Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Muhammer Karaman

23 The Use of Learning Management Systems during Emerging the Tacit Knowledge

Authors: Ercan Eker, Muhammer Karaman, Akif Aslan, Hakan Tanrikuluoglu


Deficiency of institutional memory and knowledge management can result in information security breaches, loss of prestige and trustworthiness and the worst the loss of know-how and institutional knowledge. Traditional learning management within organizations is generally handled by personal efforts. That kind of struggle mostly depends on personal desire, motivation and institutional belonging. Even if an organization has highly motivated employees at a certain time, the institutional knowledge and memory life cycle will generally remain limited to these employees’ spending time in this organization. Having a learning management system in an organization can sustain the institutional memory, knowledge and know-how in the organization. Learning management systems are much more needed especially in public organizations where the job rotation is frequently seen and managers are appointed periodically. However, a learning management system should not be seen as an organizations’ website. It is a more comprehensive, interactive and user-friendly knowledge management tool for organizations. In this study, the importance of using learning management systems in the process of emerging tacit knowledge is underlined.

Keywords: knowledge management, learning management systems, tacit knowledge, institutional memory

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22 The Flora of Oyukludag and Its Environs Karaman,Turkey

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Mustafa Küçüködük


The flora and it’s plants ethnobotanical features of Oyukludag were investigated between 2003 and 2006 years; 780 herbarium specimens belonging to 448 taxa, 292 genera and 62 families were collected and identified from the area. The families which have the most taxa in research area are Compositae (Asteraceae) 78 (17%), Leguminosae (Fabaceae) 58 (13%), Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) 34 (8%), Labiatae (Lamiaceae) 33 (7%), Gramineae (Poaceae) 29 (6%), Caryophyllaceae 19 (4%), Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) 18 (4%), Boraginaceae 17 (4%), Liliaceae 16 (4%). The number of cultivated plants are 17. The research area is in the district of Konya and is in the C4 square according to the Grid System. The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study area as follows; Iranian-Turanian (18%), Mediterranean (17%) and Euro-Siberian (2%). The phytogeographic regions of 268 (60%) taxa are either multi-regional or unknown. The number of endemic taxa is 56 (12%).

Keywords: flora, Oyukludag, Yellibel, Karaman, Turkey

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21 Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon /Chitosan Composite as Highly Effective and Low-Cost Adsorbent for Adsorption of Methylene Blue

Authors: Onur Karaman, Ceren Karaman


In this study, the adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB), a cationic dye, onto Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon (OPAC) and chitosan(OPAC/Chitosan composite) composite (a low-cost absorbent) was carried out using a batch system. The composite was characterised using IR spectra, XRD, FESEM and Pore size studies. The effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose rate and initial dye concentration on the initial adsorption rate, capacity and dye removal efficiency were investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to define the adsorption equilibrium of dye-adsorbent system mathematically and it was decided that the Langmuir model was more suitable to describe the adsorption equilibrium for the system. In addition, first order, second order and saturation type kinetic models were applied to kinetic data of adsorption and kinetic constants were calculated. It was concluded that the second order and the saturation type kinetic models defined the adsorption data more accurately. Finally, the evaluated thermodynamic parameters of adsorption show a spontaneous and exothermic behavior. Overall, this study indicates OPAC/Chitosan composite as an effective and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MB dye from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chitosan, methylene blue, orange peel

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20 Investigation of the Use of Surface-Modified Waste Orange Pulp for the Adsorption of Remazol Black B

