Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: legalization

12 A Rhetorical History of Legalization of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Taiwan: 'Transing-Nationalism' and Its Discursive Formation as the Case

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang


This essay aims to examine how the discursive formation of the 'transing-nationalism' (which is extended and slightly modified from 'homonationalism') had been constructed in the Taiwanese news media before the legalization of 'sex reassignment surgery (SRS)' in 1988. Samples for rhetorical analysis were selected from two mainstream newspapers, including China Times, and United Daily. The time frame for sample selection is from August 1953 (when the first transgender case was reported) to 1988, while the SRS was legalized in Taiwan. To enhance understanding of media representation as contextualized-based, the author refers to the representative of spatial rhetoric Mikhail Bakhtin for his late study on 'emergence' and 'visualization of time' in Bildungsroman; thereby categorizing the media discourse of transgender into two critical period: (1) transgender as 'misrecognized' and 'included' into the rhetoric of modern medical space; (2) transgender as 'institutionalized' into discourse of protection and salvation by the reified sympathy of nation-state. These two periods and relevant spatial rhetoric were of no immediate concern on the vital interest of transgender individuals; therefore constructed the imagery of transgender for the service of nationalism rather than gender consciousness or human right rhetoric. Based on the research findings, this essay concludes that 'queer multiplicity' should be regarded as not only the guideline for the amendment of the gendered policies and laws but the rhetorical resources for the mobilization of transgender movement in Taiwan from now on.

Keywords: Bakhtin, legalization, rhetoric, sex reassignment surgery, transgender, transing-nationalism

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11 University Students’ Perceptions of the Influence of Cannabis Use on Mental Health

Authors: Konesh Navsaria, Itumeleng Ramodumo


The study explored university students’ perceptions of cannabis use on academic life at a higher education institution (HEI) in Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa. Cannabis is described as the most commonly-used drug by youth, especially those who are in tertiary institutions. The use of cannabis has both negative and positive effects; this is evident in different areas of human functioning. Cannabis usage has been debated upon in courts regarding its legalization and decriminalization, and on the 18th of September 2018, the South African High Court decriminalized cannabis for personal use. Cannabis use has increased in academic settings, and this has raised concerns about how it affects the mental health of students. A qualitative approach was used for the study with an explorative, descriptive design. Purposive sampling was used to select 15 participants for the study. Data were collected using focused-group interviews, following ethical clearance from the HEI. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted using thematic analysis, and cognitive behavioural theory was used as the theoretical framework. The research findings indicated both positive and negative influences of cannabis use on mental health. Most participants who expressed positive effects have used cannabis before, whereas most participants with negative perspectives of cannabis use on mental health are non-cannabis users. The findings revealed that participants perceived that the quantity of cannabis smoked determined whether there was a positive or negative effect on mental health; that is, large doses of cannabis were perceived as having negative effects. The research findings also revealed that the legalization of cannabis is very likely to increase its use and also highlighted precautionary measures users take to avoid the substance’s negative effects on mental health.

Keywords: cannabis use, mental health, university students, legalization

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10 Causes of Pokir in the Budgeting Process: Case Study in the Province of Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Tri Nopiyanto, Rahardhyani Dwiannisa, Arief Ismaryanto


One main issue for a certain region in order to achieve development is if the government that consists of the executive, legislative and judicial board are able to work together. However, there are certain conditions that these boards are the sources of conflict, especially between the executive and legislative board. One of the example of the conflict is between the Local Government and Legislative Board (DPRD) in the Province of Jakarta in 2015. The cause of this conflict is because of the occurrence of pokir (pokok pikiran or ideas of budgeting). Pokir is driven by a budgeting plan that is arranged by DPRD that is supposed to be sourced from the aspiration of the people and delivered 5 months before the legalization of Local Government Budget (APBD), but the current condition in Jakarta is that pokir is a project by DPRD members itself and delivered just 3 days before the legalization in order to facilitate the interests of the members of the legislative. This paper discusses how pokir happens and what factors caused it. This paper uses political budgeting theory by Andy Norton and Diane Elson to analyze the issue. The method used in this paper is qualitative to collect the data and solve the problem of this research. The methods involved are in depth interview, experimental questionnaire, and literature studies. Results of this research are that Pokir occurs because of the distribution of power among DPRD members, between parties, executive, and legislative board. Beside that, Pokir also occurs because of the lack of the people’s participation in budgeting process and monitoring. Other than that, this paper also found that pokir also happens because of the budgeting system that is not able to provide a clean budgeting process, so it enables the creation of certain slots to add pokir into the budgets. Pokir also affects the development of Jakarta that goes through stagnation. This research recommends the implementation of e-budgeting to prevent the occurrence of pokir itself in the Province of Jakarta.

