Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1613

Search results for: UK Acute kidney injury

1613 Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

Authors: Eun Gyeong Lee, Ji Young Park, Hyun Ae Woo

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.

Keywords: peroxiredoxin, ischemia/reperfusion, kidney, oxidative stress

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1612 Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Trauma Patients: Clinical Presentation and Risk Factor Analysis

Authors: Inkyong Yi

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients is known to be associated with multiple factors, especially shock and consequent inadequate renal perfusion, yet its clinical presentation is little known in severe trauma patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical presentation of acute kidney injury and its outcome in severe trauma patients at a level I trauma center. A total of 93 consecutive adult trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of more than 15 were analyzed retrospectively from our Level I trauma center data base. Patients with direct renal injury were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into two groups, according to the presence of AKI. Various clinical parameters were compared between two groups, with Student’s T test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. The AKI group was further dichotomized into patients who recovered within seven days, and those who required more than 7days for recovery or those who did not recover at all. Various clinical parameters associated with outcome were further analyzed. Patients with AKI (n=33, 35%) presented with significantly higher age (61.4±17.3 vs. 45.4±17.3, p < 0.0001), incidence of comorbidities (hypertension; 51.5% vs. 13.3%, OR 6.906 95%CI 2.515-18.967, diabetes; 27.3% vs. 6.7%, OR 5.250, 95%CI 1.472-18.722), odds of head and neck trauma (69.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 3.220, 95%CI 1.306-7.942) and presence of shock during emergency room care (66.7% vs 21.7% OR 7.231, 95%CI, 2.798-18.687). Among AKI patients, patients who recovered within 1 week showed lower peak lactate (4.7mmol/L, 95%CI 2.9-6.5 vs 7.3mmol/L, 95%CI 5.0-9.6, p < 0.0287), lesser units of transfusion during first 24 hours (pRBC; 20.4unit, 95%CI 12.5-28.3 vs. 58.9unit, 95%CI 39.4-78.5, p=0.0003, FFP; 16.6unit, 95%CI 6.8-26.4 vs. 56.1unit, 95%CI 26.9-85.2, p=0.0027). In severe trauma patients, patients with AKI showed different clinical presentations and worse outcomes. Initial presence of shock and higher DIC profiles may be important risk factors for AKI in severe trauma patients. In patients with AKI, peak lactate level and amounts of transfusion are related to recovery.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, lactate, transfusion, trauma

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1611 A Novel Hybrid Deep Learning Architecture for Predicting Acute Kidney Injury Using Patient Record Data and Ultrasound Kidney Images

Authors: Sophia Shi

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the sudden onset of kidney damage in which the kidneys cannot filter waste from the blood, requiring emergency hospitalization. AKI patient mortality rate is high in the ICU and is virtually impossible for doctors to predict because it is so unexpected. Currently, there is no hybrid model predicting AKI that takes advantage of two types of data. De-identified patient data from the MIMIC-III database and de-identified kidney images and corresponding patient records from the Beijing Hospital of the Ministry of Health were collected. Using data features including serum creatinine among others, two numeric models using MIMIC and Beijing Hospital data were built, and with the hospital ultrasounds, an image-only model was built. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) were used, VGG and Resnet for numeric data and Resnet for image data, and they were combined into a hybrid model by concatenating feature maps of both types of models to create a new input. This input enters another CNN block and then two fully connected layers, ending in a binary output after running through Softmax and additional code. The hybrid model successfully predicted AKI and the highest AUROC of the model was 0.953, achieving an accuracy of 90% and F1-score of 0.91. This model can be implemented into urgent clinical settings such as the ICU and aid doctors by assessing the risk of AKI shortly after the patient’s admission to the ICU, so that doctors can take preventative measures and diminish mortality risks and severe kidney damage.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Convolutional neural network, Hybrid deep learning, Patient record data, ResNet, Ultrasound kidney images, VGG

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1610 Factors Associated with Acute Kidney Injury in Multiple Trauma Patients with Rhabdomyolysis

Authors: Yong Hwang, Kang Yeol Suh, Yundeok Jang, Tae Hoon Kim

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Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis and the release of intracellular muscle constituents into the circulation. Acute kidney injury is a potential complication of severe rhabdomyolysis and the prognosis is substantially worse if renal failure develops. We try to identify the factors that were predictive of AKI in severe trauma patients with rhabdomyolysis. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the emergency department of a level Ⅰ trauma center. Patients enrolled that initial creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were higher than 1000 IU with acute multiple trauma, and more than 18 years older from Oct. 2012 to June 2016. We collected demographic data (age, gender, length of hospital day, and patients’ outcome), laboratory data (ABGA, lactate, hemoglobin. hematocrit, platelet, LDH, myoglobin, liver enzyme, and BUN/Cr), and clinical data (Injury Mechanism, RTS, ISS, AIS, and TRISS). The data were compared and analyzed between AKI and Non-AKI group. Statistical analyses were performed using IMB SPSS 20.0 statistics for Window. Results: Three hundred sixty-four patients were enrolled that AKI group were ninety-six and non-AKI group were two hundred sixty-eight. The base excess (HCO3), AST/ALT, LDH, and myoglobin in AKI group were significantly higher than non-AKI group from laboratory data (p ≤ 0.05). The injury severity score (ISS), revised Trauma Score (RTS), Abbreviated Injury Scale 3 and 4 (AIS 3 and 4) were showed significant results in clinical data. The patterns of CPK level were increased from first and second day, but slightly decreased from third day in both group. Seven patients had received hemodialysis treatment despite the bleeding risk and were survived in AKI group. Conclusion: We recommend that HCO3, CPK, LDH, and myoglobin should be checked and be concerned about ISS, RTS, AIS with injury mechanism at the early stage of treatment in the emergency department.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, emergencies, multiple trauma, rhabdomyolysis

