Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2198

Search results for: cutting force

2198 A Method to Determine Cutting Force Coefficients in Turning Using Mechanistic Approach

Authors: T. C. Bera, A. Bansal, D. Nema


During performing turning operation, cutting force plays a significant role in metal cutting process affecting tool-work piece deflection, vibration and eventually part quality. The present research work aims to develop a mechanistic cutting force model and to study the mechanistic constants used in the force model in case of turning operation. The proposed model can be used for the reliable and accurate estimation of the cutting forces establishing relationship of various force components (cutting force and feed force) with uncut chip thickness. The accurate estimation of cutting force is required to improve thin-walled part accuracy by controlling the tool-work piece deflection induced surface errors and tool-work piece vibration.

Keywords: turning, cutting forces, cutting constants, uncut chip thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
2197 Method and Experiment of Fabricating and Cutting the Burr for Y Shape Nanochannel

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Shih-Hung Ma


The present paper proposes using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) to establish a method for fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel on silicon (Si) substrate. For fabricating Y shape nanochannel, it first makes the experimental cutting path planning for fabricating Y shape nanochannel until the fifth cutting layer. Using the constant down force by AFM and SDFE theory and following the experimental cutting path planning, the cutting depth and width of each pass of Y shape nanochannel can be predicted by simulation. The paper plans the path for cutting the burr at the edge of Y shape nanochannel. Then, it carries out cutting the burr along the Y nanochannel edge by using a smaller down force. The height of standing burr at the edge is required to be below the set value of 0.54 nm. The results of simulation and experiment of fabricating and cutting the burr for Y shape nanochannel is further compared.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanochannel, specific down force energy (SDFE), Y shape, burr, silicon

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
2196 Application of Taguchi Techniques on Machining of A356/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Nano-Composite

Authors: Abdallah M. Abdelkawy, Tarek M. El Hossainya, I. El Mahallawib


Recently, significant achievements have been made in development and manufacturing of nano-dispersed metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs). They gain their importance due to their high strength to weight ratio. The machining problems of these new materials are less widely investigated, thus this work focuses on machining of them. Aluminum-Silicon (A356)/ MMNC dispersed with alumina (Al2O3) is important in many applications include engine blocks. The final finish process of this application depends heavily on machining. The most important machining parameter studied includes: cutting force and surface roughness. Experimental trails are performed on the number of special samples of MMNC (with different Al2O3%) where the relation between Al2O3% and cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth with cutting force and surface roughness were studied. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to define the significant factors on both cutting force and surface roughness and their level of confident. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to build a model relating cutting conditions and Al2O3% to the cutting force and surface roughness. The results have shown that feed and depth of cut have the major contribution on the cutting force and the surface roughness followed by cutting speed and nano-percent in MMNCs.

Keywords: machinability, cutting force, surface roughness, Ra, RSM, ANOVA, MMNCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2195 Neural Network Monitoring Strategy of Cutting Tool Wear of Horizontal High Speed Milling

Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa


The wear of cutting tool degrades the quality of the product in the manufacturing processes. The online monitoring of the cutting tool wear level is very necessary to prevent the deterioration of the quality of machining. Unfortunately there is not a direct manner to measure the cutting tool wear online. Consequently we must adopt an indirect method where wear will be estimated from the measurement of one or more physical parameters appearing during the machining process such as the cutting force, the vibrations, or the acoustic emission etc. In this work, a neural network system is elaborated in order to estimate the flank wear from the cutting force measurement and the cutting conditions.

Keywords: flank wear, cutting forces, high speed milling, signal processing, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2194 Investigations in Machining of Hot Work Tool Steel with Mixed Ceramic Tool

Authors: B. Varaprasad, C. Srinivasa Rao


Hard turning has been explored as an alternative to the conventional one used for manufacture of Parts using tool steels. In the present study, the effects of cutting speed, feed rate and Depth of Cut (DOC) on cutting forces, specific cutting force, power and surface roughness in the hard turning are experimentally investigated. Experiments are carried out using mixed ceramic(Al2O3+TiC) cutting tool of corner radius 0.8mm, in turning operations on AISI H13 tool steel, heat treated to a hardness of 62 HRC. Based on Design of Experiments (DOE), a total of 20 tests are carried out. The range of each one of the three parameters is set at three different levels, viz, low, medium and high. The validity of the model is checked by Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Predicted models are derived from regression analysis. Comparison of experimental and predicted values of specific cutting force, power and surface roughness shows that good agreement has been achieved between them. Therefore, the developed model may be recommended to be used for predicting specific cutting force, power and surface roughness in hard turning of tool steel that is AISI H13 steel.