Keywords: legislative and executive board, Jakarta, political budgeting, Pokir

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9 Ethical Discussions on Prenatal Diagnosis: Iranian Case of Thalassemia Prevention Program

Authors: Sachiko Hosoya


Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social policy of preventive genetic medicine in Iran, by following the legalization process of abortion law and the factors affecting the process in wider Iranian contexts. In this paper, ethical discussions of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion in Iran will be presented, by exploring Iranian social policy to control genetic diseases, especially a genetic hemoglobin disorder called Thalassemia. The ethical dilemmas in application of genetic medicine into social policy will be focused. Method: In order to examine the role of the policy for prevention of genetic diseases and selective abortion in Iran, various resources have been sutudied, not only academic articles, but also discussion in the Parliament and documents related to a court case, as well as ethnographic data on living situation of Thalassemia patients. Results: Firstly, the discussion on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion is overviewed from the viewpoints of ethics, disability rights activists, and public policy for lower-resources countries. As a result, it should be noted that the point more important in the discussion on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion in Iran is the allocation of medical resources. Secondly, the process of implementation of national thalassemia screening program and legalization of ‘Therapeutic Abortion Law’ is analyzed, through scrutinizing documents such as the Majlis record, government documents and related laws and regulations. Although some western academics accuse that Iranian policy of selective abortion seems to be akin to eugenic public policy, Iranian government carefully avoid to distortions of the policy as ‘eugenic’. Thirdly, as a comparative example, discussions on an Iranian court case of patient’s ‘right not to be born’ will be introduced. Along with that, restrictive living environments of people with Thalassemia patients and the carriers are depicted, to understand some disabling social factors for people with genetic diseases in the local contexts of Iran.

Keywords: abortion, Iran, prenatal diagnosis, public health ethics, Thalassemia prevention program

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8 Legalizing Prostitution: Providing Equality Amongst Men and Women in the Criminal Justice System through a Socialist Feminist Framework

Authors: Amanda Rebman


This paper challenges the criminal justice system’s traditional stance regarding prostitution. Historically, the acceptance and morality of prostitution within the United States has fluctuated depending upon the social attitudes of the era. Today, prostitutes are allegedly viewed as victims; however, they are treated like criminals throughout the criminal justice system and society. Dominant patriarchal narratives within the United States has resulted in woman lacking autonomy over their bodies and diminished their ability to choose their own career. Even though prostitutes are deemed victims, many times, they are convicted of crimes, a practice that results in further victimization. Utilizing the socialist feminist theory to understand these juxtaposing positions on whether to legalize prostitution facilitates a greater understanding of how patriarchal capitalist arrangements ensure the oppression of women throughout the criminal justice system. The legalization of prostitution will alleviate some of this oppression and ensure a more equal treatment of women in the criminal justice system and society at large.

Keywords: equality, feminist theory, prostitution, sex work

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7 Capital Punishment: A Paradoxical Wrinkle to the Principles of Ethics and Morality

Authors: Pranav Vaidya


The recent upheaval of a ballot initiative taken place in California & Los Angeles‘s newspapers shows how the concept of giving Death Penalty obliterates the very soul basis of community and society which rests upon the tripod of values, ethics, and morality. This paper goes on with examining how, by giving death penalties we are, on one hand trying to wipe out those heinous offenders committing such unspeakable crimes against the public; while on the other hand it comes with a devastating effect of corroding and eluding the existence of ethics and morality which is in the very nature of “protecting the life of humankind”. As it can be stated that, by giving capital punishment, we are trying to legitimize an irreversible act of violence by the authority of state and target innocent victims because as long as the human justice is fallible, the risk of executing an innocent can never be eliminated. However, scholars in the legalization of Capital Punishment have argued that the courts should impose punishment befitting the crime so that they could reflect public abhorrence of the crime, create deterrent or rehabilitating effects & deliver the truest form of justice.