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1609 Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as an Early Marker of Acute Kidney Injury in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients

Authors: Sara Ataei, Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Amir Sarayani, Asieh Ashouri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Kheirollah Gholami

Abstract:

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients with an incidence of 21–73%. Prevention and early diagnosis reduces the frequency and severity of this complication. Predictive biomarkers are of major importance to timely diagnosis. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a widely investigated novel biomarker for early diagnosis of AKI. However, no study assessed NGAL for AKI diagnosis in HSCT patients. Methods: We performed further analyses on gathered data from our recent trial to evaluate the performance of urine NGAL (uNGAL) as an indicator of AKI in 72 allogeneic HSCT patients. AKI diagnosis and severity were assessed using Risk–Injury–Failure–Loss–End-stage renal disease and AKI Network criteria. We assessed uNGAL on days -6, -3, +3, +9 and +15. Results: Time-dependent Cox regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between uNGAL and AKI occurrence. (HR=1.04 (1.008-1.07), P=0.01). There was a relation between uNGAL day +9 to baseline ratio and incidence of AKI (unadjusted HR=.1.047(1.012-1.083), P<0.01). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for day +9 to baseline ratio was 0.86 (0.74-0.99, P<0.01) and a cut-off value of 2.62 was 85% sensitive and 83% specific in predicting AKI. Conclusions: Our results indicated that increase in uNGAL augmented the risk of AKI and the changes of day +9 uNGAL concentrations from baseline could be of value for predicting AKI in HSCT patients. Additionally uNGAL changes preceded serum creatinine rises by nearly 2 days.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, hemtopoietic stem cell transplantation, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, Receiver-operating characteristic curve

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1608 Investigation of Ezetimibe Administration on Cell Survival Markers in Kidney Ischemia

Authors: Zahra Heydari

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Introduction: One of the major clinical issues is acute renal failure, which is caused by ischemia-reperfusion of the kidney and is associated with high mortality. Despite advances in this area, important issues such as tissue necrosis, cell apoptosis, and so on in damaged tissue are suggestive for more researches and study on this subject. Objective: Evaluation of the potential utility of Ezetimibe in reducing injuries and cell death induced by kidney ischemia/ reperfusion through inducing expression changes of different cellular pathways in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Materials and methods: Forty rats weighing 180-200g were divided into 4 groups. For this purpose, the first right kidneys of the rats were removed during surgery. After 20 days, the left renal artery was closed with a soft clamp and reperfusion was performed. After 24 hours, blood samples were collected and sent to the laboratory with kidneys to measure bax and bcl-2 by Western blotting and histopathological tests. Results: Quantitative damage reviews of Kidney tissue indicates damage Acute and severe tubular lesions were observed in the ischemia group. Also, the amount of injury was significantly reduced in the treatment group. There was also a significant difference between the ischemia and sham groups. In general, the results show that a single dose of 1.2 mg/kg of ezetimibe can reduce the bax/ bcl-2 ratio compared to the ischemia group. In general, the results showed Ezetimibe is effective in reducing cell damage and death due to ischemia/ reperfusion after renal ischemia through changes in the expression of various cellular pathways in rats.

Keywords: acute renal failure, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, ezetimibe, apoptosis

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1607 Spectrum of Acute Kidney Injury in Obstetrics

Authors: Seema Chopra, Amandeep Kaur, Vanita Suri, Shalini Gainder, Minakshi Rohilla

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Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with pregnancy is a serious medical complication which can lead to significant maternal as well as perinatal morbidity and mortality. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department and dialysis unit of Nephrology department of PGIMER, Chandigarh from July 2013 to June 2014. Forty antenatal/postnatal/postabortal patients who fulfilled the AKIN criteria were enrolled in the study. All patients were followed up till 3 months postpartum. Results: Majority of the patients 23/40 (57.5%) with AKI presented in postpartum period, 14/40 (35%) developed AKI in antenatal period, and 3/40 (7.5%) were postabortal. AKI was attributable mostly to sepsis in 11/40 (27.5%) and PPH in 5/40 (12.5%). Hypertension and its complications causing AKI included eclampsia in 5/40 (12.5%) followed by 3/40 (7.5%) as HELLP syndrome and abruption placentae in 2/40(5%) patients. Three patients each (7.5%) had AFLP, TMA, and HEV as the cause of AKI. Renal replacement therapy in the form of hemodialysis was the treatment in majority of them (28 (70%)). After the acute event, 25 (62.5%) had complete recovery of their renal functions at 3 months follow up. Maternal mortality was seen in 25% (n=10) of the study patients. Conclusion: Timely initiation of RRT in patients with AKI associated with pregnancy has a good maternal outcome in the form of complete recovery of renal functions in 62.5% (25/40) of patients.

Keywords: AKI, dialysis, hypertension, sepsis, renal parameters

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1606 Jelly and Beans: Appropriate Use of Ultrasound in Acute Kidney Injury

Authors: Raja Ezman Raja Shariff

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly seen in inpatients, and places a great cost on the NHS and patients. Timely and appropriate management is both nephron sparing and potentially life-saving. Ultrasound scanning (USS) is a well-recognised method for stratifying patients. Subsequently, the NICE AKI guidance has defined groups in whom scanning is recommended within 6 hours of request (pyonephrosis), within 24 hours (obstruction/cause unknown), and in whom routine scanning isn't recommended (cause for AKI identified). The audit looks into whether Stockport NHS Trust USS practice was in line with such recommendations. The audit evaluated 92 patients with AKI who had USS, between 01/01/14 to 30/04/14. Data collection was divided into 2 parts. Firstly, radiology request cards and the online imaging software (PACS) were evaluated. Then, the electronic case notes (ADVANTIS) was evaluated further. Based on request cards, 10% of requests were for pyonephrosis. Only 33% were scanned within 6hours and a further 33% within 24hours. 75% were requested for possible obstructions and unknown cause collectively. Of those due to possible obstruction, 71% of patients were scanned within 24 hours. Of those with unknown cause, 50% were scanned within 24 hours. 15% of requests had a cause declared and so potentially did not require scanning. Evaluation of the patients’ notes suggested further interesting findings. Firstly, potentially 39% of patients had a known cause for AKI, therefore, did not need USS. Subsequently, the cohort of unknown cause and possible obstruction was collectively reduced to 45%. Alarmingly the patient cohort with possible pyonephrosis went up to 16%, suggesting an under-recognition of this life-threatening condition. We plan to highlight these findings within our institution and make changes to encourage more appropriate requesting and timely scanning. Time will tell if we manage to save or increase our costs in this cost-conscious NHS. Patient benefits, though, seem to be guaranteed.