Keywords: hard turning, specific cutting force, power, surface roughness, AISI H13, mixed ceramic

Procedia PDF Downloads 620
2193 An Efficient Approach for Shear Behavior Definition of Plant Stalk

Authors: M. R. Kamandar, J. Massah


The information of the impact cutting behavior of plants stalk plays an important role in the design and fabrication of plants cutting equipment. It is difficult to investigate a theoretical method for defining cutting properties of plants stalks because the cutting process is complex. Thus, it is necessary to set up an experimental approach to determine cutting parameters for a single stalk. To measure the shear force, shear energy and shear strength of plant stalk, a special impact cutting tester was fabricated. It was similar to an Izod impact cutting tester for metals but a cutting blade and data acquisition system were attached to the end of pendulum's arm. The apparatus was included four strain gages and a digital indicator to show the real-time cutting force of plant stalk. To measure the shear force and also testing the apparatus, two plants’ stalks, like buxus and privet, were selected. The samples (buxus and privet stalks) were cut under impact cutting process at four loading rates 1, 2, 3 and 4 m.s-1 and three internodes fifth, tenth and fifteenth by the apparatus. At buxus cutting analysis: the minimum value of cutting energy was obtained at fifth internode and loading rate 4 m.s-1 and the maximum value of shear energy was obtained at fifteenth internode and loading rate 1 m.s-1. At privet cutting analysis: the minimum value of shear consumption energy was obtained at fifth internode and loading rate: 4 m.s-1 and the maximum value of shear energy was obtained at fifteenth internode and loading rate: 1 m.s-1. The statistical analysis at both plants showed that the increase of impact cutting speed would decrease the shear consumption energy and shear strength. In two scenarios, the results showed that with increase the cutting speed, shear force would decrease.

Keywords: Buxus, Privet, impact cutting, shear energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
2192 Experimental Studies on the Effect of Rake Angle on Turning Ti-6Al-4V with TiAlN Coated Carbides

Authors: Satyanarayana Kosaraju, Venu Gopal Anne, Sateesh Nagari


In this paper, the effect of cutting speed, feedrate and rake angle in tool geometry on cutting forces and temperature generated on the tool tip in turning were investigated. The data used for the investigation derived from experiments conducted on precision lathe according to the full factorial design to observe the effect of each factor level on the process performance. During the tests, depth of cut were kept constant and each test was conducted with a sharp coated tool insert. Ti-6Al-4V was used as the workpiece material. The effects of cutting parameters and tool geometry on cutting forces and tool tip temperature were analyzed. The main cutting force was observed to have a decreasing trend and temperature found to be increasing trend as the rake angle increased.

Keywords: cutting force, tool tip temperature, rake angle, machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
2191 Machining Responce of Austempered Ductile Iron with Varying Cutting Speed and Depth of Cut

Authors: Prashant Parhad, Vinayak Dakre, Ajay Likhite, Jatin Bhatt


This work mainly focuses on machinability studies of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI). The Ductile Iron (DI) was austempered at 250 oC for different durations and the process window for austempering was established by studying the microstructure. The microstructural characterization of the material was done using optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. The samples austempered as per the process window were then subjected to turning using a TiAlN-coated tungsten carbide insert to study the effect of cutting parameters, namely the cutting speed and the depth of cut. The effect was investigated in terms of cutting forces required as well as the surface roughness obtained. The turning was conducted on a CNC turning machine and primary (Fx), radial (Fy) and feed (Fz) cutting forces were quantified with a three-component dynamometer. It was observed that the magnitude of radial force was more than that of primary cutting force for all cutting speed and for various depths of cut studied. It has also been seen that increasing the cutting speed improves the surface quality. The observed machinability behaviour was investigated in light of the microstructure of the material obtained under the given austempering conditions and a structure-property- co-relation was established between the two. For all cutting speed and depth of cut, the best machining response in terms of cutting forces and surface quality was obtained towards the centre of process window.

