Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14827

Search results for: system thinking

14827 Offering a Model for Selecting the Most Suitable Type of Thinking for Managers

Authors: H. Emari, Z. Emari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to design an applied framework for strategic thinking which can be applied in all managerial levels and all types of organizational environments. No special applied frame has been presented for this thinking. This paper presents a theoretical framework for the thinking type of a manager by making a historical research and studying the scientific documents about thinking of a strategist. In the new theoretical framework it has been tried to suggest the best type of thinking for a strategist after analyzing the environment of his decisions. So, in this framework, the traditional viewpoint about strategic thinking, which has considered it as a special type of right-brain thinking against other types of right-brain thinking and suggested it for a strategist, was put aside and suggests that the strategist should use a suitable type of thinking under different conditions.

Keywords: strategic thinking, systemic thinking, lateral thinking, intuitive thinking, hybrid thinking

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14826 Architecture of a Preliminary Course on Computational Thinking

Authors: Mintu Philip, Renumol V. G.

Abstract:

An introductory programming course is a major challenge faced in Computing Education. Many of the introductory programming courses fail because student concentrate mainly on writing programs using a programming language rather than involving in problem solving. Computational thinking is a general approach to solve problems. This paper proposes a new preliminary course that aims to develop computational thinking skills in students, which may help them to become good programmers. The proposed course is designed based on the four basic components of computational thinking - abstract thinking, logical thinking, modeling thinking and constructive thinking. In this course, students are engaged in hands-on problem solving activities using a new problem solving model proposed in this paper.

Keywords: computational thinking, computing education, abstraction, constructive thinking, modelling thinking

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14825 Dwelling in the Built Environment: The Resilience by Design in Modular Thinking toward an Adaptive Alternatives

Authors: Tzen-Ying Ling

Abstract:

Recently, the resilience of dwellings in urban areas has been deliberated, as to accommodate the growing demand for changing the demography and rapid urbanization. The need to incorporate sustainability and cleaner production thinking have intensified to mitigate climate risks and satisfy the demand for housing. The modular thinking satisfies both the pressing call for fast-tracked housing stocks; while meeting the goal of more sustainable production. In the other side, the importance of the dwelling as a podium for well-being and social connectedness are sought to explore the key human/environment design thinking for the modular system in dwelling. We argue the best practice incorporates the concept of systemic components thinking. The fieldwork reported in this paper illustrates the process of the case study in a modular dwelling unit prototype development; focusing on the systemic frame system design process and adjustment recommendation hereafter. Using a case study method, the study identified that: (1) inclusive human dimensional factoring through systemic design thinking results in affordable implementations possibilities. (2) The environmental dimension encourages the place-based solution suited for the locality and the increasing demand for dwelling in the urban system. (3) Prototype design consideration avails module system component as dwelling construction alternative. (4) Building code often acts as an inhibitor for such dwelling units by the restriction in lot sizes and units placement. The demand for fast-track dwelling construction and cleaner production decisively outweighs the code inhibition; we further underscored the sustainability implication of the alternative prototype as the core of this study. The research suggests that modular thinking results in a resilient solution suited for the locality and the increasing demand for dwelling in the urban system.

Keywords: system prototype, urban resilience, human/environment dimension, modular thinking, dwelling alternative

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14824 On the Paradigm Shift of the Overall Urban Design in China

Authors: Gaoyuan Wang, Tian Chen, Junnan Liu

Abstract:

Facing a period of major change that’s rarely seen in a century, China formulates the 14th Five-Year Plan and places emphasis on promoting high-quality development. In this context, the overall urban design has become a crucial and systematic tool for high-quality urban development. However, there are bottlenecks in the nature definition, content scope and transmission mechanisms of the current overall urban design in China. The paper interprets the emerging demands of the 14th Five-Year Plan on urban design in terms of new value-quality priority, new dynamic-space performance, new target-region coordination and new path-refined governance. Based on the new trend and appeal, the multi-dimensional thinking integrated with the major tasks of urban design are proposed accordingly, which is the biomass thinking in ecological, production and living element, the strategic thinking in spatial structure, the systematic thinking in the cityscape, the low-carbon thinking in urban form, the governance thinking in public space, the user thinking in design implementation. The paper explores the possibility of transforming the value thinking and technical system of urban design in China and provides a breakthrough path for the urban planning and design industry to better respond to the propositions of the country’s 14th Five-Year Plan.

Keywords: China’s 14th five-year plan, overall urban design, urban design thinking, transformation of urban design

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14823 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: Hevriani Sevrika Mayuasti

Abstract:

This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension.