Keywords: ethics, heinous offenders, morality, unspeakable crimes

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6 Consumers’ Attitude towards Marketing Recreational Marijuana

Authors: Nizar Souiden, Riadh Ladhari


Like tobacco and alcohol, recreational marijuana falls under the umbrella of ‘sin’ industries’. Notwithstanding this general negative image surrounding marijuana use, some scholars argue that most of the widely believed claims made about recreational marijuana users are irrelevant and that marijuana use can even improve individuals’ decision-making. This study intends to shed light on this particular product category (i.e., marijuana) often overlooked or portrayed as taboo from a business view. More specifically, it investigates whether legalizing the consumption of recreational marijuana would be perceived as ethical and whether companies/organizations involved in the commercialization of this particular product would be held socially responsible. Based on primary data collected in Canada, this study aims to answer the following questions: 1) What moral thoughts do individuals hold with regard to the consumption of recreational marijuana? 2) How do these moral thoughts determine consumers’ attitude toward the consumption of recreational marijuana? Regardless of the legalization of recreational marijuana in some countries such as Canada, probing people’s opinions, and investigating their attitudes toward the consumption of recreational marijuana is of important interest to different stakeholders such as consumers, public organizations, private businesses, and trade associations.

Keywords: recreational marijuana, moral thoughts, ethics, attitude

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5 Norm Evolution through Contestation: Role of Legality from Humanitarian Intervention to Responsibility to Protect

Authors: Nazlı Üstünes Demirhan


International norms are subject to pressures of change through contestation during the course of their lifetimes. The nature of the contestation is one of the factors that are likely to have a determinative role in the direction of this change towards a stronger or weaker norm. This paper aims to understand the relation between the legality of contestation and the direction of change in norm strength. Based on a multidimensional norm strength conceptualization, it is hypothesized that use of legal logic and rhetoric of argumentation would have a positive influence for norm strength, whereas non-legal nature of contestation would lack this and weaken the norm. In order to show this, the evolution of the human protection norm between 1999 and 2018 will be examined with reference to two major contestation periods; Kosovo intervention of 1999, which led to the development of R2P doctrine, and Libya intervention of 2011, which is followed by the demise of the norm. The comparative analysis will be conducted through process tracing method with a document analysis on the Security Council meeting minutes, resolutions, and press releases. This study aims to contribute to the norm contestation literature with the introduction of legal process analysis. It also relates to further questions in IR/IL nexus, relating to the value added of norm legality as well as the politics of legalization.

Keywords: humanitarian intervention, legality, norm contestation, norm dynamics, norm strength, responsibility to protect

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4 Legal Warranty in Real Estate Registry in Albania

Authors: Elona Saliaj


The registration of real estate in Albania after the 90's has been a long process in time and with high cost for the country. Passing the registration system from a centralized system to a free market private system, it’s accompanied by legal uncertainties that have led to economic instability. The reforms that have been undertaken in terms of property rights have been numerous and continuous throughout the years. But despite the reforms, the system of registration of real estate, has failed to be standards requirements established by the European Union. The completion of initial registration of real estate, legal treatment of previous owners or legalization of illegal constructions remain among the main problems that prevent the development of the country in its economic sector. The performance of the registration of real estate system and dealing with issues that have appeared in the Court of First Instance, the civil section of the Albanian constitute the core of handling this analysis. This paper presents a detailed analysis on the registration system that is chosen to be applied in our country for real estate. In its content it is also determined the institution that administrates these properties, the management technique and the law that determinate its functionality. The strategy is determined for creating a modern and functional registration system and for the country remains a challenge to achieve. Identifying practical problems and providing their solutions are also the focus of reference in order to improve and modernize this important system to a state law that aims to become a member of the European Union.

Keywords: real estates registration system, comparative aspects, cadastral area, property certificate, legal reform

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3 Legal Contestation of Non-Legal Norms: The Case of Humanitarian Intervention Norm between 1999 and 2018

Authors: Nazli Ustunes Demirhan


Norms of any nature are subject to pressures of change throughout their lifespans, as they are interpreted and re-interpreted every time they are used rhetorically or practically by international actors. The inevitable contestation of different interpretations may lead to an erosion of the norm, as well as to its strengthening. This paper aims to question the role of formal legality on the change of norm strength, using a norm contestation framework and a multidimensional norm strength conceptualization. It argues that the role of legality is not necessarily linked to the formal legal characteristics of a norm, but is about the legality of the contestation processes. In order to demonstrate this argument, the paper examines the evolutionary path of the humanitarian intervention norm as a case study. Humanitarian intervention, as a norm of very low formal legal characteristics, has been subject to numerous cycles of contestation, demonstrating a fluctuating pattern of norm strength. With the purpose of examining the existence and role of legality in the selected contestation periods from 1999 to 2017, this paper uses process tracing method with a detailed document analysis on the Security Council documents; including decisions, resolutions, meeting minutes, press releases as well as individual country statements. Through the empirical analysis, it is demonstrated that the legality of the contestation processes has a positive effect at least on the authoritativeness dimension of norm strength. This study tries to contribute to the developing dialogue between international relations (IR) and internal law (IL) disciplines with its better-tuned understanding of legality. It connects to further questions in IR/IL nexus, relating to the value added of norm legality, and politics of legalization as well as better international policies for norm reinforcement.