Authors: Ceren Karaman, Onur Karaman


The adsorption of Remazol Black B (RBB), an anionic dye, onto dried orange pulp (DOP) adsorbent prepared by only drying and by treating with cetyltrimetylammonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant, surface-modified orange pulp (SMOP) was studied in a stirred batch experiments system at 25°C. The adsorption of RBB on each adsorbent as a function of surfactant dosage, initial pH of the solution and initial dye concentration was investigated. The optimum amount of CTAB was found to be 25g/l. For RBB adsorption studies, while working pH value for the DOP adsorbent system was determined as 2.0, it was observed that this value shifted to 8.0 when the 25 g/l CTAB treated-orange pulp (SMOP) adsorbent was used. It was obtained that the adsorption rate and capacity increased to a certain value, and the adsorption efficiency decreased with increasing initial RBB concentration for both DOP and SMOP adsorbents at pH 2.0 and pH 8.0. While the highest adsorption capacity for DOP was determined as 62.4 mg/g at pH 2.0, and as 325.0 mg/g for SMOP at pH 8.0. As a result, it can be said that permanent cationic coating of the adsorbent surface by CTAB surfactant shifted the working pH from 2.0 to 8.0 and it increased the dye adsorption rate and capacity of orange pulp much more significantly at pH 8.0. The equilibrium RBB adsorption data on each adsorbent were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of RBB on each adsorbent followed a pseudo-second-order model. Moreover, the intraparticle diffusion model was used to describe the kinetic data. It was found that diffusion is not the only rate controlling step. The adsorbent was characterized by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM). The mechanism for the adsorption of RBB on the SMOP may include hydrophobic interaction, van der Waals interaction, stacking and electrostatic interaction.

Keywords: adsorption, Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB), orange pulp, Remazol Black B (RBB), surface modification

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19 The Effect of Information Technologies on Business Performance: An Application on Small Hotels

Authors: Abdullah Karaman, Kursad Sayin


In this research, which information technologies are used in small hotel businesses, and the information technologies-performance perception of the managers are pointed out. During the research, the questionnaire was prepared and the small scale hotel managers were interviewed face to face and they filled out the questionnaire and the answers acquired were evaluated. As the result of the research, it was obtained that the managers do not care much about the information technologies usage in practice even though they accepted that the information technologies are important in terms of performance.

Keywords: information technologies, managers, performance, small hotels

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18 Investigation of Bremsstrahlung, Braking Radiation from Beta-Emitting Radioactive Sources

Authors: Metin Kömsöken, Ayşe Güneş Tanır, Onur Karaman


Usage of high energy charged particles for diagnosis and treatment has been widespread in medicine. The main purpose is to investigate that Bremsstrahlung which occurs by tissue interactions with charged particles should not be neglected. Nuclear stopping power (Bremsstrahlung) was calculated for lung, brain, skin, muscle, bone (cortical) and water targets for the energies of electrons obtained from LINAC used in radiotherapy and of β+ sources used in positron emission tomography (PET). These calculations were done by using the four different analytical functions including classical Bethe-Bloch, Tsoulfanidis, modified Bethe-Bloch and modified Tsoulfanidis equations. It was concluded that obtained results were compatible with that of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST-ESTAR).

Keywords: β- emitting source, bremsstrahlung, therapeutic radionuclides, LINAC

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17 A Tagging Algorithm in Augmented Reality for Mobile Device Screens

Authors: Doga Erisik, Ahmet Karaman, Gulfem Alptekin, Ozlem Durmaz Incel


Augmented reality (AR) is a type of virtual reality aiming to duplicate real world’s environment on a computer’s video feed. The mobile application, which is built for this project (called SARAS), enables annotating real world point of interests (POIs) that are located near mobile user. In this paper, we aim at introducing a robust and simple algorithm for placing labels in an augmented reality system. The system places labels of the POIs on the mobile device screen whose GPS coordinates are given. The proposed algorithm is compared to an existing one in terms of energy consumption and accuracy. The results show that the proposed algorithm gives better results in energy consumption and accuracy while standing still, and acceptably accurate results when driving. The technique provides benefits to AR browsers with its open access algorithm. Going forward, the algorithm will be improved to more rapidly react to position changes while driving.

