Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1223

Search results for: Seoul hantavirus in child Porton

1223 Hanta Virus Infection in a Child and Sequelae

Authors: Vijay Samuel, Tina Thekkekkara, Shoma Ganguly

Abstract:

There is no reported Hanta Seoul virus infection in children in the UK so far, making it quite challenging for clinicians in diagnosing, predicting and prognosticating the outcome of the infection to patients and parents. We report a case of a ten-year-old girl who presented with pyrexia associated with headache, photophobia and abdominal pain. The family had recently acquired two pet rats six weeks ago. She appeared flushed with peri-oral pallor, coated the strawberry tongue, inflamed tonsils and bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Her liver and splenic edges were palpable. Investigations showed that she was thrombocytopenic with deranged renal and liver functions. An ultrasound abdomen demonstrated a mildly enlarged spleen, peripancreatic lymph node and an acalculous cholecystitis. In view of her clinical presentation, a diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and she was commenced on intravenous benzylpenicillin. The following day she became oliguric, developed significant proteinuria and her renal function deteriorated. Following conservative management, her urine output gradually improved along with her renal function, proteinuria and thrombocytopaenia. Serology for leptospirosis and various other viruses were negative. Following discussion with the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton hanta virus serology was requested and found to be strongly positive for Seoul hanta virus. Following discharge she developed palpitations, fatigue, severe headache and cognitive difficulties including memory loss and difficulties in spelling, reading and mathematics. Extensive investigations including ECG, MRI brain and CSF studies were performed and revealed no significant abnormalities. Since 2012, there have been six cases of acute kidney injury due to Hantavirus infection in the UK. Two cases were from the Humber region and were exposure to wild rats and the other four were exposed to specially bred pet fancy rats. Hanta virus infections can cause mild flu like symptoms but two clinical syndromes are associated with severe disease including haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, which may be associated with thrombocytopenia and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Neuropsychological impairments reported following hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and following Puumala virus infection have been reported. Minor white matter lesions were found in about half of the patients investigated with MRI brain. Seoul virus has a global distribution owing to the dispersal of its carrier host rats, through global trade. Several ports in the region could explain the possible establishment of Seoul virus in local populations of rats in the Yorkshire and Humber region. The risk of infection for occupationally exposed groups is 1-3% compared to 32.9% for specialist pet rat owners. The report highlight’s the importance of routinely asking about pets in the family. We hope to raise awareness of the emergence of hantavirus infection in the UK, particularly in the Yorkshire and Humber region. Clinicians should consider hantavirus infection as a potential cause of febrile illness causing renal impairment in children. Awareness of the possible neuro-cognitive sequele would help the clinicians offer appropriate information and support to children and their families. Contacting Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton is a useful resource for clinicians in UK when they consider unusual infections.

Keywords: Seoul hantavirus in child Porton, UK Acute kidney injury

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1222 Effects of Family Order and Informal Social Control on Protecting against Child Maltreatment: A Comparative Study of Seoul and Kathmandu

Authors: Thapa Sirjana, Clifton R. Emery

Abstract:

This paper examines the family order and Informal Social Control (ISC) by the extended families as a protective factor against Child Maltreatment. The findings are discussed using the main effects and the interaction effects of family order and informal social control by the extended families. The findings suggest that IPV mothers are associated with child abuse and child neglect. The children are neglected in the home more and physical abuse occurs in the case, if mothers are abused by their husbands. The mother’s difficulties of being abused may lead them to neglect their children. The findings suggest that ‘family order’ is a significant protective factor against child maltreatment. The results suggest that if the family order is neither too high nor too low than that can play a role as a protective factor. Soft type of ISC is significantly associated with child maltreatment. This study suggests that the soft type of ISC by the extended families is a helpful approach to develop child protection in both the countries. This study is analyzed the data collected from Seoul and Kathmandu families and neighborhood study (SKFNS). Random probability cluster sample of married or partnered women in 20 Kathmandu wards and in Seoul 34 dongs were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. Overall, the study is to make a comparative study of Korea and Nepal and examine how the cultural differences and similarities associate with the child maltreatment.