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking, questioning, strategy

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14822 Teaching Critical Thinking in Post-Conflict Countries: The University of Liberia

Authors: Kamille Beye

Abstract:

Critical thinking is a topic that has been disputed in the field of education for decades, but many resulting debates have centered around strengthening critical thinking capabilities in the societies, workforces, and educational centers of the global north. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis of the teaching of critical thinking in Liberia, which has been ravaged by years of war and a recent Ebola outbreak. These crises have decimated the Liberian education sector, leading to a loss of teaching capacities that are essential to providing critical thinking education. Until recently, critical thinking had no seat at the table when the future needs of the country were discussed by the government and non-governmental agencies. Now, the University of Liberia has a bold goal to become one of the top twenty universities in West Africa in the next seven years, which has led to a focus on teaching critical thinking skills to improve learning. This paper argues that critical thinking is essential to strengthening not only the Liberian education system, but for promoting peace amongst community members, and yet it suggests that commitments to the teaching of critical thinking in Liberia have hitherto been overly superficial. Based on an initial scoping study, this paper will examine the potential impacts of teaching critical thinking skills to undergraduate students in the William V. S. Tubman School of Education at the University of Liberia on continued peacebuilding and reconstruction efforts of the country. The research contends that if critical thinking skills are taught, practiced and continually utilized, teachers and students will have the ability to engage with information and negotiate challenges to solutions in ways that are beneficial to the communities in which they live. The research will use a variety of methods, that include the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. This research will demonstrate that critical thinking skills are not only needed for entering the workforce, but necessary for negotiating and expressing the needs and desires of local communities in a peaceful way.

Keywords: critical thinking, higher education, Liberia, peacebuilding, post-conflict

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14821 Promoting Critical Thinking in a Robotics Class

Authors: Ian D. Walker

Abstract:

This paper describes the creation and teaching of an undergraduate course aimed at promoting critical thinking among the students in the course. The class, Robots in Business and Society, taught at Clemson University, is open to all undergraduate students of any discipline. It is taught as part of Clemson’s online class program and is structured to promote critical thinking via a series of interactive discussion boards and assignments. Critical thinking is measured via pre- and post-testing using a benchmark standardized test. The paper will detail the class organization, and describe and discuss the results and lessons learned with respect to improvement of student critical thinking from three offerings of the class.

Keywords: critical thinking, pedagogy, robotics, undergraduate teaching

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14820 The Influence of 3D Printing Course on Middle School Students' Spatial Thinking Ability

Authors: Wang Xingjuan, Qian Dongming

Abstract:

As a common thinking ability, spatial thinking ability plays an increasingly important role in the information age. The key to cultivating students' spatial thinking ability is to cultivate students' ability to process and transform graphics. The 3D printing course enables students to constantly touch the rotation and movement of objects during the modeling process and to understand spatial graphics from different views. To this end, this article combines the classic PSVT: R test to explore the impact of 3D printing courses on the spatial thinking ability of middle school students. The results of the study found that: (1) Through the study of the 3D printing course, the students' spatial ability test scores have been significantly improved, which indirectly reflects the improvement of the spatial thinking ability level. (2) The student's spatial thinking ability test results are influenced by the parent's occupation.

Keywords: 3D printing, middle school students, spatial thinking ability, influence

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14819 Visual Thinking Routines: A Mixed Methods Approach Applied to Student Teachers at the American University in Dubai

Authors: Alain Gholam

Abstract:

Visual thinking routines are principles based on several theories, approaches, and strategies. Such routines promote thinking skills, call for collaboration and sharing of ideas, and above all, make thinking and learning visible. Visual thinking routines were implemented in the teaching methodology graduate course at the American University in Dubai. The study used mixed methods. It was guided by the following two research questions: 1). To what extent do visual thinking inspire learning in the classroom, and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking? 2). How do visual thinking routines inspire learning in the classroom and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking? Eight student teachers enrolled in the teaching methodology course at the American University in Dubai (Spring 2017) participated in the following study. First, they completed a survey that measured to what degree they believed visual thinking routines inspired learning in the classroom and made time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking. In order to build on the results from the quantitative phase, the student teachers were next involved in a qualitative data collection phase, where they had to answer the question: How do visual thinking routines inspire learning in the classroom and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking? Results revealed that the implementation of visual thinking routines in the classroom strongly inspire learning in the classroom and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking. In addition, student teachers explained how visual thinking routines allow for organization, variety, thinking, and documentation. As with all original, new, and unique resources, visual thinking routines are not free of challenges. To make the most of this useful and valued resource, educators, need to comprehend, model and spread an awareness of the effective ways of using such routines in the classroom. It is crucial that such routines become part of the curriculum to allow for and document students’ questions, contributions, and thinking.