Keywords: AKI, ARF, kidney, renal

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1605 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial on N-Acetylcysteine for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Amirhossein Moslehi, Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Asieh Ashouri, Elham Amini, Kheirollah Gholami, Alireza Hayatshahi, Mohammad Vaezi, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

Abstract:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is associated with increased mortality. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol compound with antioxidant and vasodilatory properties that has been investigated for the prevention of AKI in several clinical settings. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intravenous NAC on the prevention of AKI in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, and 80 patients were recruited to receive 100 mg/kg/day NAC or placebo as intermittent intravenous infusion from day -6 to day +15. AKI was determined on the basis of the Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage renal disease and AKI Network criteria as the primary outcome. We assessed urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) on days -6, -3, +3, +9, and +15 as the secondary outcome. Moreover, transplant-related outcomes and NAC adverse reactions were evaluated during the study period. Statistical analysis was performed using appropriate parametric and non-parametric methods including Kaplan–Meier for AKI and generalized estimating equation for uNGAL. At the end of the trial, data from 72 patients were analyzed (NAC: 33 patients and placebo: 39 patients). Participants of each group were not different considering baseline characteristics. AKI was observed in 18% of NAC recipients and 15% of placebo group patients, and the occurrence pattern was not significantly different (p = 0.73). Moreover, no significant difference was observed between groups for uNGAL measures (p = 0.10). Transplant-related outcomes were similar for both groups, and all patients had successful engraftment. Three patients did not tolerate NAC because of abdominal pain, shortness of breath and rash with pruritus and were dropped from the intervention group before transplantation. However, the frequency of adverse reactions was not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, our findings could not show any clinical benefits from high-dose NAC particularly for AKI prevention in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, N-acetylcysteine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, randomized controlled trial

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1604 Investigation Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation Mineral Mercury in Rutilus frisii Kutum

Authors: A. Gharaei, R. Karami

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Rutilus frisii Kutum was exposed to various concentrations of mercuric chloride in water to determine its acute toxicity and bioaccumulation. We carried out ten treatments with three replicates and one control for each of the chemicals using the static O. E. C. D. method in 55-liter-tanks each containing 14 fingerlings. During the experiments, the average pH was recorded as 7.8, total hardness was measured to be 255 mg/l, the average water temperature was 27±1 degrees centigrade and dissolved oxygen was 7.2 mg/l. Mean LC50 values of Hgcl2 for juvenile R. frisii kutum with mean weight 1±0.2 gr were 0.102 and 0.86 mgHg/l at 24h and 96h, respectively. The bioaccumulation values during 24h in tissue, kidney, and gill were 1.55, 16.1, and 22.7 mgHg/l, respectively. So, these values during 96h were 2.8, 16.8, and 26.65 mgHg/l, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in tissue, kidney, and gill during 24h were 14.75, 153.39, and 216.11 and so during 96h were 33.8, 198.1, and 313.5 times. These results show that bioaccumulation was highest in the gill and then kidney and tissue, respectively. This study suggested that between mercury concentrations of water with bioaccumulation in tissue more than kidney and gill.

Keywords: HgCl2, LC5096h, bioaccumulation, Rutilus frisii Kutum, Caspian Sea

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1603 Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Lupus Nephritis

Authors: Lorena GóMez Escorcia, Gustavo Aroca MartíNez, Jose Luiz Villarreal, Elkin Navarro Quiroz

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Lupus nephritis (LN) is a high-cost disease, occurring in about half of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Renal biopsy constitutes the only protocol that, to date, allows a correct diagnosis of the level of renal involvement in these patients. However, this procedure can have various adverse effects such as kidney bleeding, muscle bleeding, infection, pain, among others. Therefore, the development of new diagnostic alternatives is required. The neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been emerging as a novel biomarker of acute kidney injury. The aim of this study was to assess urinary NGAL levels as a marker for disease activity in patients with lupus nephritis. For this work included 50 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, 50 with active lupus nephritis (LN), and 50 without autoimmune and renal disease as controls. TNGAL in urine samples was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results revealed that patients with kidney damage had an elevated urinary NGAL as compared to patients with lupus without kidney damage and controls (p <0.005), and the mean of uNGAL was (28.72 ± 4.53), (19.51 ± 4.72), (8.91 ± 3.37) respectively. Measurement of urinary NGAL levels showed a very good diagnostic performance for discriminating patients with Lupus nephritis from SLE without renal damage and of control individuals.