Keywords: process window, cutting speed, depth of cut, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
2190 Parametric Study and Modelling of Orthogonal Cutting Process for AISI 4340 and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Purnank Bhatt, Mit Shah, Pawan Nagda, Vimal Jasoliya


The influence of parameters like velocity and depth of cut on cutting forces is investigated for the empirical relation of the coefficient of friction derived for CRS 1018 for different materials like AISI 4340 and Ti6Al4V. For this purpose, turning tests were carried out on the above materials using coated cemented carbide tool inserts for steel grade and uncoated cemented carbide cutting tool inserts for Titanium with different chip breaker geometries. The cutting forces were measured using a Kistler dynamometer where the multiplication factor taken is 200.The effect of cutting force variation was analyzed experimentally and are compared with the analytical results.

Keywords: cutting forces, coefficient of friction, carbide tool inserts, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
2189 Analysis of Delamination in Drilling of Composite Materials

Authors: Navid Zarif Karimi, Hossein Heidary, Giangiacomo Minak, Mehdi Ahmadi


In this paper analytical model based on the mechanics of oblique cutting, linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and bending plate theory has been presented to determine the critical feed rate causing delamination in drilling of composite materials. Most of the models in this area used LEFM and bending plate theory; hence, they can only determine the critical thrust force which is an incorporable parameter. In this model by adding cutting oblique mechanics to previous models, critical feed rate has been determined. Also instead of simplification in loading condition, actual thrust force induced by chisel edge and cutting lips on composite plate is modeled.

Keywords: composite material, delamination, drilling, thrust force

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
2188 Simulating Drilling Using a CAD System

Authors: Panagiotis Kyratsis, Konstantinos Kakoulis


Nowadays, the rapid development of CAD systems’ programming environments results in the creation of multiple downstream applications, which are developed and becoming increasingly available. CAD based manufacturing simulations is gradually following the same trend. Drilling is the most popular hole-making process used in a variety of industries. A specially built piece of software that deals with the drilling kinematics is presented. The cutting forces are calculated based on the tool geometry, the cutting conditions and the tool/work piece materials. The results are verified by experimental work. Finally, the response surface methodology (RSM) is applied and mathematical models of the total thrust force and the thrust force developed because of the main cutting edges are proposed.

Keywords: CAD, application programming interface, response surface methodology, drilling, RSM

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
2187 Analysis of Rock Cutting Progress with a New Axe-Shaped PDC Cutter to Improve PDC Bit Performance in Elastoplastic Formation

Authors: Fangyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao


Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have occupied a large market of unconventional oil and gas drilling. The application of PDC bits benefits from the efficient rock breaking of PDC cutters. In response to increasingly complex formations, many shaped cutters have been invited, but many of them have not been solved by the mechanism of rock breaking. In this paper, two kinds of PDC cutters: a new axe-shaped (NAS) cutter and cylindrical cutter (benchmark) were studied by laboratory experiments. NAS cutter is obtained by optimizing two sides of axe-shaped cutter with curved surfaces. All the cutters were put on a vertical turret lathe (VTL) in the laboratory for cutting tests. According to the cutting distance, the VTL tests can be divided into two modes: single-turn rotary cutting and continuous cutting. The cutting depth of cutting (DOC) was set at 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm in the former mode. The later mode includes a dry VTL test for thermal stability and a wet VTL test for wear resistance. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively. Based on the findings of the single-turn rotary cutting VTL tests, the performance of A NAS cutter was better than the benchmark cutter on elastoplastic material cutting. The cutting forces (normal forces, tangential force, and radial force) and special mechanical energy (MSE) of a NAS cutter were lower than that of the benchmark cutter under the same condition. It meant that a NAS cutter was more efficient on elastoplastic material breaking. However, the wear resistance of a new axe-shaped cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The results of the dry VTL test showed that the thermal stability of a NAS cutter was higher than that of a benchmark cutter. The cutting efficiency can be improved by optimizing the geometric structure of the PDC cutter. The change of thermal stability may be caused by the decrease of the contact area between cutter and rock at given DOC. The conclusions of this paper can be used as an important reference for PDC cutters designers.