Keywords: classroom display, student engagement, thinking classroom, visual thinking routines

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14818 Unfolding Simulations with the Use of Socratic Questioning Increases Critical Thinking in Nursing Students

Authors: Martha Hough RN

Abstract:

Background: New nursing graduates lack the critical thinking skills required to provide safe nursing care. Critical thinking is essential in providing safe, competent, and skillful nursing interventions. Educational institutions must provide a curriculum that improves nursing students' critical thinking abilities. In addition, the recent pandemic resulted in nursing students who previously received in-person clinical but now most clinical has been converted to remote learning, increasing the use of simulations. Unfolding medium and high-fidelity simulations and Socratic questioning are used in many simulations debriefing sessions. Methodology: Google Scholar was researched with the keywords: critical thinking of nursing students with unfolding simulation, which resulted in 22,000 articles; three were used. A second search was implemented with critical thinking of nursing students Socratic questioning, which resulted in two articles being used. Conclusion: Unfolding simulations increase nursing students' critical thinking, especially during the briefing (pre-briefing and debriefing) phases, where most learning occurs. In addition, the use of Socratic questions during the briefing phases motivates other questions, helps the student analyze and critique their thinking, and assists educators in probing students' thinking, which further increases critical thinking.

Keywords: briefing, critical thinking, Socratic thinking, unfolding simulations

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14817 An Empirical Study of the Effect of Robot Programming Education on the Computational Thinking of Young Children: The Role of Flowcharts

Authors: Wei Sun, Yan Dong

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in introducing computational thinking at an early age. Computational thinking, like mathematical thinking, engineering thinking, and scientific thinking, is a kind of analytical thinking. Learning computational thinking skills is not only to improve technological literacy, but also allows learners to equip with practicable skills such as problem-solving skills. As people realize the importance of computational thinking, the field of educational technology faces a problem: how to choose appropriate tools and activities to help students develop computational thinking skills. Robots are gradually becoming a popular teaching tool, as robots provide a tangible way for young children to access to technology, and controlling a robot through programming offers them opportunities to engage in developing computational thinking. This study explores whether the introduction of flowcharts into the robotics programming courses can help children convert natural language into a programming language more easily, and then to better cultivate their computational thinking skills. An experimental study was adopted with a sample of children ages six to seven (N = 16) participated, and a one-meter-tall humanoid robot was used as the teaching tool. Results show that children can master basic programming concepts through robotic courses. Children's computational thinking has been significantly improved. Besides, results suggest that flowcharts do have an impact on young children’s computational thinking skills development, but it only has a significant effect on the "sequencing" and "correspondence" skills. Overall, the study demonstrates that the humanoid robot and flowcharts have qualities that foster young children to learn programming and develop computational thinking skills.

Keywords: robotics, computational thinking, programming, young children, flow chart

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14816 The Investigation on Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions in Terms of Several Variables

Authors: Cüneyit Akar, Mustafa Başaran, Ufuk Uluçınar

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to examine the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service teachers in terms of several variables. In the line of this aim, we have investigated what their levels of critical thinking dispositions and whether there is any significant different in their critical thinking dispositions. Also, we have examined the relations between their critical thinking dispositions and their parents’ education statues, the number of their siblings, family income levels, and their religiosity level. 202 pre-service teachers who are studying at different departments at faculty of education at Uşak University participated in this research. In study, critical thinking dispositions scale by one of researchers was utilized and its validity and reliability was performed. The findings indicate that the level of their critical thinking dispositions was found to be .376 (arithmetic mean). On the other hand, we found that there is no significant difference in terms of their gender and the department at which they are studying. Furthermore, although there aren’t significant relationships between critical thinking dispositions and their mother education statues, their income levels, their religiosity levels and the number of their siblings; there is any significant positively at low level the relation between thinking dispositions and father educational statues. The findings obtained will be discussed together with literature and other research’ results.

