating a healthy on-hand inventory of new and repaired items, backordered items, and downtime due to unavailability of repaired items, and validating and examining Economic Order Quantity and Reorder Point ordering policy, which would further be compared with other ordering strategies as future work.

Keywords: inventory system, repairable items, simulation, maintenance, economic order quantity, reorder point

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
6662 The KAPSARC Energy Policy Database: Introducing a Quantified Library of China's Energy Policies

Authors: Philipp Galkin

Abstract:

Government policy is a critical factor in the understanding of energy markets. Regardless, it is rarely approached systematically from a research perspective. Gaining a precise understanding of what policies exist, their intended outcomes, geographical extent, duration, evolution, etc. would enable the research community to answer a variety of questions that, for now, are either oversimplified or ignored. Policy, on its surface, also seems a rather unstructured and qualitative undertaking. There may be quantitative components, but incorporating the concept of policy analysis into quantitative analysis remains a challenge. The KAPSARC Energy Policy Database (KEPD) is intended to address these two energy policy research limitations. Our approach is to represent policies within a quantitative library of the specific policy measures contained within a set of legal documents. Each of these measures is recorded into the database as a single entry characterized by a set of qualitative and quantitative attributes. Initially, we have focused on the major laws at the national level that regulate coal in China. However, KAPSARC is engaged in various efforts to apply this methodology to other energy policy domains. To ensure scalability and sustainability of our project, we are exploring semantic processing using automated computer algorithms. Automated coding can provide a more convenient input data for human coders and serve as a quality control option. Our initial findings suggest that the methodology utilized in KEPD could be applied to any set of energy policies. It also provides a convenient tool to facilitate understanding in the energy policy realm enabling the researcher to quickly identify, summarize, and digest policy documents and specific policy measures. The KEPD captures a wide range of information about each individual policy contained within a single policy document. This enables a variety of analyses, such as structural comparison of policy documents, tracing policy evolution, stakeholder analysis, and exploring interdependencies of policies and their attributes with exogenous datasets using statistical tools. The usability and broad range of research implications suggest a need for the continued expansion of the KEPD to encompass a larger scope of policy documents across geographies and energy sectors.

Keywords: China, energy policy, policy analysis, policy database

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
6661 Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model

Authors: Dina Maratovna Aikenova

Abstract:

Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.

Keywords: children, Kazakhstan, policy, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
6660 A Consensus Approach to the Formulation of a School ICT Policy: A Q-Methodology Case Study

Authors: Thiru Vandeyar

Abstract:

This study sets out to explore how teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influence a consensus approach to the formulation of a school ICT policy. This case study proposes Q- methodology as an innovative method to facilitate a school’s capacity to develop policy reflecting teacher beliefs and attitudes. Q-methodology is used as a constructivist approach to the formulation of an ICT policy. Data capture was a mix of Q-methodology and qualitative principles. Data was analyzed by means of document, content and cluster analysis methods. Findings were threefold: First, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influenced a consensus approach by including teachers as policy decision-makers. Second, given the opportunity, teachers have the inherent ability to deconstruct and critically engage with policy statements according to their own professional beliefs and attitudes. And third, an inclusive approach to policy formulation may inform the practice of school leaders and policymakers alike on how schools may develop their own policy.

Keywords: ICT, policy, teacher beliefs, consensus

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6659 Humanity in Public Policy: The Polemic of Death Penalty Policy in Indonesia

Authors: Alvian R. E. Purnomo, K. Noni Srijati, Hernawan Adi

Abstract:

Government regulation is a result of agreement on the struggle of ideas, interests, and ideologies among elites in state institution. The polemic about death penalty policy in Indonesia is still becoming an interesting discussion and also a complex issue. There are pros/ cons of whether the policy is humane or not. Indonesia becomes the concern of the world’s community because the policy of death penalty applied is considered not reflecting the values of Indonesian culture including tolerance, mutual cooperation, and love. This paper examines them using literature study on how public policy theories respond to humanity issues and how Indonesian government should take steps to the issue of the death penalty that has become polemic until now.

Keywords: government regulation, public policy, death penalty policy, humanity

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6658 Mechanisms and Process of an Effective Public Policy Formulation in Islamic Economic System

Authors: Md Abu Saieed

Abstract:

Crafting and implementing public policy is one of the indispensable works in any form of state and government. But the policy objectives, methods of formulation and tools of implementation might be different based on the ideological nature, historical legacy, structure and capacity of administration and management and other push and factors. Public policy in Islamic economic system needs to be based on the key guidelines of divine scriptures along with other sources of sharia’h. As a representative of Allah (SWT), the governor and other apparatus of the state will formulate and implement public policies which will enable to establish a true welfare state based on justice, equity and equality. The whole life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his policy in operating state of affairs in Madina is the practical guidelines for the policy actors and professionals in Islamic system of economics. Moreover, policy makers need to be more meticulous in formulating Islamic public policy which meets the needs and demands of contemporary worlds as well.