Keywords: axe-shaped cutter, PDC cutter, rotary cutting test, vertical turret lathe

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
2186 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Ball-End Milling Process upon Residual Stresses and Cutting Forces

Authors: Belkacem Chebil Sonia, Bensalem Wacef


The majority of ball end milling models includes only the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut). Furthermore, this influence is studied in most of works on cutting force. Therefore, this study proposes an accurate ball end milling process modeling which includes also the influence of tool workpiece inclination. In addition, a characterization of residual stresses resulting of thermo mechanical loading in the workpiece was also presented. Moreover, the study of the influence of tool workpiece inclination and cutting parameters was made on residual stresses distribution. In order to achieve the predetermination of cutting forces and residual stresses during a milling operation, a thermo mechanical three-dimensional numerical model of ball end milling was developed. Furthermore, an experimental companion of ball end milling tests was realized on a 5-axis machining center to determine the cutting forces and characterize the residual stresses. The simulation results are compared with the experiment to validate the Finite Element Model and subsequently identify the optimum inclination angle and cutting parameters.

Keywords: ball end milling, cutting forces, cutting parameters, residual stress, tool-workpiece inclination

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
2185 Machinability Analysis in Drilling Flax Fiber-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Bio-Composite Laminates

Authors: Amirhossein Lotfi, Huaizhong Li, Dzung Viet Dao


Interest in natural fiber-reinforced composites (NFRC) is progressively growing both in terms of academia research and industrial applications thanks to their abundant advantages such as low cost, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and relatively good mechanical properties. However, their widespread use is still presumed as challenging because of the specificity of their non-homogeneous structure, limited knowledge on their machinability characteristics and parameter settings, to avoid defects associated with the machining process. The present work is aimed to investigate the effect of the cutting tool geometry and material on the drilling-induced delamination, thrust force and hole quality produced when drilling a fully biodegradable flax/poly (lactic acid) composite laminate. Three drills with different geometries and material were used at different drilling conditions to evaluate the machinability of the fabricated composites. The experimental results indicated that the choice of cutting tool, in terms of material and geometry, has a noticeable influence on the cutting thrust force and subsequently drilling-induced damages. The lower value of thrust force and better hole quality was observed using high-speed steel (HSS) drill, whereas Carbide drill (with point angle of 130o) resulted in the highest value of thrust force. Carbide drill presented higher wear resistance and stability in variation of thrust force with a number of holes drilled, while HSS drill showed the lower value of thrust force during the drilling process. Finally, within the selected cutting range, the delamination damage increased noticeably with feed rate and moderately with spindle speed.

Keywords: natural fiber reinforced composites, delamination, thrust force, machinability

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
2184 Effect of Vegetable Oil Based Nanofluids on Machining Performance: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Krishna Mohana Rao Gurram, R. Padmini, P. Vamsi Krishna


As a part of extensive research for ecologically safe and operator friendly cutting fluids, this paper presents the experimental investigations on the performance of eco-friendly vegetable oil based nanofluids in turning operation. In order to assess the quality of nano cutting fluids used during machining, cutting temperatures, cutting forces and surface roughness under constant cutting conditions are measured. The influence of two types of nanofluids prepared from nano boric acid and CNT particles mixed separately with coconut oil, on machining performance during turning operation is examined. Comparative analysis of the results obtained is done under dry and lubricant environments. Results obtained using cutting fluids prepared from vegetable oil based nanofluids are encouraging and more pronouncing by the application of CCCNT at machining zone. The extent of improvement in reduction of cutting temperatures, main cutting force, tool wear and surface roughness is tracked to be 13%, 37.5%, 44% and 40% respectively by the application of CCCNT compared to dry machining.

Keywords: nanoparticles, vegetable oil, machining, MQL, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
2183 Optimization of Cutting Forces in Drilling of Polimer Composites via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Eser Yarar, Fahri Vatansever, A. Tamer Erturk, Sedat Karabay


In this study, drilling behavior of multi-layer orthotropic polyester composites reinforced with woven polyester fiber and PTFE particle was investigated. Conventional drilling methods have low cost and ease of use. Therefore, it is one of the most preferred machining methods. The increasing range of use of composite materials in many areas has led to the investigation of the machinability performance of these materials. The drilling capability of the synthetic polymer composite material was investigated by measuring the cutting forces using different tool diameters, feed rate and high cutting speed parameters. Cutting forces were measured using a dynamometer in the experiments. In order to evaluate the results of the experiment, the Taguchi experimental design method was used. According to the results, the optimum cutting parameters were obtained for 0.1 mm/rev, 1070 rpm and 2 mm diameter drill bit. Verification tests were performed for the optimum cutting parameters obtained according to the model. Verification experiments showed the success of the established model.