Keywords: preservice teachers, critical thinking dispositions, pedagogy, education

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14815 Discursively Examination of 8th Grade Students’ Geometric Thinking Levels

Authors: Ferdağ Çulhan, Emine Gaye Çontay

Abstract:

Geometric thinking levels created by Van Hiele are used to determine students' progress in geometric thinking. Many studies have been conducted on geometric thinking levels and they have taken their place in teaching curricula over time. It is thought that geometric thinking levels, which have become so important in teaching, can be examined in depth. In order to make an in-depth analysis, it was decided that the most appropriate management was discourse analysis. In this study, the focus is on examining the geometric thinking levels of 8th grade students from a discursive point of view. Sfard (2008)'s "Commognitive" theory will be used to conduct discursive analysis. The "Global Van Hiele Questionnaire" created by Patkin (2014) and translated into Turkish for this research will be used in the research. The "Global Van Hiele Questionnaire" contains questions from the sub-learning domain of triangles and quadrilaterals, circles and geometric objects. It has a wider scope than many "Van Hiele Questionnaires". “Global Van Hiele Questionnaire” will be applied to 8th grade students. Then, the geometric thinking levels of the students will be determined and interviews will be held with two students from each of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd levels. The interviews will be recorded and the students' discourses will be examined. By evaluating the relations between the students' geometric thinking levels and their discourses, it will be examined how much their discourse reflects their level of thinking. In this way, it is thought that students' geometric thinking processes can be better understood.

Keywords: mathematical discourses, commognitive framework, geometric thinking levels, van hiele

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14814 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Taxonomy Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: M. Mayuasti, Hevriani Sevrika, Armilia Riza

Abstract:

This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking questioning strategy, specific purposes class, English

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
14813 A Soft System Approach to Explore Ill-Defined Issues in Distance Education System - A Case of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Sulafah Basahel

Abstract:

Nowadays, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) around the world are attempting to utilize Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to enhance learning process and strategies of knowledge delivery for students through Distance Education (DE) system. Stakeholders in DE system face a complex situation of different ill-defined and related issues that influence decision making process. In this study system thinking as a body of knowledge is used to explore the emergent properties that produced from these connections between issues and could have either positive or negative outcomes for the DE development. Checkland Soft System Methodology (SSM) - Mode 2 is employed in a cultural context of Saudi Arabia for more knowledge acquisition purposes among multiple stakeholders in DE rather than solving problems to achieve an overall development of DE system. This paper will discuss some political, cultural issues and connections between them that impact on effectiveness of stakeholders’ activities and relations. This study will significantly contribute to both system thinking and education fields by leading decision makers in DE to reconsider future plans, strategies and right actions for more successful educational practices.

Keywords: distance education, higher education institutions, ill-defined issues, soft system methodology-Mode 2

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14812 Examining Geometric Thinking Behaviours of Undergraduates in Online Geometry Course

Authors: Peter Akayuure

Abstract:

Geometry is considered an important strand in mathematics due to its wide-ranging utilitarian value and because it serves as a building block for understanding other aspects of undergraduate mathematics, including algebra and calculus. Matters regarding students’ geometric thinking have therefore long been pursued by mathematics researchers and educators globally via different theoretical lenses, curriculum reform efforts, and innovative instructional practices. However, so far, studies remain inconclusive about the instructional platforms that effectively promote geometric thinking. At the University of Education, Winneba, an undergraduate geometry course was designed and delivered on UEW Learning Management System (LMS) using Moodle platform. This study utilizes van Hiele’s theoretical lens to examine the entry and exit’s geometric thinking behaviours of prospective teachers who took the undergraduate geometry course in the LMS platform. The study was a descriptive survey that involved an intact class of 280 first-year students enrolled to pursue a bachelor's in mathematics education at the university. The van Hiele’s Geometric thinking test was used to assess participants’ entry and exit behaviours, while semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data for triangulation. Data were analysed descriptively and displayed in tables and charts. An Independent t-test was used to test for significant differences in geometric thinking behaviours between those who entered the university with a diploma certificate and with senior high certificate. The results show that on entry, more than 70% of the prospective teachers operated within the visualization level of van Hiele’s geometric thinking. Less than 20% reached analysis and abstraction levels, and no participant reached deduction and rigor levels. On exit, participants’ geometric thinking levels increased markedly across levels, but the difference from entry was not significant and might have occurred by chance. The geometric thinking behaviours of those enrolled with diploma certificates did not differ significant from those enrolled directly from senior high school. The study recommends that the design principles and delivery of undergraduate geometry course via LMS should be structured and tackled using van Hiele’s geometric thinking levels to serve as means of bridging the existing learning gaps of undergraduate students.