Keywords: formulation, Islam, public policy, policy factors, Sharia’h

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6657 Study of Tool Shape during Electrical Discharge Machining of AISI 52100 Steel

Authors: Arminder Singh Walia, Vineet Srivastava, Vivek Jain

Abstract:

In Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) operations, the workpiece confers to the shape of the tool. Further, the cost of the tool contributes the maximum effect on total operation cost. Therefore, the shape and profile of the tool become highly significant. Thus, in this work, an attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters on the shape of the tool. Copper has been used as the tool material for the machining of AISI 52100 die steel. The shape of the tool has been evaluated by determining the difference in out of roundness of tool before and after machining. Statistical model has been developed and significant process parameters have been identified which affect the shape of the tool. Optimum process parameters have been identified which minimizes the shape distortion.

Keywords: discharge current, flushing pressure, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, out of roundness, electrical discharge machining

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6656 Dynamic Analysis of Commodity Price Fluctuation and Fiscal Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Abidemi C. Adegboye, Nosakhare Ikponmwosa, Rogers A. Akinsokeji

Abstract:

For many resource-rich developing countries, fiscal policy has become a key tool used for short-run fiscal management since it is considered as playing a critical role in injecting part of resource rents into the economies. However, given its instability, reliance on revenue from commodity exports renders fiscal management, budgetary planning and the efficient use of public resources difficult. In this study, the linkage between commodity prices and fiscal operations among a sample of commodity-exporting countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is investigated. The main question is whether commodity price fluctuations affects the effectiveness of fiscal policy as a macroeconomic stabilization tool in these countries. Fiscal management effectiveness is considered as the ability of fiscal policy to react countercyclically to output gaps in the economy. Fiscal policy is measured as the ratio of fiscal deficit to GDP and the ratio of government spending to GDP, output gap is measured as a Hodrick-Prescott filter of output growth for each country, while commodity prices are associated with each country based on its main export commodity. Given the dynamic nature of fiscal policy effects on the economy overtime, a dynamic framework is devised for the empirical analysis. The panel cointegration and error correction methodology is used to explain the relationships. In particular, the study employs the panel ECM technique to trace short-term effects of commodity prices on fiscal management and also uses the fully modified OLS (FMOLS) technique to determine the long run relationships. These procedures provide sufficient estimation of the dynamic effects of commodity prices on fiscal policy. Data used cover the period 1992 to 2016 for 11 SSA countries. The study finds that the elasticity of the fiscal policy measures with respect to the output gap is significant and positive, suggesting that fiscal policy is actually procyclical among the countries in the sample. This implies that fiscal management for these countries follows the trend of economic performance. Moreover, it is found that fiscal policy has not performed well in delivering macroeconomic stabilization for these countries. The difficulty in applying fiscal stabilization measures is attributable to the unstable revenue inflows due to the highly volatile nature of commodity prices in the international market. For commodity-exporting countries in SSA to improve fiscal management, therefore, fiscal planning should be largely decoupled from commodity revenues, domestic revenue bases must be improved, and longer period perspectives in fiscal policy management are the critical suggestions in this study.

Keywords: commodity prices, ECM, fiscal policy, fiscal procyclicality, fully modified OLS, sub-saharan africa

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6655 Rules in Policy Integration, Case Study: Victoria Catchment Management

Authors: Ratri Werdiningtyas, Yongping Wei, Andrew Western

Abstract:

This paper contributes to on-going attempts at bringing together land, water and environmental policy in catchment management. A tension remains in defining the boundaries of policy integration. Most of Integrated Water Resource Management is valued as rhetoric policy. It is far from being achieved on the ground because the socio-ecological system has not been understood and developed into complete and coherent problem representation. To clarify the feature of integration, this article draws on institutional fit for public policy integration and uses these insights in an empirical setting to identify the mechanism that can facilitate effective public integration for catchment management. This research is based on the journey of Victoria’s government from 1890-2016. A total of 274 Victorian Acts related to land, water, environment management published in those periods has been investigated. Four conditions of integration have been identified in their co-evolution: (1) the integration policy based on reserves, (2) the integration policy based on authority interest, (3) policy based on integrated information and, (4) policy based coordinated resource, authority and information. Results suggest that policy coordination among their policy instrument is superior rather than policy integration in the case of catchment management.