Keywords: humanitarian intervention, legality, norm contestation, norm dynamics, responsibility to protect

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2 Antimicrobial Activity of CBD to be Used as a Preservative Against Listeria Monocytogenes in Milk & Dairy Products

Authors: Kazi N. Tahsin, David W. Watson, David E. Heinrichs, Paul A. Charpentier


Many plants and their extracts have significant antimicrobial activity, as can be found in folk medicine, essential oils, or isolated compounds. One infamous plant known as Cannabis Sativa has been grown specifically for its medical/recreational use. The constituents of C. Sativa consist of the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). CBD has drawn extensive interest because of its antimicrobial attributes on many food pathogens. After legalization, food and beverage industries are developing CBD - infused foods and beverages such as CBD ice-cream and Muuna Cannabis cottage cheese. This research focused on studying the antimicrobial properties of CBD against one of the most common pathogens found in milk and dairy produce, Listeria Monocytogenes. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of CBD were measured against Listeria Monocytogenes (strain EGD) using trypticase soy broth (TSB), incubated at 35 °C/24 h and in skim milk and whole milk incubated at 35 °C/24 h and 7 °C/7 days. The effect of fat content on CBD antibacterial activity was investigated in whole and skim milk cultured at 7°C for 7 days by comparing kill curves. The MIC for L. monocytogenes was found to be 0.5 μg/mL, and the MBC was 5 μg/mL measured dilution series in liquid culture and disk diffusion assays in TSB, respectively. Similarly, the MICs in semi-skim milk and whole milk were studied at 35 °C/24 h, and at 7 °C/7 days, respectively. The effect of incubation temperatures on the MBC and MIC of the CBD in skim milk was also studied. Although CBD showed good antimicrobial activity on skim milk, it showed a lack of activity on whole milk. This lowered antibacterial activity of CBD in skim milk is attributed to the associated fat molecules. CBD being a highly unstable compound and soluble in lipids, causes the compound to breakdown when exposed to milk high in fat content by micellarization. This research shows that cannabis can potentially be used as a preservative for dairy products low in fat content in the years to come, not just used as flavoring.

Keywords: CBD, antimicrobial studies, L. monocytogenes, dairy products

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1 A Study on Unplanned Settlement in Kabul City

Authors: Samir Ranjbar, Nasrullah Istanekzai


According to a report published in The Guardian, Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan is the fifth fastest growing city in the world, whose population has increased fourfold since 2001 from 1.2 million to 4.8 million people. The main reason for this increment is identified as the return of Afghans migrated during the civil war. In addition to the return of immigrants, a steep economic growth due to foreign assistance in last decade creating lots of job opportunities in Kabul resulted in the attraction of individuals from the neighboring provinces as well. However, the development of urban facilities such as water supply system, housing transportation and waste management systems has yet to catch up with this rapid increase in population. Since Kabul city has developed traditionally and municipal governance had very limited capacity to implement municipal bylaws. As an unwanted consequence of this growth 70% of Kabul citizens contributed to developing informal settlement for which we can say that around three million people living in informally settled areas, lacking the very vital social and physical infrastructures of livelihood. This research focuses on a region with 30 ha area and 2100 people residents in the center of Kabul city. A comprehensive land readjustment concept plan has been formulated for this area. Through this concept plan, physical and social infrastructure has been demonstrated and analyzed. Findings of this paper propose a solution for the problems of this unplanned area in Kabul which is readjusting of unplanned area by a self-supporting process. This process does not need governmental budget and can be applied by government, private sectors and landowner associations. Furthermore, by implementing the Land Readjustment process, conceptual plans can be built for unplanned areas, maximum facilities can be brought to the residents’ urban life, improve the environment for the users’ benefit, promote the culture and sense of cooperation, participation and coexistence in the mind of people, improving the transport system, improvement in economic status (the value of land increases due to infrastructure availability and land legalization). In addition to all these benefits for the public, we can raise the revenue of government by collecting the taxes from landowners. This process is implemented in most of countries of the world, it was implemented for the first time in Germany and after that in most cities of Japan as well, and is known as one of the effective processes for infrastructural development. To sum up, the notable characteristic of the Land readjustment process is that it works on the concept of mutual interest in which both landowners and the government take advantage. However, in this process, the engagement of community is very important and without public cooperation, this process can face the failure.

Keywords: land readjustment, informal settlement, Kabul, Afghanistan

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