Keywords: lupus nephritis, biomarker, NGAL, urine samples

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1602 The Effect of Melatonin on Acute Liver Injury: Implication to Shift Work Related Sleep Deprivation

Authors: Bing-Fang Lee, Srinivasan Periasamy, Ming-Yie Liu

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Shift work sleep disorder is a common problem in industrialized world. It is a type of circadian rhythmic sleep disorders characterized by insomnia and sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep in workers may lead to poor health conditions such as hepatic dysfunction. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland to alleviate insomnia. Moreover, it is a powerful antioxidant and may prevent acute liver injury. Therefore, workers take in melatonin to deal with sleep-related health is an important issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on an acute hepatic injury model sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose (500 mg/kg) of monocrotaline (MCT) to induce SOS. Melatonin (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was injected 1 h before MCT treatment. After 24 h of MCT treatment, mice were sacrificed. The blood and liver were collected. Organ damage was evaluated by serum biochemistry, hematology analyzer, and histological examination. Low doses of melatonin (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no protective effect on SOS. However, high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) exacerbated SOS. In addition, it not only increased serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and extended liver damage indicated by histological examination but also decreased platelet levels, lymphocyte ratio, and glutathione level; it had no effect on malondialdehyde and nitric oxide level in SOS mice. To conclude, melatonin may exacerbate MCT-induced SOS in mice. Furthermore, melatonin might have a synergistic action with SOS. Usage of melatonin for insomnia by people working in long shift must be cautioned; it might cause acute hepatic injury.

Keywords: acute liver injury, melatonin, shift work, sleep deprivation

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1601 Elevated Creatinine Clearance and Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Systemic Lupus erythematosus

Authors: Stoyanka Vladeva, Elena Kirilova, Nikola Kirilov

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Background: The creatinine clearance is a widely used value to estimate the GFR. Increased creatinine clearance is often called hyperfiltration and is usually seen during pregnancy, patients with diabetes mellitus preceding the diabetic nephropathy. It may also occur with large dietary protein intake or with plasma volume expansion. Renal injury in lupus nephritis is known to affect the glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular compartment. However high creatinine clearance has not been found in patients with SLE, Target: Follow-up of creatinine clearance values in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without history of kidney injury. Material and methods: We observed the creatinine, creatinine clearance, GFR and dipstick protein values of 7 women (with a mean age of 42.71 years) with systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with active lupus have been monthly tested in the period of 13 months. Creatinine clearance has been estimated by Cockcroft-Gault Equation formula in ml/sec. GFR has been estimated by MDRD formula (The Modification of Diet in renal Disease) in ml/min/1.73 m2. Proteinuria has been defined as present when dipstick protein > 1+.Results: In all patients without history of kidney injury we found elevated creatinine clearance levels, but GFRremained within the reference range. Two of the patients were in remission while the other five patients had clinically and immunologically active Lupus. Three of the patients had a permanent presence of high creatinine clearance levels and proteinuria. Two of the patients had periodically elevated creatinine clearance without proteinuria. These results show that kidney disturbances may be caused by the vascular changes typical for SLE. Glomerular hyperfiltration can be result of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis caused by a reduction in renal mass. Probably lupus nephropathy is preceded not only by glomerular vascular changes, but also by tubular vascular changes. Using only the GFR is not a sufficient method to detect these primary functional disturbances. Conclusion: For early detection of kidney injury in patients with SLE we determined that the follow up of creatinine clearance values could be helpful.

Keywords: systemic Lupus erythematosus, kidney injury, elevated creatinine clearance level, normal glomerular filtration rate

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1600 Carvedilol Ameliorates Potassium Dichromate-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Rats: Plausible Role of Inflammation and Apoptosis

Authors: Bidya Dhar Sahu, Meghana Koneru, R. Shyam Sunder, Ramakrishna Sistla

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Environmental and occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via textile manufacture, metallurgy, spray paints, stainless steel industries, drinking water containing chromium are often known to cause acute renal injury in humans and animals. Nephrotoxicity is the major effect of chromium poisoning. In the present study, we investigated the potential renoprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of carvedilol using rat model of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced nephrotoxicity. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms of carvedilol revealed that carvedilol attenuated nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB (p65), restored antioxidant and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and attenuated apoptosis related protein expressions in kidney tissues. The serum levels of TNF-α, the renal iNOS and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly decreased in carvedilol pre-treated K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxic rats. These results were further supported and confirmed by histological findings. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated that carvedilol is an effective chemoprotectant against K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: apoptosis, carvedilol, inflammation, potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity, applied pharmacology

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1599 Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (Dress) Syndrome Presenting as Multi-Organ Failure

Authors: Keshari Shrestha, Philip Vatterott

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Introduction: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal drug-related syndrome. DRESS classically presents with a diffuse maculopapular rash, fevers, and eosinophilia more than three weeks after drug exposure. DRESS can present with multi-organ involvement, with liver damage being the most common and severe. Pulmonary involvement is a less common manifestation and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Chest imaging is often nonspecific, and symptoms can range from mild cough to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) . This is a case of a 49-year-old female with a history of recent clostridium difficile colitis status post treatment with oral vancomycin who presented with rash, acute liver and kidney failure, as well as diffuse nodular alveolar lung opacities concerning for DRESS syndrome with multi-organ involvement. Clinical Course: This patient initially presented to an outside hospital with clostridium difficile colitis, acute liver injury, and acute kidney injury. She developed a desquamating maculopapular rash in the setting of recent oral vancomycin, meloxicam, and furosemide initiation. She was hospitalized on two additional occasions with worsening altered mental status, liver injury, and acute kidney injury and was initiated on intermittent hemodialysis. Notably, she was found to have systemic eosinophilia (4100 cells/microliter) several weeks prior. She was transferred to this institution for further management where she was found to have encephalopathy, jaundice, lower extremity edema, and diffuse bilateral rhonchorous breath sounds on pulmonary examination. The patient was started on methylprednisolone for suspected DRESS syndrome. She underwent an evaluation for alternative causes of her organ failure. Her workup included a negative infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, toxic, and malignant work-up. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound were remarkable for evidence of hepatic steatosis and possible cirrhotic morphology. Additionally, a chest CT demonstrated diffuse and symmetric nodular alveolar lung opacities with peripheral sparing not consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome or edema. Ultimately, her condition continued to decline, and she required intubation on several occasions. On hospital day 25 she succumbed to distributive shock in the setting of probable sepsis and multi-organ failure. Discussion: DRESS syndrome occurs in 1 in 1,000 to 10,000 patients with a mortality rate of around 10%. Anti-convulsant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and sulfonamide drugs are the most common drugs implicated in the development of DRESS syndrome; however, the list of offending agents is extensive . The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome is made after excluding other causes of disease such as infectious and autoimmune etiologies. The RegiSCAR scoring system is used to diagnose DRESS syndrome with 2-3 points indicating possible disease, 4-5 probable disease, and >5 definite disease. This patient scored a 7 on the RegiSCAR scale for eosinophilia, rash, organ involvement, and exclusion of other causes (infectious and autoimmune). While the pharmacologic trigger in this case is unknown, it is speculated to be caused by vancomycin, meloxicam, or furosemide due to the favorable timeline of initiation. Despite aggressive treatment, DRESS syndrome can often be fatal. Because of this, early diagnosis and treatment of patients with suspected DRESS syndrome is imperative.