Keywords: catchment management, co-evolution, policy integration, phase

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6654 Optimizing the Public Policy Information System under the Environment of E-Government

Authors: Qian Zaijian

Abstract:

E-government is one of the hot issues in the current academic research of public policy and management. As the organic integration of information and communication technology (ICT) and public administration, e-government is one of the most important areas in contemporary information society. Policy information system is a basic subsystem of public policy system, its operation affects the overall effect of the policy process or even exerts a direct impact on the operation of a public policy and its success or failure. The basic principle of its operation is information collection, processing, analysis and release for a specific purpose. The function of E-government for public policy information system lies in the promotion of public access to the policy information resources, information transmission through e-participation, e-consultation in the process of policy analysis and processing of information and electronic services in policy information stored, to promote the optimization of policy information systems. However, due to many factors, the function of e-government to promote policy information system optimization has its practical limits. In the building of E-government in our country, we should take such path as adhering to the principle of freedom of information, eliminating the information divide (gap), expanding e-consultation, breaking down information silos and other major path, so as to promote the optimization of public policy information systems.

Keywords: China, e-consultation, e-democracy, e-government, e-participation, ICTs, public policy information systems

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6653 The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach

Authors: K. Bokreta, D. Benanaya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.

Keywords: economic growth, monetary policy, fiscal policy, VECM

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6652 Comparative Assessment of MRR, TWR, and Surface Integrity in Rotary and Stationary Tool EDM for Machining AISI D3 Tool Steel

Authors: Anand Prakash Dwivedi, Sounak Kumar Choudhury

Abstract:

Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a well-established and one of the most primitive unconventional manufacturing processes, that is used world-wide for the machining of geometrically complex or hard and electrically conductive materials which are extremely difficult to cut by any other conventional machining process. One of the major flaws, over all its advantages, is its very slow Material Removal Rate (MRR). In order to eradicate this slow machining rate, various researchers have proposed various methods like; providing rotational motion to the tool or work-piece or to both, mixing of conducting additives (such as SiC, Cr, Al, graphite etc) powders in the dielectric, providing vibrations to the tool or work-piece or to both etc. Present work is a comparative study of Rotational and Stationary Tool EDM, which deals with providing rotational motion to the copper tool for the machining of AISI D3 Tool Steel and the results have been compared with stationary tool EDM. It has been found that the tool rotation substantially increases the MRR up to 28%. The average surface finish increases around 9-10% by using the rotational tool EDM. The average tool wear increment is observed to be around 19% due to the tool rotation. Apart from this, the present work also focusses on the recast layer analysis, which are being re-deposited on the work-piece surface during the operation. The recast layer thickness is less in case of Rotational EDM and more for Stationary Tool EDM. Moreover, the cracking on the re-casted surface is also more for stationary tool EDM as compared with the rotational EDM.

Keywords: EDM, MRR, Ra, TWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
6651 Exploring Coordination between Monetary and Macroprudential Policies Using a Monetary Policy Procyclicality Ratio

Authors: Lukasz Kurowski, Paweł Smaga

Abstract:

We explore the procyclicality of monetary policy decisions towards the financial cycle in the 1995−2015 period on a sample of six central banks. Using interest rate paths and the credit-to-GDP gap to construct a monetary policy procyclicality ratio, we provide evidence that monetary policy procyclicality was high in BoE and CNB and low in Riksbank and ECB. The results support the need for coordination between macroprudential and monetary policies, for example, by including financial stability considerations to the inflation targeting strategy.

Keywords: central bank, financial stability, macroprudential policy, monetary policy

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6650 Using Single Decision Tree to Assess the Impact of Cutting Conditions on Vibration

Authors: S. Ghorbani, N. I. Polushin

Abstract:

Vibration during machining process is crucial since it affects cutting tool, machine, and workpiece leading to a tool wear, tool breakage, and an unacceptable surface roughness. This paper applies a nonparametric statistical method, single decision tree (SDT), to identify factors affecting on vibration in machining process. Workpiece material (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 Aluminum alloy, A48-class30 Gray Cast Iron), cutting tool (conventional, cutting tool with holes in toolholder, cutting tool filled up with epoxy-granite), tool overhang (41-65 mm), spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev) and depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) were used as input variables, while vibration was the output parameter. It is concluded that workpiece material is the most important parameters for natural frequency followed by cutting tool and overhang.