Keywords: accurate tagging algorithm, augmented reality, localization, location-based AR

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16 Determination of Some Etiologic Agents in Calves with Diarrhea

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici, Oguzhan Avci


The aim of this study was to determination of role infection in neonatal calves in Central Anatolian, Turkey. A total 300 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic neonatal calves, aged between 0–90 days from Konya, Karaman, and Aksaray from January to April 2014. Fecal specimens from calves with clinically diarrheic symptoms were examined for the presence of Bovine Coronavirus, Bovine Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium sp., and E. coli by commercially available capture direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and Modified Ziehl Neelsen method (MZN). Calves were grouped according to their age as follows: 1-14, 15-29, and 30-90 days. Cryptosporidium sp. infection was detected in 52.8%, 58.8%, and 39.2% by ELISA and 33.9%, 47%, 26.7% by MZN in the respective age groups. The seroprevalance of Rotavirus (12.5 %, 40 %, 12.5 %), Coronavirus (2.5%, 0%, 3.5%) and E. coli (5%, 4.7%, 8.9%) infections were determined according to the age groups respectively. Cryptosporidium sp. was the most detected enteropathogen (52 %) of calves and coronavirus was the least detected (2 %). The detection rate of the mixed enfection was 12.3%. In conclusion, it must be evaluated by mix infections in calves with diarrhea. These results will provide an important contribution against the factors that cause diarrhea

Keywords: cryptosporidium sp., bovine coronavirus, bovine rotavirus, E.coli, calve, ELISA

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15 Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: L. Koštić, P. Karaman


Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine their attitudes towards their classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school were asked to make drawings of their classmates with disabilities. The drawings were analyzed using quantitative methodology according to the colors children used and the position of character on the paper. Students attending high school and members of general population were asked to complete a questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: classmates, disability, students, tolerance

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14 Spatial Distribution of Local Sheep Breeds in Antalya Province

Authors: Serife Gulden Yilmaz, Suleyman Karaman


Sheep breeding is important in terms of meeting both the demand of red meat consumption and the availability of industrial raw materials and the employment of the rural sector in Turkey. It is also very important to ensure the selection and continuity of the breeds that are raised in order to increase quality and productive products related to sheep breeding. The protection of local breeds and crossbreds also enables the development of the sector in the region and the reduction of imports. In this study, the data were obtained from the records of the Turkish Statistical Institute and Antalya Sheep & Goat Breeders' Association. Spatial distribution of sheep breeds in Antalya is reviewed statistically in terms of concentration at the local level for 2015 period spatially. For this reason; mapping, box plot, linear regression are used in this study. Concentration is introduced by means of studbook data on sheep breeding as locals and total sheep farm by mapping. It is observed that Pırlak breed (17.5%) and Merinos crossbreed (16.3%) have the highest concentration in the region. These breeds are respectively followed by Akkaraman breed (11%), Pirlak crossbreed (8%), Merinos breed (7.9%) Akkaraman crossbreed (7.9%) and Ivesi breed (7.2%).

Keywords: sheep breeds, local, spatial distribution, agglomeration, Antalya

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13 Public and Private Spaces Producing Social Connectedness in Traditional Environment: A Study on Old Medina District of Casablanca

Authors: Asmaa Sokrat, Aykut Karaman


Public and private spaces are major components of the morphology of the city. This research aims to study the interactions between public and private domains in terms of urban space in Casablanca. The research focuses on a general vision of a socio-spatial issue. It plans to identify the public, private, and transition (semi-public, semi-private) spaces as the constituent of the urban space. Moreover, the study investigates the link between public and private spaces with the social dimensions. Additionally, the research argues that the public space is a place of social interaction; as a reflection, this interaction is the intersection between urban space and social connectedness. Besides, social interaction can be the key to distinguishing between the public and private spheres. The methodological approach of the research is based on the literature review and field study. The article is targeting a case study on the old Medina of Casablanca, from daily use of the public and private spaces, the urban tissue, and the urban space types. In conclusion, the research exhibits that a public space could influence the privacy of the residents of a local urban area; thus, this privacy is inverted on the social interaction. This social interaction is the link between the urban space and social connectedness. Hence, this equation affects the typology of the private space.