Keywords: cutting force, drilling, polimer composite, Taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
2182 Analysis of the Cutting Force with Ultrasonic Assisted Manufacturing of Steel (S235JR)

Authors: Philipp Zopf, Franz Haas


Manufacturing of very hard and refractory materials like ceramics, glass or carbide poses particular challenges on tools and machines. The company Sauer GmbH developed especially for this application area ultrasonic tool holders working in a frequency range from 15 to 60 kHz and superimpose the common tool movement in the vertical axis. This technique causes a structural weakening in the contact area and facilitates the machining. The possibility of the force reduction for these special materials especially in drilling of carbide with diamond tools up to 30 percent made the authors try to expand the application range of this method. To make the results evaluable, the authors decide to start with existing processes in which the positive influence of the ultrasonic assistance is proven to understand the mechanism. The comparison of a grinding process the Institute use to machine materials mentioned in the beginning and steel could not be more different. In the first case, the authors use tools with geometrically undefined edges. In the second case, the edges are geometrically defined. To get valid results of the tests, the authors decide to investigate two manufacturing methods, drilling and milling. The main target of the investigation is to reduce the cutting force measured with a force measurement platform underneath the workpiece. Concerning to the direction of the ultrasonic assistance, the authors expect lower cutting forces and longer endurance of the tool in the drilling process. To verify the frequencies and the amplitudes an FFT-analysis is performed. It shows the increasing damping depending on the infeed rate of the tool. The reducing of amplitude of the cutting force comes along.

Keywords: drilling, machining, milling, ultrasonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2181 Effects of Milling Process Parameters on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness When Finishing Ti6al4v Produced by Electron Beam Melting

Authors: Abdulmajeed Dabwan, Saqib Anwar, Ali Al-Samhan


Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, which uses computer-controlled electron beams to create fully dense three-dimensional near-net-shaped parts from metal powder. It gives the ability to produce any complex parts directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) model without tools and dies, and with a variety of materials. However, the quality of the surface finish in EBM process has limitations to meeting the performance requirements of additively manufactured components. The aim of this study is to investigate the cutting forces induced during milling Ti6Al4V produced by EBM as well as the surface quality of the milled surfaces. The effects of cutting speed and radial depth of cut on the cutting forces, surface roughness, and surface morphology were investigated. The results indicated that the cutting speed was found to be proportional to the resultant cutting force at any cutting conditions while the surface roughness improved significantly with the increase in cutting speed and radial depth of cut.

Keywords: electron beam melting, additive manufacturing, Ti6Al4V, surface morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
2180 Orthogonal Metal Cutting Simulation of Steel AISI 1045 via Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Method

Authors: Seyed Hamed Hashemi Sohi, Gerald Jo Denoga


Machining or metal cutting is one of the most widely used production processes in industry. The quality of the process and the resulting machined product depends on parameters like tool geometry, material, and cutting conditions. However, the relationships of these parameters to the cutting process are often based mostly on empirical knowledge. In this study, computer modeling and simulation using LS-DYNA software and a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) methodology, was performed on the orthogonal metal cutting process to analyze three-dimensional deformation of AISI 1045 medium carbon steel during machining. The simulation was performed using the following constitutive models: the Power Law model, the Johnson-Cook model, and the Zerilli-Armstrong models (Z-A). The outcomes were compared against the simulated results obtained by Cenk Kiliçaslan using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the empirical results of Jaspers and Filice. The analysis shows that the SPH method combined with the Zerilli-Armstrong constitutive model is a viable alternative to simulating the metal cutting process. The tangential force was overestimated by 7%, and the normal force was underestimated by 16% when compared with empirical values. The simulation values for flow stress versus strain at various temperatures were also validated against empirical values. The SPH method using the Z-A model has also proven to be robust against issues of time-scaling. Experimental work was also done to investigate the effects of friction, rake angle and tool tip radius on the simulation.