Keywords: geometric thinking, van Hiele’s, UEW learning management system, undergraduate geometry

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14811 A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Account of Design Thinking by Way of an Exposition of Four Species of Negatite: 'Not Being', 'Non-Being', 'Absence', 'Non-Existence'

Authors: Soheil Ashrafi

Abstract:

In this paper, it is attempted to chart and exposit terra incognito of the transcendental intuition of ‘non-being’, a peculiar species of négatité and a form of consciousness which underpins the phenomenal capacity for design thinking, and which serves as the ground of the ‘designing being-relation to the world’. The paper’s contention is that the transcendental intuition of the non-being indwells the agent’s being-relation to the world as a continual tension in that neither does the agent relinquish its ontological leverage and submit altogether to the world’s curbs and dictates, nor is it able to subdue satisfactorily or settle into the world once and for all. By way of phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis, it is endeavoured to argue that design thinking occurs by virtue of a phenomenal transition between the a priori ‘not-being’, the basis of ‘that-which-is’, and the transcendental intuition of non-being through which that-which-is-not-yet announces itself. Along with this, the other two species of négatité as ‘absence’ and ‘non-existence’ are clarified and contrasted with not-being and non-being, which have widely been used in the literature interchangeably as identical terms. In conclusion, it is argued that not only has design thinking in its unadulterated, originary mode historically preceded scientific thinking, but it also has served as the foundation of its emergence. In short, scientific thinking is a derivative, reformed application of design thinking; it indeed supervenes upon it.

Keywords: design thinking, designing being-relation to the world, négatité, not-being, non-being

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14810 Computational Thinking Based Coding Environment for Coding and Free Semester Mathematics Education in Korea

Authors: Han Hyuk Cho, Hanik Jo

Abstract:

In recent years, coding education has been globally emphasized, and the Free Semester System and coding education were introduced to the public schools from the beginning of 2016 and 2018 respectively in Korea. With the introduction of the Free Semester System and the rising demand of Computational Thinking (CT) capacity, this paper aims to design ‘Coding Environment’ and Minecraft-like Turtlecraft in which learners can design and construct mathematical objects through mathematical symbolic expressions. Students can transfer the constructed mathematical objects to the Turtlecraft environment (open-source codingmath website), and also can print them out through 3D printers. Furthermore, we design learnable mathematics and coding curriculum by representing the figurate numbers and patterns in terms of executable expression in the coding context and connecting them to algebraic symbols, which will allow students to experience mathematical patterns and symbolic coding expressions.

Keywords: coding education, computational thinking, mathematics education, TurtleMAL and Turtlecraft

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14809 The Development of the Coherence of Moral Thinking

Authors: Hui-Tzu Lin, Wen-Ying Lin, Jenn-Wu Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of present research is to investigate whether the global coherence of moral thinking is increased by age. The author utilized two kinds of moral situations to evaluate the subjects’ responses to two contradictive arguments concerning behavior of stealing, cheating in an exam, each with two stories. The two stories will be focused on the main lead and provided two contradictory moral evaluations. Participants were 596 primary schoolchildren in Taiwan. The three age groups were 201 in grade two, 183 in grade three, and 212 in grade six. The result showed that sixth graders’ moral judgment is more coherent than third graders’. The coherence of moral thinking is increased by age which support the implication by Piaget and Kohlberg’s theoretical hypothesis. This indicates that people higher ability to detect contradiction may be involved in the development of the coherence of moral thinking.

Keywords: moral thinking, coherence, local coherence, contradiction, global coherence, cognitive development

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14808 Esports Development Ecosystem in Hong Kong: An Application of a System Thinking Literacy Approach

Authors: Gigi Lam, Wai Kuen Wong

Abstract:

As competitive video games continue to integrate into popular culture, esports is becoming a tremendous potential industry and global phenomenon which draw huge attention from governors, global investors, brands, and media outlets. There are lots of stakeholders who are scrambling for a piece of esports development. However, academics debate largely concentrated around the question of whether esports can be classified as sport and whether esports can lead to any psychological problems or behaviors. For building healthier esports industry, this article attempts to introduce a holistic and universal framework for all country or region to examine their strengths and weakness in their development process. With Hong Kong as an example, this paper adopts the concept of a system thinking literacy approach, including emphasising multi-perspective, dynamic feedback process, and big picture mindset to construct an esports development ecosystem and propose some recommendations for Hong Kong to facilitate the esports development. To have a comprehensive understanding of esports development, the esports development ecosystem has considered the interaction between different levels of six macro systems, including the technological system, education system, social system, policy and legal system, non-governmental organizations system, economic system (esports industry). Besides the internal ecosystem of esports development, the influence of uncontrollable external factors also should be considered into the whole model, e.g., COVID-19.

