Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: PEKK

4 Manufacturing Process of S-Glass Fiber Reinforced PEKK Prepregs

Authors: Nassier A. Nassir, Robert Birch, Zhongwei Guan


The aim of this study is to investigate the fundamental science/technology related to novel S-glass fiber reinforced polyether- ketone-ketone (GF/PEKK) composites and to gain insight into bonding strength and failure mechanisms. Different manufacturing techniques to make this high-temperature pre-impregnated composite (prepreg) were conducted i.e. mechanical deposition, electrostatic powder deposition, and dry powder prepregging techniques. Generally, the results of this investigation showed that it was difficult to control the distribution of the resin powder evenly on the both sides of the fibers within a specific percentage. Most successful approach was by using a dry powder prepregging where the fibers were coated evenly with an adhesive that served as a temporary binder to hold the resin powder in place onto the glass fiber fabric.

Keywords: sry powder technique, PEKK, S-glass, thermoplastic prepreg

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3 Surface Modification of Titanium Alloy with Laser Treatment

Authors: Nassier A. Nassir, Robert Birch, D. Rico Sierra, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, Zhongwei Guan


The effect of laser surface treatment parameters on the residual strength of titanium alloy has been investigated. The influence of the laser surface treatment on the bonding strength between the titanium and poly-ether-ketone-ketone (PEKK) surfaces was also evaluated and compared to those offered by titanium foils without surface treatment to optimize the laser parameters. Material characterization using an optical microscope was carried out to study the microstructure and to measure the mean roughness value of the titanium surface. The results showed that the surface roughness shows a significant dependency on the laser power parameters in which surface roughness increases with the laser power increment. Moreover, the results of the tensile tests have shown that there is no significant dropping in tensile strength for the treated samples comparing to the virgin ones. In order to optimize the laser parameter as well as the corresponding surface roughness, single-lap shear tests were conducted on pairs of the laser treated titanium stripes. The results showed that the bonding shear strength between titanium alloy and PEKK film increased with the surface roughness increment to a specific limit. After this point, it is interesting to note that there was no significant effect for the laser parameter on the bonding strength. This evidence suggests that it is not necessary to use very high power of laser to treat titanium surface to achieve a good bonding strength between titanium alloy and the PEKK film.

Keywords: bonding strength, laser surface treatment, PEKK, poly-ether-ketone-ketone, titanium alloy

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2 Enhancement of Interface Properties of Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: Reyhan Ozbask, Emek Moroydor Derin, Mustafa Dogu


There are a limited number of global companies in the world that manufacture and commercially offer thermoplastic composite prepregs in accordance with aerospace requirements. High-performance thermoplastic materials supplied for aerospace structural applications are PEEK (polyetheretherketone), PPS (polyphenylsulfite), PEI (polyetherimide), and PEKK (polyetherketoneketone). Among these, PEEK is the raw material used in the first applications and has started to become widespread. However, the use of these thermoplastic raw materials in composite production is very difficult due to their high processing temperatures and impregnation difficulties. This study, it is aimed to develop carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic PEEK composites that comply with the requirements of the aviation industry that are superior mechanical properties as well as being lightweight. Therefore, it is aimed to obtain high-performance thermoplastic composite materials with improved interface properties by using the sizing method (suspension development through chemical synthesis and functionalization), to optimize the production process. The use of boron nitride nanotube as a bonding agent by modifying its surface constitutes the original aspect of the study as it has not been used in composite production with high-performance thermoplastic materials yet. For this purpose, laboratory-scale studies on the application of thermoplastic compatible sizing will be carried out in order to increase the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion. The method respectively consists of the selection of appropriate sizing type, laboratory-scale carbon fiber (CF) / poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) polymer interface enhancement studies, manufacturing of laboratory-scale BNNT coated CF/PEEK woven prepreg composites and their tests.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced composite, interface enhancement, boron nitride nanotube, thermoplastic composite

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1 New Hybrid Process for Converting Small Structural Parts from Metal to CFRP

Authors: Yannick Willemin


Carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) offers outstanding value. However, like all materials, CFRP also has its challenges. Many forming processes are largely manual and hard to automate, making it challenging to control repeatability and reproducibility (R&R); they generate significant scrap and are too slow for high-series production; fibre costs are relatively high and subject to supply and cost fluctuations; the supply chain is fragmented; many forms of CFRP are not recyclable, and many materials have yet to be fully characterized for accurate simulation; shelf life and outlife limitations add cost; continuous-fibre forms have design limitations; many materials are brittle; and small and/or thick parts are costly to produce and difficult to automate. A majority of small structural parts are metal due to high CFRP fabrication costs for the small-size class. The fact that CFRP manufacturing processes that produce the highest performance parts also tend to be the slowest and least automated is another reason CFRP parts are generally higher in cost than comparably performing metal parts, which are easier to produce. Fortunately, business is in the midst of a major manufacturing evolution—Industry 4.0— one technology seeing rapid growth is additive manufacturing/3D printing, thanks to new processes and materials, plus an ability to harness Industry 4.0 tools. No longer limited to just prototype parts, metal-additive technologies are used to produce tooling and mold components for high-volume manufacturing, and polymer-additive technologies can incorporate fibres to produce true composites and be used to produce end-use parts with high aesthetics, unmatched complexity, mass customization opportunities, and high mechanical performance. A new hybrid manufacturing process combines the best capabilities of additive—high complexity, low energy usage and waste, 100% traceability, faster to market—and post-consolidation—tight tolerances, high R&R, established materials, and supply chains—technologies. The platform was developed by Zürich-based 9T Labs AG and is called Additive Fusion Technology (AFT). It consists of a design software offering the possibility to determine optimal fibre layup, then exports files back to check predicted performance—plus two pieces of equipment: a 3d-printer—which lays up (near)-net-shape preforms using neat thermoplastic filaments and slit, roll-formed unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced thermoplastic tapes—and a post-consolidation module—which consolidates then shapes preforms into final parts using a compact compression press fitted with a heating unit and matched metal molds. Matrices—currently including PEKK, PEEK, PA12, and PPS, although nearly any high-quality commercial thermoplastic tapes and filaments can be used—are matched between filaments and tapes to assure excellent bonding. Since thermoplastics are used exclusively, larger assemblies can be produced by bonding or welding together smaller components, and end-of-life parts can be recycled. By combining compression molding with 3D printing, higher part quality with very-low voids and excellent surface finish on A and B sides can be produced. Tight tolerances (min. section thickness=1.5mm, min. section height=0.6mm, min. fibre radius=1.5mm) with high R&R can be cost-competitively held in production volumes of 100 to 10,000 parts/year on a single set of machines.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, composites, thermoplastic, hybrid manufacturing

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