Keywords: metal cutting, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, constitutive models, experimental, cutting forces analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
2179 Effects of Tool State on the Output Parameters of Front Milling Using Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: Bruno S. Soria, Mauricio R. Policena, Andre J. Souza


The state of the cutting tool is an important factor to consider during machining to achieve a good surface quality. The vibration generated during material cutting can also directly affect the surface quality and life of the cutting tool. In this work, the effect of mechanical broken failure (MBF) on carbide insert tools during face milling of AISI 304 stainless steel was evaluated using three levels of feed rate and two spindle speeds for each tool condition: three carbide inserts have perfect geometry, and three other carbide inserts have MBF. The axial and radial depths remained constant. The cutting forces were determined through a sensory system that consists of a piezoelectric dynamometer and data acquisition system. Discrete Wavelet Transform was used to separate the static part of the signals of force and vibration. The roughness of the machined surface was analyzed for each machining condition. The MBF of the tool increased the intensity and force of vibration and worsened the roughness factors.

Keywords: face milling, stainless steel, tool condition monitoring, wavelet discrete transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
2178 Numerical Simulation of Transient 3D Temperature and Kerf Formation in Laser Fusion Cutting

Authors: Karim Kheloufi, El Hachemi Amara


In the present study, a three-dimensional transient numerical model was developed to study the temperature field and cutting kerf shape during laser fusion cutting. The finite volume model has been constructed, based on the Navier–Stokes equations and energy conservation equation for the description of momentum and heat transport phenomena, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method for free surface tracking. The Fresnel absorption model is used to handle the absorption of the incident wave by the surface of the liquid metal and the enthalpy-porosity technique is employed to account for the latent heat during melting and solidification of the material. To model the physical phenomena occurring at the liquid film/gas interface, including momentum/heat transfer, a new approach is proposed which consists of treating friction force, pressure force applied by the gas jet and the heat absorbed by the cutting front surface as source terms incorporated into the governing equations. All these physics are coupled and solved simultaneously in Fluent CFD®. The main objective of using a transient phase change model in the current case is to simulate the dynamics and geometry of a growing laser-cutting generated kerf until it becomes fully developed. The model is used to investigate the effect of some process parameters on temperature fields and the formed kerf geometry.

Keywords: laser cutting, numerical simulation, heat transfer, fluid flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2177 Fracture Control of the Soda-Lime Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin


The effects of the contact ball-lens on the soda lime glass in laser thermal cleavage with a cw Nd-YAG laser were investigated in this study. A contact ball-lens was adopted to generate a bending force on the crack formation of the soda-lime glass in the laser cutting process. The Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength of 1064 nm) was focused through the ball-lens and transmitted to the soda-lime glass, which was coated with a carbon film on the surface with a bending force from a ball-lens to generate a tensile stress state on the surface cracking. The fracture was controlled by the contact ball-lens and a straight cutting was tested to demonstrate the feasibility. Experimental observations on the crack propagation from the leading edge, main section and trailing edge of the glass sheet were compared with various mechanical and thermal loadings. Further analyses on the stress under various laser powers and contact ball loadings were made to characterize the innovative technology. The results show that the distributions of the side crack at the leading and trailing edges are mainly dependent on the boundary condition, contact force, cutting speed and laser power. With the increase of the mechanical and thermal loadings, the region of the side cracks might be dramatically reduced with proper selection of the geometrical constraints. Therefore, the application of the contact ball-lens is a possible way to control the fracture in laser cleavage with improved cutting qualities.

Keywords: laser cleavage, stress analysis, crack visualization, laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
2176 A Machining Method of Cross-Shape Nano Channel and Experiments for Silicon Substrate