Keywords: cutting condition, vibration, natural frequency, decision tree, CART algorithm

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6649 Subsidying Local Health Policy Programs as a Public Management Tool in the Polish Health Care System

Authors: T. Holecki, J. Wozniak-Holecka, P. Romaniuk

Abstract:

Due to the highly centralized model of financing health care in Poland, local self-government rarely undertook their own initiatives in the field of public health, particularly health promotion. However, since 2017 the possibility of applying for a subsidy to health policy programs has been allowed, with the additional resources to be retrieved from the National Health Fund, which is the dominant payer in the health system. The amount of subsidy depends on the number of inhabitants in a given unit and ranges about 40% of the total cost of the program. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of newly implemented solutions in financing health policy on the management of public finances, as well as on the activity provided by local self-government in health promotion. An effort to estimate the amount of expenses that both local governments, and the National Health Fund, spent on local health policy programs while implementing the new solutions. The research method is the analysis of financial data obtained from the National Health Fund and from local government units, as well as reports published by the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Pricing, which holds substantive control over the health policy programs, and releases permission for their implementation. The study was based on a comparative analysis of expenditures on the implementation of health programs in Poland in years 2010-2018. The presentation of the results includes the inclusion of average annual expenditures of local government units per 1 inhabitant, the total number of positively evaluated applications and the percentage share in total expenditures of local governments (16 voivodships areas). The most essential purpose is to determine whether the assumptions of the subsidy program are working correctly in practice, and what are the real effects of introducing legislative changes into local government levels in the context of public health tasks. The assumption of the study was that the use of a new motivation tool in the field of public management would result in multiplication of resources invested in the provision of health policy programs. Preliminary conclusions show that financial expenditures changed significantly after the introduction of public funding at the level of 40%, obtaining an increase in funding from own funds of local governments at the level of 80 to 90%.

Keywords: health care system, health policy programs, local self-governments, public health management

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6648 How Do Crisis Affect Economic Policy?

Authors: Eva Kotlánová

Abstract:

After recession that began in 2007 in the United States and subsequently spilled over the Europe we could expect recovery of economic growth. According to the last estimation of economic progress of European countries, this recovery is not strong enough. Among others, it will depend on economic policy, where and in which way, the economic indicators will proceed. Economic theories postulate that the economic subjects prefer stably, continual economic policy without repeated and strong fluctuations. This policy is perceived as support of economic growth. Mostly in crises period, when the government must cope with consequences of recession, the economic policy becomes unpredictable for many subjects and economic policy uncertainty grows, which have negative influence on economic growth. The aim of this paper is to use panel regression to prove or disprove this hypothesis on the example of five largest European economies in the period 2008–2012.

Keywords: economic crises in Europe, economic policy, uncertainty, panel analysis regression

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6647 Life Prediction of Cutting Tool by the Workpiece Cutting Condition

Authors: Noemia Gomes de Mattos de Mesquita, José Eduardo Ferreira de Oliveira, Arimatea Quaresma Ferraz

Abstract:

Stops to exchange cutting tool, to set up again the tool in a turning operation with CNC or to measure the workpiece dimensions have a direct influence on production. The premature removal of the cutting tool results in high cost of machining since the parcel relating to the cost of the cutting tool increases. On the other hand, the late exchange of cutting tool also increases the cost of production because getting parts out of the preset tolerances may require rework for its use when it does not cause bigger problems such as breaking of cutting tools or the loss of the part. Therefore, the right time to exchange the tool should be well defined when wanted to minimize production costs. When the flank wear is the limiting tool life, the time predetermination that a cutting tool must be used for the machining occurs within the limits of tolerance can be done without difficulty. This paper aims to show how the life of the cutting tool can be calculated taking into account the cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut), workpiece material, power of the machine, the dimensional tolerance of the part, the finishing surface, the geometry of the cutting tool and operating conditions of the machine tool, once known the parameters of Taylor algebraic structure. These parameters were raised for the ABNT 1038 steel machined with cutting tools of hard metal.

Keywords: machining, productions, cutting condition, design, manufacturing, measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 546
6646 Tool Damage and Adhesion Effects in Turning and Drilling of Hardened Steels

Authors: Chris M. Taylor, Ian Cook, Raul Alegre, Pedro Arrazola, Phil Spiers

Abstract:

Noteworthy results have been obtained in the turning and drilling of hardened high-strength steels using tungsten carbide based cutting tools. In a finish turning process, it was seen that surface roughness and tool flank wear followed very different trends against cutting time. The suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the profile cut into the workpiece surface is determined by the tool’s cutting edge profile. It is shown that the profile appearing on the cut surface changes rapidly over time, so the profile of the tool cutting edge should also be changing rapidly. Workpiece material adhered onto the cutting tool, which is also known as a built-up edge, is a phenomenon which could explain the observations made. In terms of tool damage modes, workpiece material adhesion is believed to have contributed to tool wear in examples provided from finish turning, thread turning and drilling. Additionally, evidence of tool fracture and tool abrasion were recorded.