Keywords: esports, ecosystem, development, industry, Hong Kong

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14807 Critical Thinking Index of College Students

Authors: Helen Frialde-Dupale

Abstract:

Critical thinking Index (CTI) of 150 third year college students from five State Colleges and Universities (SUCs) in Region I were determined. Only students with Grade Point Average (GPA) of at least 2.0 from four general classification of degree courses, namely: Education, Arts and Sciences, Engineering and Agriculture were included. Specific problem No.1 dealt with the profile variables, namely: age, sex, degree course, monthly family income, number of siblings, high school graduated from, grade point average, personality type, highest educational attainment of parents, and occupation of parents. Problem No. 2 determined the critical thinking index among the respondents. Problem No. 3 investigated whether or not there are significant differences in the critical thinking index among the respondents across the profile variables. While problem No.4 determined whether or not there are significant relationship between the critical thinking index and selected profile variables, namely: age, monthly family income, number of siblings, and grade point average of the respondents. Finally, on problem No. 5, the critical thinking instrument which obtained the lowest rates, were used as basis for outlining an intervention program for enhancing critical thinking index (CTI) of students. The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance: there are no significant differences in the critical thinking index of the third college students across the profile variables; there are no significant relationships between the critical thinking index of the respondents and selected variables, namely: age, monthly family income, number of siblings, and grade point average.

Keywords: attitude as critical thinker, critical thinking applied, critical thinking index, self-perception as critical thinker

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14806 The Study of the Correlation of Future-Oriented Thinking and Retirement Planning: The Analysis of Two Professions

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Ching-Yi Lu, Chien Hung, Hsieh

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the difference between state-owned-enterprise employees and the civil servants regarding their future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. The researchers investigated 687 middle age and older adults (345 state-owned-enterprise employees and 342 civil servants) through survey research, to understand the relevance between and the prediction of their future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. The findings of this study are: 1.There are significant differences between these two professions regarding future-oriented thinking but not retirement planning. The results of the future-oriented thinking of civil servants are overall higher than that of the state-owned-enterprise employees. 2. There are significant differences both in the aspects of future-oriented thinking and retirement planning among civil servants of different ages. The future-oriented thinking and retirement planning of ages 55 and above are more significant than those of ages 45 or under. For the state-owned-enterprise employees, however, there is no significance found in their future-oriented thinking, but in their retirement planning. Moreover, retirement planning is higher at ages 55 or above than at other ages. 3. With regard to education, there is no correlation to future-oriented thinking or retirement planning for civil servants. For state-owned-enterprise employees, however, their levels of education directly affect their future-oriented thinking. Those with a master degree or above have greater future-oriented thinking than those with other educational degrees. As for retirement planning, there is no correlation. 4. Self-assessment of economic status significantly affects the future-oriented thinking and retirement planning of both civil servants and state-owned-enterprise employees. Those who assess themselves more affluently are more inclined to future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. 5. For civil servants, there are significant differences between their monthly income and retirement planning, but none with future-oriented thinking. As for state-owned-enterprise employees, there are significant differences between their monthly income and retirement planning as well as future-oriented thinking. State-owned-enterprise employees who have significantly higher monthly incomes (1,960 euros and above) have more significant future-oriented thinking and retirement planning than those with lower monthly incomes (1,469 euros and below). 6. The middle age and older adults of both professions have positive correlations with future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. Through stepwise multiple regression analysis, the results indicate that future-oriented thinking and retirement planning have positive predictions. The authors then present the findings of this study for state-owned-enterprises, public authorities, and older adult educational program designs in Taiwan as references.

Keywords: state-owned-enterprise employees, civil servants, future-oriented thinking, retirement planning

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14805 Exploring Critical Thinking Skill Development in the 21st Century College Classroom: A Multi-Case Study

Authors: Kimberlyn Greene

Abstract:

Employers today expect college graduates to not only develop and demonstrate content-specific knowledge but also 21st century skillsets such as critical thinking. International assessments suggest students enrolled in United States (U.S.) educational institutions are underperforming in comparison to their global peers in areas such as critical thinking and technology. This multi-case study examined how undergraduate digital literacy courses at a four-year university in the U.S., as implemented by instructors, fostered students’ development of critical thinking skills. The conceptual framework for this study presumed that as students engaged in complex thinking within the context of a digital literacy course, their ability to deploy critical thinking was contingent upon whether the course was designed with the expectation for students to use critical thinking skills as well as the instructor’s approach to implementing the course. Qualitative data collected from instructor interviews, classroom observations, and course documents were analyzed with an emphasis on exploring the course design and instructional methods that provided opportunities to foster critical thinking skill development. Findings from the cross-case analysis revealed that although the digital literacy courses were designed and implemented with the expectation students would deploy critical thinking; there was no explicit support for students to develop these skills. The absence of intentional skill development resulted in inequitable opportunities for all students to engage in complex thinking. The implications of this study suggest that if critical thinking is to remain a priority, then universities must expand their support of pedagogical and instructional training for faculty regarding how to support students’ critical thinking skill development.