Keywords: public sphere, private sphere, social connectedness, old Medina of Casablanca

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12 Neutron Contamination in 18 MV Medical Linear Accelerator

Authors: Onur Karaman, A. Gunes Tanir


Photon radiation therapy used to treat cancer is one of the most important methods. However, photon beam collimator materials in Linear Accelerator (LINAC) head generally contains heavy elements is used and the interaction of bremsstrahlung photon with such heavy nuclei, the neutron can be produced inside the treatment rooms. In radiation therapy, neutron contamination contributes to the risk of secondary malignancies in patients, also physicians working in this field. Since the neutron is more dangerous than photon, it is important to determine neutron dose during radiotherapy treatment. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the effect of field size, distance from axis and depth on the amount of in-field and out-field neutron contamination for ElektaVmat accelerator with 18 MV nominal energy. The photon spectra at the distance of 75, 150, 225, 300 cm from target and on the isocenter of beam were scored for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40 cm2 fields. Results demonstrated that the neutron spectra and dose are dependent on field size and distances. Beyond 225 cm of isocenter, the dependence of the neutron dose on field size is minimal. As a result, it is concluded that as the open field increases, neutron dose determined decreases. It is important to remember that when treating with high energy photons, the dose from contamination neutrons must be considered as it is much greater than the photon dose.

Keywords: radiotherapy, neutron contamination, linear accelerators, photon

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11 Chemical Partitioning of Trace Metals in Sub-Surface Sediments of Lake Acigol, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, D. Kiran, Z. Doner, B. Zeytuncu, B. Tanç, M. Kumral


Lake Acıgöl is one of the large saline lacustrine environment in Turkey. Eleven trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and As) in 9 surface and subsurface sediment samples from the Lake Acıgöl were analyzed with the bulk and sequential extraction analysis methods by ICP-MS to obtain the metal distribution patterns in this extreme environment. Five stepped sequential extraction technique (1- exchangeable, 2- bond to carbonates, 3- bond to iron and manganese oxides/hydroxides, 4- bond to organic matter and sulphides, and 5- residual fraction incorporated into clay and silicate mineral lattices) was used to characterize the various forms of metals in the <63μ size sediments. The metal contents (ppm) and their percentages for each extraction step were reported and compared with the results obtained from the total digestion. Results indicate that sum of the four fraction are in good agreement with the total digestion results of Ni, Cd, As, Zn, Cu and Fe with the satisfactory recoveries (94.04–109.0%) and the method used is reliable and repeatable for these elements. It was found that there were high correlations between Fe vs. Ni loads in the fraction of F2 and F4 with R2= 0,91 and 0,81, respectively. Comparison of totally 135 chemical analysis results in three sampling location and for 5 fraction between Fe-Co, Co-Ni and Fe-Ni element couples were presented elevated correlations with R2=0,98, 0,92 and 0,91, respectively.

Keywords: Lake Acigol, sequancial extraction, recent lake sediment, geochemical speciation of heavy metals

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10 Geochemical Approach of Rare Earth Element Distribution: A Case Study from Lake Acigol, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, D. Kiran, M. Kumral