Keywords: child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, informal social control and family order Seoul, Kathmandu

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1221 The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Child Abuse in South Korea: Focused on the Moderating Effects of Patriarchal Attitude and Informal Social Control

Authors: Hye Lin Yang, Clifton R. Emery

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of intimate partner violence on child abuse, whether patriarchal attitude and informal social control moderate the relationship between intimate partner violence and child abuse. This study was conducted with data from The Seoul Families and Neighborhoods Study (SFNS). The SFNS is a representative random probability 3-stage cluster sample of 541 cohabiting couples in Seoul, South Korea collected in 2012. To verify research models, Random effect analysis were used. All analyses were performed using the Stata program. Results: Crucial findings are the following. First, intimate partner violence showed a significantly positive relationship with Child abuse. Second, there are significant moderating effects of informal social control on intimate partner violence - child abuse. Third, there are significant moderating effects of patriarchal attitude on intimate partner violence - child abuse. In other words, Patriarchal attitude is a significant risk factor of child abuse and informal social control is a significant Protection factor of child abuse. Based on results, the policy and practical implications for preventing child abuse, promoting informal social control were discussed.

Keywords: Intimate partner violence, child abuse, informal social control, patriarchal attitude

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1220 Traditionalism and Modernity in Seoul’s Urban Planning for the Disabled

Authors: Helena Park

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For the last three decades, Seoul has experienced an exponential increase in population and concomitant rapid urbanization. With such development, Korea adopted a predominantly Western style of architecture but still based the structures on Korea’s traditionalism and Confucian precepts of pung su (feng shui). While Korean urban planning is focusing on balancing out the modernism and traditionalism in its city architecture, particularly in and landmark sites like The Seoul N Tower and Gyeongbok Palace, the accessibility and convenience concerns of minorities in social groups like the disabled are habitually disregarded. With the implementations of ramps and elevators, the welfare of all citizens seemed to improve. According to the dictates of traditional Korean culture, it was crucial for those construed as “disabled” or “underprivileged” to feel natural in the city of Seoul, which is planned and built with the background aesthetic theory of being harmonized with nature. It was interesting and also alarming to see the extent to which Korean landmarks were lacking facilities for the disabled throughout the city. Standards set by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Seoul Metropolitan City insist that buildings accommodate the needs of the disabled as well as the non-disabled equally, but it was hard to find buildings in Seoul - old or new - that fulfilled all the requirements. If fulfilled, some of the facilities were hard to find or not well maintained. There is thus a serious concern for planning reform in connection with Seoul’s 2030 Urban Plan. This paper argues that alternative planning could better integrate Korea’s traditionalist architecture and concepts of pung su rather than insist on the necessity of Western-style modernism as the sole modality for achieving accessibility for the disabled in Korea.

Keywords: accessibility, architecture of Seoul , Pung Su (Feng Shui), traditionalism, modernism in Seoul

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1219 Child Marriage and the Law in Nigeria

Authors: Kolawole-Amao, Grace Titilayo

Abstract:

Children are the most vulnerable members of the society. The child is a foundation of the society and he/she assures its continuity. Thus, the survival, continuity and the standard of development of human society depends upon the protection, preservation, nurture and development of the child. In other words, the rights of a child must be protected and guaranteed for the assurance of a healthy society. The law is an instrument of social change in any society as well as a potent weapon to combat crime, achieve justice for the people and protect their rights. In Nigeria, child marriage still occurs, though its prevalence varies from one region to another. This paper shall Centre on child rights under the law in Nigeria, child marriage and its impact on the child, obstacles in eliminating child marriages and measures that have been adopted as well as the role of the law and its effect in deterring child marriage in Nigeria.

Keywords: child rights, child marriage, law, Nigeria

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1218 Role of Family for Grooming a Child: A Protective Step for Vulnerable Child

Authors: Arpita Sabat, Kanaklata Samal

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A child is the most innocent being on the earth. It is born innocent but the family, the community, the institution and the world at large always butcher its innocence. This paper aims at the role of family for the development of a child in different ethnic or social groups. Family, in fact, is the nucleus in the growth and development of the child. A child grows up with the idea that a family is the world around him. The child tries to emulate consciously or unconsciously from the surrounding. This imitation has serious impact on the development of the child. It even sometimes cripples or stunts the growth of a mind. It results in the disability of the child. All policies about education or changing of curriculum can not bring about a change in the plight of a child’s life unless there is a serious thinking about the role of a family and the contribution of a family to the development of a child.

Keywords: vulnerable child, grooming, surrounding, role of family

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1217 Estimation of Carbon Uptake of Seoul City Street Trees in Seoul and Plans for Increase Carbon Uptake by Improving Species

Authors: Min Woo Park, Jin Do Chung, Kyu Yeol Kim, Byoung Uk Im, Jang Woo Kim, Hae Yeul Ryu