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Zih-Wun Jhang


The paper innovatively proposes using the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) and AFM machine to establish a machining method of cross-shape nanochannel on single-crystal silicon substrate. As for machining a cross-shape nanochannel by AFM machine, the paper develop a method of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove at a fixed down force by using SDFE theory and combining the planned cutting path of cross-shape nanochannel up to 5th machining layer it finally achieves a cross-shape nanochannel at a cutting depth of around 20nm. Since there may be standing burr at the machined cross-shape nanochannel edge, the paper uses a smaller down force to cut the edge of the cross-shape nanochannel in order to lower the height of standing burr and converge the height of standing burr at the edge to below 0.54nm as set by the paper. Finally, the paper conducts experiments of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove on single-crystal silicon by AFM probe, and compares the simulation and experimental results. It is proved that this proposed machining method of cross-shape nanochannel is feasible.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy (AFM), cross-shape nanochannel, silicon substrate, specific down force energy (SDFE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
2175 Analysis of Drilling Parameters for Al-Mg2-Si Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: S. Jahangir, S. H. I. Jaffery, M. Khan, Z. Zareef, A. Yar, A. Mubashir, S. Butt, L. Ali


In this work, drilling responses and behavior of MMC was investigated in Al-Mg2Si composites. For the purpose Al-15% wt. Mg2Si, was selected from the hypereutectic region of Al- Mg2Si phase diagram. Based on hardness and tensile strength, drill bit of appropriate material and morphology was selected. The performance of different drill bits of different morphology and material was studied and analysed using experimental data. For theoretical calculations of axial thrust force and required power calculation, material factor “K” was obtained from different data charts and at the same time cutting forces (drilling forces) were practically obtained using a Peizo electric force dynamometer. These results show the role of reinforcement particles on the machinability of MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control and optimized drilling parameters for the drilling process. Furthermore, in this work, comparison of MMC with non -reinforced Aluminum Alloy regarding drilling operation was also studied.

Keywords: drilling, metal matrix composite (MMC), cutting forces, thrust force

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
2174 Intelligent Production Machine

Authors: A. Şahinoğlu, R. Gürbüz, A. Güllü, M. Karhan


This study in production machines, it is aimed that machine will automatically perceive cutting data and alter cutting parameters. The two most important parameters have to be checked in machine control unit are progress feed rate and speeds. These parameters are aimed to be controlled by sounds of machine. Optimum sound’s features introduced to computer. During process, real time data is received and converted by Matlab software. Data is converted into numerical values. According to them progress and speeds decreases/increases at a certain rate and thus optimum sound is acquired. Cutting process is made in respect of optimum cutting parameters. During chip remove progress, features of cutting tools, kind of cut material, cutting parameters and used machine; affects on various parameters. Instead of required parameters need to be measured such as temperature, vibration, and tool wear that emerged during cutting process; detailed analysis of the sound emerged during cutting process will provide detection of various data that included in the cutting process by the much more easy and economic way. The relation between cutting parameters and sound is being identified.

Keywords: cutting process, sound processing, intelligent late, sound analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
2173 Life Prediction of Cutting Tool by the Workpiece Cutting Condition

Authors: Noemia Gomes de Mattos de Mesquita, José Eduardo Ferreira de Oliveira, Arimatea Quaresma Ferraz


Stops to exchange cutting tool, to set up again the tool in a turning operation with CNC or to measure the workpiece dimensions have a direct influence on production. The premature removal of the cutting tool results in high cost of machining since the parcel relating to the cost of the cutting tool increases. On the other hand, the late exchange of cutting tool also increases the cost of production because getting parts out of the preset tolerances may require rework for its use when it does not cause bigger problems such as breaking of cutting tools or the loss of the part. Therefore, the right time to exchange the tool should be well defined when wanted to minimize production costs. When the flank wear is the limiting tool life, the time predetermination that a cutting tool must be used for the machining occurs within the limits of tolerance can be done without difficulty. This paper aims to show how the life of the cutting tool can be calculated taking into account the cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut), workpiece material, power of the machine, the dimensional tolerance of the part, the finishing surface, the geometry of the cutting tool and operating conditions of the machine tool, once known the parameters of Taylor algebraic structure. These parameters were raised for the ABNT 1038 steel machined with cutting tools of hard metal.