Keywords: critical thinking skill development, curriculum design, digital literacy, pedagogy

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14804 Using Design Thinking Principles to Improve Patients Experiences in Two Outpatient Pharmacies in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Dalia Almaghaslah

Abstract:

Design thinking approach; empathize, define, ideate prototype, test, implement, was used to assess outpatient experiences in two hospital pharmacies in the Asir region, Saudi Arabia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 patients. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings suggested that patients were generally satisfied with pharmaceutical services provided in both pharmacies. Pharmacists were found to have enough knowledge, good attitude, and efficient communication and counselling skills. Non-pharmacy-related factors such as cultural factors (gender segregation), long waiting times, uncomfortable waiting areas, lack of electronic prescribing, number waiting system were found to have a negative impact on patients' experiences and satisfaction. Prototypes will be used to test the effects of implementing the electronic system in Al -mahal hospital and to test changing the physical layout of the waiting area in Asir hospital.

Keywords: design thinking, hospital pharmacy, patient satisfaction, Saudi Arabia

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14803 Design, Research and Culture Change in the Age of Transformation

Authors: Maya Jaber

Abstract:

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges that require immediate attention and mitigation for the continued prosperity of human existence. The transformation will need to occur that is top-down and bottom-up on holistic scales. A new way of thinking will need to be adopted that is innovative, human-centric, and global. Designers and researchers are vital leaders in this movement that can help guide other practitioners in the strategy development, critical thinking process, and alignment of transformative solutions. Holistic critical thinking strategies will be essential to change behaviors and cultures for future generations' survival. This paper will discuss these topics associated with Dr. Jaber's research.

Keywords: environmental social governance (ESG), integral design thinking (IDT), organizational transformation, sustainability management

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14802 The Relationship between Creative Imagination and Curriculum

Authors: Faride Hashemiannejad, Shima Oloomi

Abstract:

Imagination is one of the important elements of creative thinking which as a skill needs attention by the educational system. Although most students learn reading, writing, and arithmetic skills well, they lack high level thinking skills like creative thinking. Therefore, in the information age and in the beginning of entry to knowledge-based society, the educational system needs to think over its goals and mission, and concentrate on creativity-based curriculum. From among curriculum elements-goals, content, method and evaluation “method” is a major domain whose reform can pave the way for fostering imagination and creativity. The purpose of this study was examining the relationship between creativity development and curriculum. Research questions were: (1) is there a relationship between the cognitive-emotional structure of the classroom and creativity development? (2) Is there a relationship between the environmental-social structure of the classroom and creativity development? (3) Is there a relationship between the thinking structure of the classroom and creativity development? (4) Is there a relationship between the physical structure of the classroom and creativity development? (5) Is there a relationship between the instructional structure of the classroom and creativity development? Method: This research is a applied research and the research method is Correlational research. Participants: The total number of participants in this study included 894 students from High school through 11th grade from seven schools of seven zones in Mashad city. Sampling Plan: Sampling was selected based on Random Multi State. Measurement: The dependent measure in this study was: (a) the Test of Creative Thinking, (b) The researcher-made questionnaire includes five fragments, cognitive, emotional structure, environmental social structure, thinking structure, physical structure, and instructional structure. The Results Show: There was significant relationship between the cognitive-emotional structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.139). There was significant relationship between the environmental-social structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.006). There was significant relationship between the thinking structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.004). There was not significant relationship between the physical structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.215). There was significant relationship between the instructional structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.003). These findings denote if students feel secure, calm and confident, they can experience creative learning. Also the quality of coping with students’ questions, imaginations and risks can influence on their creativity development.