About 50 mg lake sediment was digested in two steps. While first stage was completed with 6 ml 37% HCl, 2 ml 65% HNO3 and 1 ml 38-40% HF in an pressure and temperature controlled Teflon beaker using Berghoff Microwave™ at average 135°C, digestion procedure was completed with the addition of 6 ml 5% boric acid solution. REE contents of sediment samples were determined by Perkin Elmer DRC II ICP-MS in Geochemistry Research Laboratories (JAL/GRL) of Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of Lake Acıgöl sediments show generally high abundance of REE compared to chondritic concentrations, with particular enrichment in LREE [(La/Lu)N = 4.85-19.90], [(La/Lu)N = 7.09-15.14], [(La/Lu)N = 9.42-15.52] and [(La/Lu)N = 7.69-15.63] for the surface sediment and 0-10 cm-, 10-20 cm- and 20-30 cm-subsurface sediments respectively. Also these samples showed flat HREE normalized to chondrite as (La/Sm)N ranging from 2.98 to 4.8 for surface sediments and for subsurface sediments from 3.28 to 3.97 (0-10 cm), 3.57 to 3.94 (10-20 cm) and 3.36 to 3.94 (20-30 cm) while (Gd/Yb)N ranging from 2.14 to 2.93, from 2.03 to 2.76, from 2.26 to 2.79 and from 2.05 to 2.76 from the surface and subsurface sediments respectively. Moreover, their REE profiles are similar to profiles of the continental collision basin (CCB) with negative Eu anomalies. In addition, their REE patterns illustrate generally low abundance of REE compared to concentrations of NASC, PAAS and UCC with very slight enrichment of LREE and positive Eu* anomalies. Therefore there is no comparable between our samples of surface and subsurface sediments and these types of international sediments.

Keywords: chondrite-normalized REE patterns, hypersaline lake, surface sediments, subsurface sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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9 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral


The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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8 Cyber Operational Design and Military Decision Making Process

Authors: M. Karaman, H. Catalkaya


Due to the complex nature of cyber attacks and their effects ranging from personal to governmental level, it becomes one of the priority tasks for operation planners to take into account the risks, influences and effects of cyber attacks. However it can also be embedded or integrated technically with electronic warfare planning, cyber operation planning is needed to have a sole and broadened perspective. This perspective embodies itself firstly in operational design and then military decision making process. In order to find out the ill-structured problems, understand or visualize the operational environment and frame the problem, operational design can help support cyber operation planners and commanders. After having a broadened and conceptual startup with cyber operational design, military decision making process will follow the principles of design into more concrete elements like reaching results after risk management and center of gravity analysis of our and the enemy. In this paper we tried to emphasize the importance of cyber operational design, cyber operation planning and its integration to military decision making problem. In this foggy, uncertain and unaccountable cyber security environment, it is inevitable to stay away from cyber attacks. Therefore, a cyber operational design should be formed with line of operations, decisive points and end states in cyber then a tactical military decision making process should be followed with cyber security focus in order to support the whole operation.

Keywords: cyber operational design, military decision making process (MDMP), operation planning, end state

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7 The Views of Teachers, Students and Parents on the FATIH Project

Authors: Şemsettin Şahin, Ahmet Oğuz Aktürk, İsmail Çelik


This study investigated the views of teachers, students and students' parents on the FATIH (Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technology) Project, which was put into service by the Ministry of National Education in cooperation with the Ministry of Transportation in Turkey in November 2010 for the purpose of increasing students' success and planned to be completed within 5 years. The study group consisted of teachers employed in a pilot school in the province of Karaman in central Turkey included within the scope of the FATIH Project, students attending this school and parents whose children are students in that school. The research data were collected through forms developed by the researchers to determine the views of teachers, students and students' parents on the FATIH Project. The descriptive analysis method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. An analysis of the data revealed that a large majority of the teachers and the students believed that if computers were used to serve their set purpose, then they could make considerable contributions to education. A large majority of the students' parents, on the other hand, regard the use of computers in education as a great opportunity for the students. The views of the teachers, students and students' parents on the FATIH Project usually overlap. Most of the participants in the study pointed out that the FATIH Project was intended to use technology effectively in education. Moreover, each individual participant described their role in the FATIH Project in accordance with their relative position and stated that they could perform whatever was expected of them for the effective and efficient use and progress of the project. The views of the participants regarding the FATİH Project vary according to the kind of the participants.