Keywords: machining, productions, cutting condition, design, manufacturing, measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 530
2172 Investigation of the Possibility of Using Carbon Onion Nanolubrication with DLC Cutting Tool to Reduce the Machining Power Consumption

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, M. Sayuti, M. Hamdi


Due to rapid consumption of world's fossil fuel resources and impracticality of large-scale application and production of renewable energy, the significance of energy efficiency improvement of current available energy modes has been widely realized by both industry and academia. In the CNC machining field, the key solution for this issue is by increasing the effectiveness of the existing lubrication systems as it could reduce the power required to overcome the friction component in machining process. For more improvement, introducing the nanolubrication could produce much less power consumption as the rolling action of billions units of nanoparticle in the tool chip interface could reduce the cutting forces significantly. In this research, the possibility of using carbon onion nanolubrication with DLC cutting tool is investigated to reduce the machining power consumption. Carbon onion nanolubrication has been successfully developed with high tribology performance and mixed with ordinary mineral oil. The proper sonification method is used to provide a way to mix and suspend the particles thoroughly and efficiently. Furthermore, Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) cutting tool is used and expected to play significant role in reducing friction and cutting forces and increasing abrasion resistance. The results showed significant reduction of the cutting force and the working power compared with the other conditions of using carbon black and normal lubrication systems.

Keywords: carbon onion, nanolubrication, machining power consumption, DLC cutting tool

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2171 Prediction of Cutting Tool Life in Drilling of Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Composite Using a Fuzzy Method

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh


Machining of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is very significant process and has been a main problem that draws many researchers to investigate the characteristics of MMCs during different machining process. The poor machining properties of hard particles reinforced MMCs make drilling process a rather interesting task. Unlike drilling of conventional materials, many problems can be seriously encountered during drilling of MMCs, such as tool wear and cutting forces. Cutting tool wear is a very significant concern in industries. Cutting tool wear not only influences the quality of the drilled hole, but also affects the cutting tool life. Prediction the cutting tool life during drilling is essential for optimizing the cutting conditions. However, the relationship between tool life and cutting conditions, tool geometrical factors and workpiece material properties has not yet been established by any machining theory. In this research work, fuzzy subtractive clustering system has been used to model the cutting tool life in drilling of Al2O3 particle reinforced aluminum alloy composite to investigate of the effect of cutting conditions on cutting tool life. This investigation can help in controlling and optimizing of cutting conditions when the process parameters are adjusted. The built model for prediction the tool life is identified by using drill diameter, cutting speed, and cutting feed rate as input data. The validity of the model was confirmed by the examinations under various cutting conditions. Experimental results have shown the efficiency of the model to predict cutting tool life.

Keywords: composite, fuzzy, tool life, wear

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2170 Modeling of Austenitic Stainless Steel during Face Milling Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: A. A. Selaimia, H. Bensouilah, M. A. Yallese, I. Meddour, S. Belhadi, T. Mabrouki


The objective of this work is to model the output responses namely; surface roughness (Ra), cutting force (Fc), during the face milling of the austenitic stainless steel X2CrNi18-9 with coated carbide tools (GC4040). For raison, response surface methodology (RMS) is used to determine the influence of each technological parameter. A full factorial design (L27) is chosen for the experiments, and the ANOVA is used in order to evaluate the influence of the technological cutting parameters namely; cutting speed (Vc), feed per tooth, and depth of cut (ap) on the out-put responses. The results reveal that (Ra) is mostly influenced by (fz) and (Fc) is found considerably affected by (ap).

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, ANOVA, coated carbide, response surface methodology (RSM)

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2169 Effect of Composite Material on Damping Capacity Improvement of Cutting Tool in Machining Operation Using Taguchi Approach

Authors: Siamak Ghorbani, Nikolay Ivanovich Polushin


Chatter vibrations, occurring during cutting process, cause vibration between the cutting tool and workpiece, which deteriorates surface roughness and reduces tool life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters and tool construction on surface roughness and vibration in turning of aluminum alloy AA2024. A new design of cutting tool is proposed, which is filled up with epoxy granite in order to improve damping capacity of the tool. Experiments were performed at the lathe using carbide cutting insert coated with TiC and two different cutting tools made of AISI 5140 steel. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was applied to design of experiment and to optimize cutting conditions. By the help of signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance the optimal cutting condition and the effect of the cutting parameters on surface roughness and vibration were determined. Effectiveness of Taguchi method was verified by confirmation test. It was revealed that new cutting tool with epoxy granite has reduced vibration and surface roughness due to high damping properties of epoxy granite in toolholder.

Keywords: ANOVA, damping capacity, surface roughness, Taguchi method, vibration

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