Keywords: drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, multi-organ failure, pulmonary involvement, renal failure

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1598 Acute Toxicity Studies of Total Alkaloids of Seeds of Datura stramonium in Female Rats: Effect on Liver and Kidney

Authors: Bouzidi Abdelouahab, Ghadjati Nadhra, Bettihi Sara, Mahdeb Nadia, Daamouche Z. El Youm

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The effects of acute administration of TOTAL alkaloids, the main active principle of Datura stramonium, with toxic properties, were studied in female Albino-Wistar rats. After acute intraperitoneal administration of dose 120 mg kg-1 (≈1/3 DL50) of total alkaloids to the seeds of D. stramonium, there were no remarkable changes in general appearance and no deaths occurred in any experimental group. After 5 days a significant reduction was observed in total alkaloids of seeds. The Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT) and Hemoglobin (HGB) show significant changes in the treated groups. There were no statistical differences in Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), urea, glucose and total protein observed between groups. After 24 h Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and creatinine were significantly higher in the treated male rats than the control group histological examination of liver showed no histopathological changes.

Keywords: datura stramonium, rat, liver, kidney, alkaloids, toxicity

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1597 Carvacrol Attenuates Lung Injury in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

Authors: Salim Cerig, Fatime Geyikoglu, Pınar Akpulat, Suat Colak, Hasan Turkez, Murat Bakir, Mirkhalil Hosseinigouzdagani, Kubra Koc

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This study was designed to evaluate whether carvacrol (CAR) could provide protection against lung injury by acute pancreatitis development. The rats were randomized into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 μg/kg cerulein at 1h intervals by four intraperitoneal injections (i.p.); (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p.; and (IV) cerulein+CAR after 2h of cerulein injection. 12h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function the lipase and amylase values. The animals were euthanized and lung samples were excised. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), periodic acid–Schif (PAS), Mallory's trichrome and amyloid. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring as increases in 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) adducts. The results showed that the serum activity of lipase and amylase in AP rats were significantly reduced after the therapy (p<0.05). We also found that the 100 mg/kg dose of CAR significantly decreased 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the severe pathological findings in the lung such as necrosis, inflammation, congestion, fibrosis, and thickened alveolar septum were attenuated in the AP+CAR groups when compared with AP group. Finally, the magnitude of the protective effect on lung is certain, and CAR is an effective therapy for lung injury caused by AP.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, acute pancreatitis, carvacrol, experimental, lung injury, oxidative DNA damage

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1596 Injury Pattern of Field Hockey Players at Different Field Position during Game and Practice

Authors: Sujay Bisht

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to assess and examines the pattern of injury among the field hockey players at different field position during practice & game. It was hypothesized that the backfield might have the height rate of injury, followed by midfield. Methods: university level and national level male field hockey (N=60) are selected as a subject and requested to respond an anon questionnaire. Personal characteristics of each and individual players were also collected like (age, height, weight); field hockey professional information (level of play, year of experience, playing surface); players injury history (site, types, cause etc). The rates of injury per athlete per year were also calculated. Result: Around half of the injury occurred were to the lower limbs (49%) followed by head and face (30%), upper limbs (19%) and torso region (2%). Injuries included concussion, wounds, broken nose, ligament sprain, dislocation, fracture, and muscles strain and knee injury. The ligament sprain is the highest rate (40%) among the other types of injuries. After investigation and evaluation backfield players had the highest rate of risk of injury (1.10 injury/athletes-year) followed by midfield players (0.70 injury/athlete-year), forward players (0.45 injury/athlete-year) & goalkeeper was (0.37 injury/athlete-year). Conclusion: Due to the different field position the pattern & rate of injury were different. After evaluation, lower limbs had the highest rate of injury followed by head and face, upper limbs and torso respectively. It also revealed that not only there is a difference in the rate of injury between playing the position, but also in the types of injury sustain at a different position.

Keywords: trauma, sprain, strain, astroturf, acute injury

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1595 Detection of Leptospira interrogans in Kidney and Urine of water Buffalo and its Relationship with Histopathological and Serological Findings

Authors: M. R. Haji Hajikolaei, A. A. Nikvand, A. R. Ghadrdan, M. Ghorbanpoor, B. Mohammadian

Abstract:

This study was carried out on water buffalo for detection of Leptospira interrogans in kidney and urine and its relationship with serological findings. Blood, urine and kidney samples were taken immediately after slaughter from 353 water buffalos at Ahvaz abattoir in Khouzestan province, Iran. Sera were initially screened at serum dilution of 1:100 against seven live antigens of Leptospira interrogans: pomona, hardjo, ballum, icterohemorrhagiae, tarasovi, australis and grippotyphosa using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and sera with positive results were titrated against reacting antigens in serial twofold dilution from 1:100 to 1:800. The samples of kidney were embedded in paraffin wax and 5µm thick sections were stained routinely with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination was done on urine and kidney by using LipL32 gene primers. Antibodies against one or more serovars at dilution >:100 were detected in sera. The most frequent reactor was hardjo (56.2%), followed by pomona (52.3%), australis (9.8%), tarassovi (5.9%), grippotyphosa (4.5%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (3.9%). The L. interrogans were detected in 43 (12.2%) of examined buffaloes, so that 26 (8.2%) of kidney tissues, 14 (4.8%) of urine samples separately and 3 (0.84%) of both kidney and urine samples were positive in PCR. From 153 (43.3%) buffaloes with positive MAT, 24 cases were positive by PCR of kidney and/or urine samples, synchronously. Renal lesions such as interstitial nephritis, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), pyelonephritis, glomerolonephritis, renal fibrosis and hydronephrosis were found in 128 (36.3%) cases. Statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant association between results of MAT, PCR and interstitial nephritis.

Keywords: leptospiral infection, PCR, MAT, histopathology, river buffalo

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1594 Effects of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Lung Remodeling

Authors: Diana Islam, Juan Fang, Vito Fanelli, Bing Han, Julie Khang, Jianfeng Wu, Arthur S. Slutsky, Haibo Zhang

Abstract:

Introduction: MSC delivery in preclinical models of ARDS has demonstrated significant improvements in lung function and recovery from acute injury. However, the role of MSC delivery in ARDS associated pulmonary fibrosis is not well understood. Some animal studies using bleomycin, asbestos, and silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis show that MSC delivery can suppress fibrosis. While other animal studies using radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis, liver, and kidney fibrosis models show that MSC delivery can contribute to fibrosis. Hypothesis: The beneficial and deleterious effects of MSC in ARDS are modulated by the lung microenvironment at the time of MSC delivery. Methods: To induce ARDS a two-hit mouse model of Hydrochloric acid (HCl) aspiration (day 0) and mechanical ventilation (MV) (day 2) was used. HCl and injurious MV generated fibrosis within 14-28 days. 0.5x106 mouse MSCs were delivered (via both intratracheal and intravenous routes) either in the active inflammatory phase (day 2) or during the remodeling phase (day 14) of ARDS (mouse fibroblasts or PBS used as a control). Lung injury accessed using inflammation score and elastance measurement. Pulmonary fibrosis was accessed using histological score, tissue collagen level, and collagen expression. In addition alveolar epithelial (E) and mesenchymal (M) marker expression profile was also measured. All measurements were taken at day 2, 14, and 28. Results: MSC delivery 2 days after HCl exacerbated lung injury and fibrosis compared to HCl alone, while the day 14 delivery showed protective effects. However in the absence of HCl, MSC significantly reduced the injurious MV-induced fibrosis. HCl injury suppressed E markers and up-regulated M markers. MSC delivery 2 days after HCl further amplified M marker expression, indicating their role in myofibroblast proliferation/activation. While with 14-day delivery E marker up-regulation was observed indicating their role in epithelial restoration. Conclusions: Early MSC delivery can be protective of injurious MV. Late MSC delivery during repair phase may also aid in recovery. However, early MSC delivery during the exudative inflammatory phase of HCl-induced ARDS can result in pro-fibrotic profiles. It is critical to understand the interaction between MSC and the lung microenvironment before MSC-based therapies are utilized for ARDS.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), hydrochloric acid (HCl), mechanical ventilation (MV)

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1593 Albendazole Ameliorates Inflammatory Response in a Rat Model of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

Authors: Kamyar Moradi

Abstract:

Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia is known as a life-threatening condition. Re-establishment of blood flow in this condition can lead to mesenteric ischemia reperfusion (MIR) injury, which is accompanied by inflammatory response. Still, clear blueprint of inflammatory mechanism underlying MIR injury has not been provided. Interestingly, Albendazole has exhibited notable effects on inflammation and cytokine production. In this study, we aimed to evaluate outcomes of MIR injury following pretreatment with Albendazole with respect to assessment of mesenteric inflammation and ischemia threshold. Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into sham operated, vehicle treated, Albendazole 100 mg/kg, and Albendazole 200 mg/kg groups. MIR injury was induced by occlusion of superior mesenteric artery for 30 minutes followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Samples were utilized for assessment of epithelial survival and villous height. Immunohistochemistry study revealed intestinal expression of TNF-α and HIF-1-α. Gene expression of NF-κB/TLR4/TNF-α/IL-6 was measured using RTPCR. Also, protein levels of inflammatory cytokines in serum and intestine were assessed by ELISA method. Results: Histopathological study demonstrated that pretreatment with Albendazole could ameliorate decline in villous height and epithelial survival following MIR injury. Also, systemic inflammation was suppressed after administration of Albendazole. Analysis of possible participating inflammatory pathway could demonstrate that intestinal expression of NF-κB/TLR4/TNF-α/IL-6 is significantly attenuated in treated groups. Eventually, IHC study illustrated concordant decline in mesenteric expression of HIF-1-α/TNF-α. Conclusion: Single dose pretreatment with Albendazole could ameliorate inflammatory response and enhance ischemia threshold following induction of MIR injury. Still, more studies would clarify existing causality in this phenomenon.

Keywords: albendazole, ischemia reperfusion injury, inflammation, mesenteric ischemia

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1592 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam

Abstract:

The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

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1591 The Psychological Impact of Acute Occupational Hand Trauma

Authors: Michelle Roesler, Ian Glendon, Francis O'Callaghan

Abstract:

This study expands on recent findings and offers a new perspective on recovery from injury and return to work (RTW) after an acute traumatic occupational hand injury. Recovery is a complex medical and psychosocial process. A number of predictor variables were studied simultaneously to identify the bio-psychosocial variables that impede recovery. An unexpected phenomenon to emerge from this study was the high incidence of complications within the hand-injured patient sample. Twenty six percent (n = 71) of the total sample (N = 263) required a second operation due to complications. This warranted further investigation. Results confirmed that complications not only significantly delayed the RTW outcome but also had a profound psychological impact on the individuals affected. Research has found that surgical complications are usually the result of incorrect early assessment and management. A strategic plan needs to be implemented to ensure the optimal level of surgical care is provided for managing acute traumatic hand injuries to avoid such complications.