Keywords: imagination, creativity, curriculum, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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14801 New Wine in an Old Bottle? Zhong-Yong Thinking and Creativity

Authors: Li-Fang CHou, Chun-Jung Tseng, Sung-Chun Tsai

Abstract:

Zhong-Yong represents unique values and cognitive beliefs of Chinese culture. Zhong-Yong thinking emphasizes (a) holistic thinking and perspective taking, (b) tolerance of contradictions, and (c) pursuance of a person’s interpersonal and inner harmony. With a unique way of naïve dialectical thinking based on Chinese culture, previous studies have found that people with higher Zhong-Yong thinking have more cognitive resources and resilience to make decision for dilemmas and cope stresses. Creativity is defined as the behavior to create novel and value products and viewed as the most important capital for individuals and enterprises. However, the relationship between Zhong-Yong thinking and creativity is still remaining to be unexplored. Three studies were conducted to explore the effects of Zhong-Yong thinking on creativity. In Study1, with 87 undergraduate students from a university in southern Taiwan as participants, we used questionnaire to measure Zhong-Yong thinking and processed creative task (unusual uses task) to get indicators of fluency and flexibility. After controlling background and openness to experience of Big five, the results showed that Zhong-Yong thinking had significant positive effects on fluency and flexibility. In Study 2, 97 undergraduate students were recruited to do Zhong-Yong thinking task and creative task. The result showed that, compared with control group, the participants had higher creative performance after being primed with Zhong-Yong thinking. In Study 3, we adopted questionnaire survey and took 397 employees from private enterprises in Taiwan as sample. Besides the main effects of Zhong-Yong thinking, the moderating effects on the relationship between leadership behavior and employee’s creative performance were also investigated. We found that (a) Zhong-Yong thinking was positively associated to creative performance; (b) Zhong-Yong thinking strengthened the positive effects of transformational and authoritative leadership on creative performance. Finally, the implications of theory/practice and limitations/future directions were also discussed.

Keywords: Zhong-Yong thinking, creativity and creative performance, unusual uses task, transformational leadership, authoritative leadership

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14800 Critical Thinking and Creativity of Undergraduate Nursing Students: Descriptive and Disposition in Academic Levels

Authors: Kamolrat Turner, Chularat Howharn

Abstract:

Critical thinking and creativity are desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Nursing colleges in Thailand have developed teaching strategies and curricula that nurture critical thinking and creativity dispositions according academic levels. Objectives: This descriptive study identified critical thinking and creativity dispositions of Thai nursing students according academic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 515 nursing students for four academic levels. All are studying at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri, Thailand. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analysis were applied. Results: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually increased as academic level is rising from the junior year throughout the senior year, but its scores are neutral. Scores on creativity skill is neutral and constant thorough the four academic years. The fourth grade students had slightly higher scores on creativity when compared to others. A significant relationship between critical thinking and creativity was also found. Conclusions: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually improved which greatly increased in the senior year. However, creativity has neutrally progressed. The findings suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching strategies for all grades of nursing students to increase their critical thinking and creativity skills.

Keywords: critical thinking, creativity, undergraduate nursing students, competency

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14799 Enhancing Critical Thinking through a Virtual Learning Environment

Authors: Diana Meeks

Abstract:

The use of a virtual learning environment (VLE), via the Second Life Platform has been a positive experience to enhance critical thinking, for executive graduate nursing practicum students. Due to the interest of faculty and students, the opportunity to immerse students via a virtual learning environment to enhance critical thinking related to the nurse executive role was explored. The College of Nursing realized the potential to enhance critical thinking and incorporated the Second Life, virtual learning environment platform into their graduate nursing program within their executive practicum course. The results from students and faculty regarding this experience have been positive. Students state the VLE platform has enhanced their critical thinking and interaction with peers. To date, course refinement incorporating a Second Life, virtual learning environment for the nurse executive practicum students continues. As a result, a designated subject matter expert has been designated for this course. The development and incorporation of the VLE approach will be presented.

Keywords: nursing, virtual learning environment, critical thinking, VLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
14798 Critical Thinking Skills in Activities Included in 11th Grade Chemistry Textbook - An Analytical Study

Authors: Sozan H. Omar, Luluah A. Al Jabr

Abstract:

The current study aimed to identify critical thinking skills and its level of inclusion in all the activities (44) listed in 11th grade chemistry textbooks. The researcher used a descriptive analytical method by using the content analyzing design. An instrument was created for this purpose and tested for validity and reliability. Results showed that, all activities included critical thinking skills with different ratios as follow: conclusion skill was (87.72%), induction skill was (80.90%), interpretation skill was (77. 72%), discussion of evaluation skill was (68.64%), and assumption skill was (50.45%). Also, the study results indicated that, the level of inclusion of critical thinking skills in the scientific activities was more explicit than implicit with same order as the level of inclusions. In the light of the study's results, the researcher provided some recommendations including the need to provide and redistribute critical thinking skills in the activities listed the chemistry textbook, as well as the need to pay attention to the inclusion level of these skills more implicitly in the activities.

Keywords: critical thinking skills, chemistry textbooks, scientific activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 319