Keywords: education, FATIH project, technology, students

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6 Porphyry Cu-Mo-(Au) Mineralization at Paraga Area, Nakhchivan District, Azerbaijan: Evidence from Mineral Paragenesis, Hyrothermal Alteration and Geochemical Studies

Authors: M. Kumral, A. Abdelnasser, M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, D. K. Yildirim, Z. Doner, A. Bostanci


The Paraga area is located at the extreme eastern part of Nakhchivan district at the boundary with Armenia. The field study is situated at Ordubad region placed in 9 km from Paraga village and stays at 2300-2800 m height over sea level. It lies within a region of low-grade metamorphic porphyritic volcanic and plutonic rocks. The detailed field studies revealed that this area composed mainly of metagabbro-diorite intrusive rocks with porphyritic character emplaced into meta-andesitic rocks. This complex is later intruded by unmapped olivine gabbroic rocks. The Cu-Mo-(Au) mineralization at Paraga deposit is vein-type mineralization that is essentially related to quartz veins stockwork which cut the dioritic rocks and concentrated at the eastern and northeastern parts of the area with different directions N80W, N25W, N70E and N45E. Also, this mineralization is associated with two shearing zones directed N75W and N15E. The host porphyritic rocks were affected by intense sulfidation, carbonatization, sericitization and silicification with pervasive hematitic alterations accompanied with mineralized quartz veins and quartz-carbonate veins. Sulfide minerals which are chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and sphalerite occurred in two cases either inside these mineralized quartz veins or disseminated in the highly altered rocks as well as molybdenite and also at the peripheries between the altered host rock and veins. Gold found as inclusion disseminated in arsenopyrite and pyrite as well as in their cracks.

Keywords: porphyry Cu-Mo-(Au), Paraga area, Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan, paragenesis, hyrothermal alteration

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5 Artificial Neural Network Based Approach in Prediction of Potential Water Pollution Across Different Land-Use Patterns

Authors: M.Rüştü Karaman, İsmail İşeri, Kadir Saltalı, A.Reşit Brohi, Ayhan Horuz, Mümin Dizman


Considerable relations has recently been given to the environmental hazardous caused by agricultural chemicals such as excess fertilizers. In this study, a neural network approach was investigated in the prediction of potential nitrate pollution across different land-use patterns by using a feedforward multilayered computer model of artificial neural network (ANN) with proper training. Periodical concentrations of some anions, especially nitrate (NO3-), and cations were also detected in drainage waters collected from the drain pipes placed in irrigated tomato field, unirrigated wheat field, fallow and pasture lands. The soil samples were collected from the irrigated tomato field and unirrigated wheat field on a grid system with 20 m x 20 m intervals. Site specific nitrate concentrations in the soil samples were measured for ANN based simulation of nitrate leaching potential from the land profiles. In the application of ANN model, a multi layered feedforward was evaluated, and data sets regarding with training, validation and testing containing the measured soil nitrate values were estimated based on spatial variability. As a result of the testing values, while the optimal structures of 2-15-1 was obtained (R2= 0.96, P < 0.01) for unirrigated field, the optimal structures of 2-10-1 was obtained (R2= 0.96, P < 0.01) for irrigated field. The results showed that the ANN model could be successfully used in prediction of the potential leaching levels of nitrate, based on different land use patterns. However, for the most suitable results, the model should be calibrated by training according to different NN structures depending on site specific soil parameters and varied agricultural managements.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ANN, drainage water, nitrate pollution

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4 Derivation of Bathymetry Data Using Worldview-2 Multispectral Images in Shallow, Turbid and Saline Lake Acıgöl