Keywords: occupational hand trauma, psychological recovery, return to work, psychology

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1590 Clinical Outcomes of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Acute Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage on Initial Emergency Ward Neuroimaging

Authors: S. Shafiee Ardestani, A. Najafi, N. Valizadeh, E. Payani, H. Karimian

Abstract:

Objectives: Treatment of mild traumatic brain injury in emergency ward patients with any type of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage is flexible. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury patients who had acute traumatic intracranial hemorrhage on initial emergency ward neuroimaging. Materials-Methods: From March 2011 to November 2012 in a retrospective cohort study we enrolled emergency ward patients with mild traumatic brain injury with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and who had stable vital signs. Patients who had any type of intracranial hemorrhage on first head CT and repeat head CT within 24 hours were included. Patients with initial GCS < 14, injury > 24 hours old, pregnancy, concomitant non-minor injuries, and coagulopathy were excluded. Primary endpoints were neurosurgical procedures and/or death and for discharged patients, return to the emergency ward during one week. Results: Among 755 patients who were referred to the emergency ward and underwent two head CTs during first 24 hours, 302 (40%) were included. The median interval between CT scans was 6 hours (ranging 4 to 8 hours). Consequently, 135 (45%) patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 124 (41%) patients had subdural hemorrhage, 15 (5%) patients had epidural hemorrhage, 28 (9%) patients had cerebral contusions, and 54 (18%) patients had intra-parenchymal hemorrhage. Six of 302 patients died within 15 days of injury. 200 patients (66%) have been discharged from the emergency ward, 25 (12%) of whom returned to the emergency ward after one week. Conclusion: Discharge of the head trauma patients after a repeat head CT and brief period of observation in the emergency ward lead to early discharge of mild traumatic brain injury patients with traumatic ICH without adverse events.

Keywords: clinical outcomes, emergency ward, mild traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

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1589 Possible Protective Role of Angiotensin II Antagonist on Bacterial Endotoxin Induced Acute Lung Injury: Morphological Study on Adult Male Albino Rat

Authors: Mohamed Bakry Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Ehab El-Din Mustafa, Joseph Naiem Sabet Aziz, Sarah Mahmoud Ali Kaooh

Abstract:

Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the major challenges in intensive care medicine. The most common extrapulmonary cause of ALI is sepsis, accounting more than 30% of the cases in humans. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has gained wide acceptance as a clinically relevant model of ALI. Lipopolysaccharide is a glycoprotein forming the major constituent of bacterial endotoxin. Losartan is angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists. It is widely used for management of hypertension. It was recently suggested that losartan protects against septic ALI. It would thereby prevent LPS-induced ALI. Aim of the work and design of the experiment: This work investigated the injurious effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ALI on adult male albino rat at 24 hours and 14 days of LPS administration and the possible protective role of losartan pretreatment. LPS has deteriorated animal survival and behavior. It increased lung weight and induced lung histological damage. These changes could be much reduced by the losartan pretreatment. Conclusion: Administration of losartan before LPS could largely reduce these LPS/ ALI induced short and long term alterations. It could be recommended that patients susceptible to developing ALI, as in ICU, should receive a protective dose of angitensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker as losartan.

Keywords: acute lung injury (ALI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), losartan

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1588 Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies on Aqueous Leaf Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana in Albino Rats

Authors: G. E. Forcados, M. L. Shu, C. N. Chinyere

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Acalypha wilkesiana is a medicinal plant commonly used in most parts of West Africa as a decoction in treating several human diseases. Existing literature on its toxicity is predominantly on the organic extracts in contrast to the routine use of hot aqueous extracts as decoction. The aim of this study was to examine the phytochemical profile and sub-acute toxicity of A. wilkesiana leaf extracts in albino rats. Three groups of 8 experimental rats each were administered 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days while a fourth (control) group took tap-water. On day 15, the rats were sacrificed, and blood collected. Biochemical and hematological parameters were analysed and histopathological examination of liver and kidney were performed. There was significant increase (p<0.05) in the levels of some biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, creatinine, urea) in all the test groups compared to control. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed centrilobular degeneration and necrosis with sinusoidal dilatation as well as polymorphonuclear and mononuclear infiltration, likewise severe glomerular and tubular degeneration and necrosis with hemorrhage in the kidney at all dose levels. The results from this study suggest that aqueous leaf extract of A. wilkesiana is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic at dose levels of 300 mg/kg and above. Therefore, precautionary measures are necessary for home use of the leaf extract of A. wilkesiana.

Keywords: acute toxicity, A. wilkesiana, aqeous extract, albino rats, biochemical and haematological parameters, histopathological examination

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1587 Evaluation of the Pain of Patients with Chronic Renal Disease in Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Izabel Cristina Chavez Gomes, Barbara Isabela De Paula Morais, Ana Carolina Ottaviani

Abstract:

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem. Patients who present CKD in their more advanced stages usually present several biopsychosocial changes, which may include pain. Pain can be considered subjective and personal, and its perception is characterized as a multidimensional experience. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level and descriptors of pain of adults and elderly patients with chronic kidney disease, through the Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with CKD in hemodialysis treatment at a Renal Replacement Therapy Service in the interior of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through an individual interview, using a Sociodemographic Characterization and Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). All ethical precepts were respected. The majority of the respondents were men (61.0%), white (56.0%) and with a high school education (34.0%). Regarding the pain of the individuals, 89 patients reported pain, with Chronic Pain predominating (50.0%, n = 50), followed by Acute Pain (39.0%, n = 39). Of the subjects who presented acute pain most of the 89.0% described the pain felt as unbearable, and of those who presented chronic pain, 35.0% described the pain felt as painful, unbearable and uncomfortable. It was concluded that there was a significant presence of pain, being the chronic pain dominant in the studied population. Faced with such factors, the present study motivates researches in this population, in order to establish interventions with the objective of improving the quality of life of these individuals.