Keywords: turning, drilling, adhesion, wear, hard steels

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
6645 Governance Question and the Participatory Policy Making: Making the Process Functional in Nigeria

Authors: Albert T. Akume, P. D. Dahida

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of various epochs of governments on policy making in Nigeria. The character of governance and public policy making of both epochs was exclusive, non-participatory and self-centric. As a consequence the interests of citizenry were not represented, neither protected nor sought to meet fairly the needs of all groups. The introduction of the post-1999 democratic government demand that the hitherto skewed pattern of policy making cease to be a character of governance. Hence, the need for citizen participation in the policy making process. The question then is what mode is most appropriate to engender public participation so as to make the policy making process functional? Given the prevailing social, economic and political dilemmas the utilization of the direct mode of citizen participation to affect policy outcome is doubtful if not unattainable. It is due to these predicament that this paper uses the documentary research design argues for the utilization of the indirect mode of citizen participation in the policy making process so as to affect public policy outcome appropriately and with less cost, acrimony and delays.

Keywords: governance, public policy, participation, representation, civil society

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
6644 Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert

Abstract:

This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing more democratic development in the country; the government has proceeded with friendly foreign policy with the states in order to bring funds into the state. The foreign policy of Malaysia is not much changed as there is no changing in the leader; the policy of Malaysia has reconciled relations with main city of Indian and Chinese residing in the country in order to bring investments into the country and to relieve tensions in the country. The foreign policy of the Philippines has proceeded with policy under the ASEAN framework and emphasized on international Islam communities. The foreign policy of Singapore has the least changed as the Singapore's policy focuses on internal trade since the state was found. As for the foreign policy of Brunei Darussalam, Brunei has a little role in the international stage; the state having closest relationship as from the view of history is Singapore as the Singaporean has invested in retailing business in Brunei. The foreign policy of Vietnam has emphasized on an omnidirectional foreign policy in order to compete with several states in global stage. The foreign policy of Myanmar has proceeded with a friendly foreign policy with all ASEAN member states, the East-west Corridor transportation line from Myanmar through Thailand and Lao to Vietnam has been developed. As for the foreign policy of Lao, In 2001, the Thai government and Lao government held a discussion which Thailand reaffirmed the position not to support the anti-Lao group. The foreign policy of Cambodia has proceeded with more openness, having good relation with China, Russia and USA as these states has invested in the state, especially the US company.

Keywords: globalization, public policy analysis, foreign policy, ASEAN member states

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6643 The Appropriation of Education Policy on Information and Communication Technology in South African Schools

Authors: T. Vandeyar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore how Government policy on ICT influences teaching and learning in South African schools. An instrumental case study using backward mapping principles as a strategy of inquiry was used. Utilizing a social constructivist lens and guided by a theoretical framework of a sociocultural approach to policy analysis, this exploratory qualitative research study set out to investigate how teachers appropriate government policy on ICT in South African schools. Three major findings emanated from this study. First, although teachers were ignorant of the national e-education policy their professionalism and agency were key in formulating and implementing an e-education policy in practice. Second, teachers repositioned themselves not as recipients or reactors of the e-education policy but as social and cultural actors of policy appropriation and formulation. Third, the lack of systemic support to teachers catalyzed improved school and teacher collaborations, teachers became drivers of ICT integration through collaboration, innovation, institutional practice and institutional leadership.

Keywords: ICT, teachers as change agents, practice as policy, teacher's beliefs, teacher's attitudes

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6642 Factors behind Success of Nascent Social Enterprises in Pakistan: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

Authors: Abida Zanib

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is an attention-grabbing area to meet social needs. Stakeholders in the social sector of Pakistan, particularly investors, development activists and policy makers are considering it as an engine to economic growth and powerful tool to address social issues in inventive ways. However, absence of specific policy and legitimacy issues create hurdles in the way of success for emerging start-ups. The review of the literature reveals that research in this emerging phenomenon particularly in the case of Pakistan is inadequate. To fill this gap in the literature, this study aims to scrutinize characteristics of nascent social enterprises. The study collects data from 65-emerging social enterprises using questionnaire. The results of factor analysis highlight optimistic and driving qualities of Pakistani social entrepreneurs, which help them to survive and grow in the business world. Moreover, the study identifies several areas for improvements such as information disclosure, networking, corporate governance, mentorship programs, and trainings. The study notes that despite the absence of specific policy, dynamic entrepreneurial culture is fostering in Pakistan and recommends re-framing the education policy to support the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: emerging, entrepreneurs, Pakistan, social, start-ups

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