Authors: Muhittin Karaman, Murat Budakoglu


In this study, derivation of lake bathymetry was evaluated using the high resolution Worldview-2 multispectral images in the very shallow hypersaline Lake Acıgöl which does not have a stable water table due to the wet-dry season changes and industrial usage. Every year, a great part of the lake water budget has been consumed for the industrial salt production in the evaporation ponds, which are generally located on the south and north shores of Lake Acıgöl. Therefore, determination of the water level changes from a perspective of remote sensing-based lake water by bathymetry studies has a great importance in the sustainability-control of the lake. While the water table interval is around 1 meter between dry and wet season, dissolved ion concentration, salinity and turbidity also show clear differences during these two distinct seasonal periods. At the same time, with the satellite data acquisition (June 9, 2013), a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values, Secchi disk depths and turbidity levels. Max depth, Secchi disk depth and salinity were determined as 1,7 m, 0,9 m and 43,11 ppt, respectively. Eight-band Worldview-2 image was corrected for atmospheric effects by ATCOR technique. For each sampling point in the image, mean reflectance values in 1*1, 3*3, 5*5, 7*7, 9*9, 11*11, 13*13, 15*15, 17*17, 19*19, 21*21, 51*51 pixel reflectance neighborhoods were calculated separately. A unique image has been derivated for each matrix resolution. Spectral values and depth relation were evaluated for these distinct resolution images. Correlation coefficients were determined for the 1x1 matrix: 0,98, 0,96, 0,95 and 0,90 for the 724 nm, 831 nm, 908 nm and 659 nm, respectively. While 15x5 matrix characteristics with 0,98, 0,97 and 0,97 correlation values for the 724 nm, 908 nm and 831 nm, respectively; 51x51 matrix shows 0,98, 0,97 and 0,96 correlation values for the 724 nm, 831 nm and 659 nm, respectively. Comparison of all matrix resolutions indicates that RedEdge band (724 nm) of the Worldview-2 satellite image has the best correlation with the saline shallow lake of Acıgöl in-situ depth.

Keywords: bathymetry, Worldview-2 satellite image, ATCOR technique, Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey

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3 Enabling Socio Cultural Sustainability of the "Thousand and One Churches" Archaeological Site

Authors: E. Erdogan, M. Ulusoy


In terms of tourism, the concept of sustainability can be defined as preserving and developing natural, historical, cultural, social, and aesthetic values and enabling their permanency. Sustainable tourism aims to preserve natural, historical, cultural, and social resources, also by supporting economic progress protecting economic development and environmental values that emerge as a consequence of tourism activities. Cultural tourism feeds on sustainable cultural treasures inherently and is the most effective touristic activity. Traditional configurations and structural characteristics play an important role in generating cultural tourism in a region. Sustainable cultural tourism is related to trips upon people who embark with the aim of visiting culturally rich regions, learning about and observing fast-disappearing lifestyles and collecting cultural values as memories. With its huge tourism potential, Karadağ is the most significant cultural asset of the Karaman province, possessing unique riches in terms of cultural world history. Host to one of the most important Byzantine cities in Anatolia, Karadağ is like an open-air museum with its unparalleled architectural structures. There is a village named Madenşehir in the plain at the outskirts of Karadağ, near to which are located the “Thousand and One Churches” ruins. The 80-household house is located near the ruins in an area that been declared a 1st degree historic preservation district. stones gathered from local churches were used in the construction of these households. A ministry has assigned a new residential site near the boundaries of the 2nd degree preservation district, and the decision has been made to move the occupants to this area. The most important issue here is to enable locals’ sociocultural and socioeconomic sustainability. It is also important to build these structures in a manner compatible with the historical visual look, ecological system and environmental awareness. Therefore this new site will be planned as touristic area in terms of sustainable cultural tourism and in these new plans, shall fulfill functions oriented toward both tourists and locals. It is very important that this change be sustainable and also support cultural tourism.