Keywords: pain, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, evaluation

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1586 Nephroprotective Effect of Asparagus falcatus Leaf Extract on Adriamycin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats: A Dose Response Study

Authors: A. M. S. S. Amarasiri, A. P. Attanayake, K. A. P. W. Jayatilaka, L. K. B. Mudduwa

Abstract:

Adriamycin (ADR) is an effective anthracyclin antitumor drug, but its clinical use is limited due to renal toxicity. The leaves of Asparagus falcatus (Family: Liliaceae) have been used in the management of renal diseases since antiquity. In the present investigation, the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus was evaluated for acute nephroprotective activity in ADR induced nephrotoxic rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in healthy male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of ADR 20 mg/kg. The lyophilized powder of the aqueous refluxed (4h) leaf extract of A. falcatus was administered orally at three selected doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for three consecutive days. Fosinopril sodium (0.09 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. Administration of the plant extract and the standard drug was commenced 24 hours after the induction of nephrotoxicity to rats. The nephroprotective effect was determined by selected biochemical parameters and by the assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections. The results were compared to a group of control rats with ADR induced nephrotoxicity. A group of rats administered with the equivalent volume of normal saline served as the healthy control. Administration of ADR 20 mg/kg produced a significant increase in the concentrations of serum creatinine (61%) and urine protein (73%) followed by a significant decrease in serum total protein (21%) and albumin (44%) of the plant extract treated animals compared to the healthy control group (p < 0.05). The aqueous extract of Asparagus falcatus at the three doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg and the standard drug were found to decrease the elevation of concentrations of serum creatinine (33%, 51%, 54% and 42%) and urine protein (8%, 63%, 80% and 86%) respectively. The serum concentrations of total protein (12%, 17%, 29% and 12%) and albumin (3%, 17%, 17% and 16%) were significantly increased compared to the nephrotoxic control group respectively. Assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections demonstrated that ADR induced renal injury, as evidenced by loss of brush border, cytoplasmic vacuolization, pyknosis in renal tubular epithelial cells, haemorrhages, glomerular congestion and presence of hyaline casts. Treatment with the plant extract and the standard drug resulted in attenuation of the morphological destruction in rats. The results of the present study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus possesses significant nephroprotective activity against adriamycin induced acute nephrotoxicity. The improved kidney functions were supported with the results of selected biochemical parameters and histological changes observed on H and E stained sections of the kidney tissues in Wistar rats.

Keywords: adriamycin induced nephrotoxicity, asparagus falcatus, biochemical assessment, histopathological assessment, nephroprotective activity

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1585 Study of a Cross-Flow Membrane to a Kidney Encapsulation Engineering Structures for Immunosuppression Filter

Authors: Sihyun Chae, Ryoto Arai, Waldo Concepcion, Paula Popescu

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The kidneys perform an important role in the human hormones that regulate the blood pressure, produce an active form of vitamin D and control the production of red blood cells. Kidney disease can cause health problems, such as heart disease. Also, increase the chance of having a stroke or heart attack. There are mainly to types of treatments for kidney disease, dialysis, and kidney transplant. For a better quality of life, the kidney transplant is desirable. However, kidney transplant can cause antibody reaction and patients’ body would be attacked by immune system of their own. For solving that issue, patients with transplanted kidney always take immunosuppressive drugs which can hurt kidney as side effects. Patients willing to do a kidney transplant have a waiting time of 3.6 years in average searching to find an appropriate kidney, considering there are almost 96,380 patients waiting for kidney transplant. There is a promising method to solve these issues: bioartificial kidney. Our membrane is specially designed with unique perforations capable to filter the blood cells separating the white blood cells from red blood cells. White blood cells will not pass through the encapsulated kidney preventing the immune system to attack the new organ and eliminating the need of a matching donor. It is possible to construct life-time long encapsulation without needing pumps or a power supply on the cell’s separation method preventing futures surgeries due the Cross-Channel Flow inside the device. This technology allows the possibility to use an animal kidney, prevent cancer cells to spread through the body, arm and leg transplants in the future. This project aims to improve the quality of life of patients with kidney disease.

Keywords: kidney encapsulation, immunosuppression filter, leukocyte filter, leukocyte

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1584 Clinical Profile of Renal Diseases in Children in Tertiary Care Centre

Authors: Jyoti Agrawal

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Introduction: Renal diseases in children and young adult can be difficult to diagnose early as it may present only with few symptoms, tends to have different course than adult and respond variously to different treatment. The pattern of renal disease in children is different from developing countries as compared to developed countries. Methods: This study was a hospital based prospective observational study carried from March, 2014 to February 2015 at BP Koirala institute of health sciences. Patients with renal disease, both inpatient and outpatient from birth to 14 years of age were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of renal disease was be made on clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: Total of 120 patients were enrolled in our study which contributed to 3.74% % of total admission. The commonest feature of presentation was edema (75%), followed by fever (65%), hypertension (60%), decreased urine output (45%) and hematuria (25%). Most common diagnosis was acute glomerulonephritis (40%) followed by Nephrotic syndrome (25%) and urinary tract infection (25%). Renal biopsy was done for 10% of cases and most of them were steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome. 5% of our cases expired because of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, sepsis and acute kidney injury. Conclusion: Renal disease contributes to a large part of hospital pediatric admission as well as mortality and morbidity to the children.

Keywords: glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal disease, urinary tract infection

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