Keywords: cultural tourism, new village settlement, socio cultural sustainability, “thousand and one churches” site

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2 Vertical and Horizantal Distribution Patterns of Major and Trace Elements: Surface and Subsurface Sediments of Endhorheic Lake Acigol Basin, Denizli Turkey

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman


Lake Acıgöl is located in area with limited influences from urban and industrial pollution sources, there is nevertheless a need to understand all potential lithological and anthropogenic sources of priority contaminants in this closed basin. This study discusses vertical and horizontal distribution pattern of major, trace elements of recent lake sediments to better understand their current geochemical analog with lithological units in the Lake Acıgöl basin. This study also provides reliable background levels for the region by the detailed surfaced lithological units data. The detail results of surface, subsurface and shallow core sediments from these relatively unperturbed ecosystems, highlight its importance as conservation area, despite the high-scale industrial salt production activity. While P2O5/TiO2 versus MgO/CaO classification diagram indicate magmatic and sedimentary origin of lake sediment, Log(SiO2/Al2O3) versus Log(Na2O/K2O) classification diagrams express lithological assemblages of shale, iron-shale, vacke and arkose. The plot between TiO2 vs. SiO2 and P2O5/TiO2 vs. MgO/CaO also supports the origin of the primary magma source. The average compositions of the 20 different lithological units used as a proxy for geochemical background in the study area. As expected from weathered rock materials, there is a large variation in the major element content for all analyzed lake samples. The A-CN-K and A-CNK-FM ternary diagrams were used to deduce weathering trends. Surface and subsurface sediments display an intense weathering history according to these ternary diagrams. The most of the sediments samples plot around UCC and TTG, suggesting a low to moderate weathering history for the provenance. The sediments plot in a region clearly suggesting relative similar contents in Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, and K2O from those of lithological samples.

Keywords: Lake Acıgöl, recent lake sediment, geochemical speciation of major and trace elements, heavy metals, Denizli, Turkey

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1 Enhanced Performance of Supercapacitor Based on Boric Acid Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol-H₂SO₄ Gel Polymer Electrolyte System

Authors: Hamide Aydin, Banu Karaman, Ayhan Bozkurt, Umran Kurtan


Recently, Proton Conducting Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) have drawn much attention in supercapacitor applications due to their physical and electrochemical characteristics and stability conditions for low temperatures. In this research, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE has been used for electric-double layer capacitor (EDLCs) application, in which electrospun free-standing carbon nanofibers are used as electrodes. Introduced PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE behaves as both separator and the electrolyte in the supercapacitor. Symmetric Swagelok cells including GPEs were assembled via using two electrode arrangements and the electrochemical properties were searched. Electrochemical performance studies demonstrated that PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE had a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 134 F g-1 and showed great capacitance retention (%100) after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE yielded an energy density of 67 Wh kg-1 with a corresponding power density of 1000 W kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. PVA-H2SO4 based polymer electrolyte was produced according to following procedure; Firstly, 1 g of commercial PVA was dissolved in distilled water at 90°C and stirred until getting transparent solution. This was followed by addition of the diluted H2SO4 (1 g of H2SO4 in a distilled water) to the solution to obtain PVA-H2SO4. PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 based polymer electrolyte was produced by dissolving H3BO3 in hot distilled water and then inserted into the PVA-H2SO4 solution. The mole fraction was arranged to ¼ of the PVA repeating unit. After the stirring 2 h at RT, gel polymer electrolytes were obtained. The final electrolytes for supercapacitor testing included 20% of water in weight. Several blending combinations of PVA/H2SO4 and H3BO3 were studied to observe the optimized combination in terms of conductivity as well as electrolyte stability. As the amount of boric acid increased in the matrix, excess sulfuric acid was excluded due to cross linking, especially at lower solvent content. This resulted in the reduction of proton conductivity. Therefore, the mole fraction of H3BO3 was chosen as ¼ of PVA repeating unit. Within this optimized limits, the polymer electrolytes showed better conductivities as well as stability.

Keywords: electrical double layer capacitor, energy density, gel polymer electrolyte, ultracapacitor

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