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Nine representative species of trees among all the street trees were selected to estimate the absorption amount of carbon dioxide emitted from street trees in Seoul calculating the biomass, amount of carbon saved, and annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide in each of the species. Planting distance of street trees in Seoul was 1,851,180 m, the number of planting lines was 1,287, the number of planted trees was 284,498 and 46 species of trees were planted as of 2013. According to the result of plugging the quantity of species of street trees in Seoul on the absorption amount of each of the species, 120,097 ton of biomass, 60,049.8 ton of amount of carbon saved, and 11,294 t CO2/year of annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide were calculated. Street ratio mentioned on the road statistics in Seoul in 2022 is 23.13%. If the street trees are assumed to be increased in the same rate, the number of street trees in Seoul was calculated to be 294,823. The planting distance was estimated to be 1,918,360 m, and the annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide was measured to be 11,704 t CO2/year. Plans for improving the annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide from street trees were established based on the expected amount of absorption. First of all, it is to improve the annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide by increasing the number of planted street trees after adjusting the planting distance of street trees. If adjusting the current planting distance to 6 m, it was turned out that 12,692.7 t CO2/year was absorbed on an annual basis. Secondly, it is to change the species of trees to tulip trees that represent high absorption rate. If increasing the proportion of tulip trees to 30% up to 2022, the annual absorption rate of carbon dioxide was calculated to be 17804.4 t CO2/year.

Keywords: absorption of carbon dioxide, source of absorbing carbon dioxide, trees in city, improving species

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1216 Assessing the Impact of Renewable Energy on Regional Sustainability: A Comparative Study of Suwon and Seoul

Authors: Jongsoo Jurng

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The drive to expand renewable energies is often in direct conflict with sustainable development goals. Thus, it is important that energy policies account for potential trade-offs. We assess the interlinkages between energy, food, water, and land, for two case studies, Suwon and Seoul. We apply a range of assessment methods and study their usefulness as tools to identify trade-offs and to compare the sustainability performance. We calculate cross-sectoral footprints, self-sufficiency ratios and perform a simplified Energy-Water-Food nexus analysis. We use the latter for assessing scenarios to increase energy and food self-sufficiency in Suwon, while we use ecosystem service (ESS) accounting for Seoul. For Suwon, we find that constraints on the energy, food and water sectors urgently call for integrated approaches to energy policy; for Seoul, the further expansion of renewables comes at the expense of cultural and supporting ESS, which could outweigh gains from increased energy exports. We recommend a general upgrade to indicators and visualization methods that look beyond averages and a fostering of infrastructure for data on sustainable development based on harmonized international protocols. We warn against rankings of countries or regions based on benchmarks that are neither theory-driven nor location-specific.

Keywords: ESS, renewable energy, energy-water-food nexus, assessment

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1215 Girl Child Education: A Veritable Tool to Gender Equality and Empowerment

Authors: Egena Obaje Innocent

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In Africa generally and Nigeria in particular one the major setbacks for the girl-child is her deprivation or denial if you like to equal opportunity to education. In most Nigerian communities which are male dominated parents make no pretense of their preference of the male children when it come to the choice of who to send to school between the male and female child. Indeed, certain inhibiting cultural and religious practices are the root cause of this annually. It is against this background that this paper looked at the phenomenon the girl-child education, causes of the negligent its effects on the girl child and nation remedies and conclusion.

Keywords: education, empowerment, girl child, gender equality

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1214 Physical Health, Depression and Related Factors for Elementary School Students in Seoul, South Korea

Authors: Kyung-Sook Bang

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Background: The health status of school-age children has a great influence on their growth and life-long health. The purposes of this study were to identify physical and mental health status of late school-age children in Seoul, South Korea and to investigate the related factors for their health. Methods: After gaining the approval from Institutional Review Board (IRB), a cross-sectional study was conducted with elementary students in grade 4 or 5. Questionnaires were distributed to eight elementary schools located different regions of Seoul in November, 2016, and 302 participants were finally included. From all participants, informed consents from the parents, and assents from children were received. Children's socioeconomic status, family functioning, peer relations, physical health symptoms, and depression were measured with self-reported questionnaires. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson’s correlations, and multiple regression. Results: Children's physical health symptoms and depression were not significantly different, and only their peer relations were significantly different according to their socioeconomic status (t=-3.93, p<.001). Depression showed significant positive correlation with physical health symptoms (r=.720, p<.001) and negative correlations with family functioning (r=-.428, p<.001) and peer relations (r=-.775, p<.001). The multiple regression model, which explained 73.5% of variance, showed peer relations (r2 =.604), physical health symptoms (r2 change=.125), and family functioning (r2 change=.005) as significant predictors for depression. Only the peer relations was significant predictor for their physical health symptoms and explained 50.6% of it. Conclusions: The peer relations was the most important factor in their physical and mental health at this age, and it can be affected by their socioeconomic status. Nursing interventions for promoting social relations and family functioning are required to improve children’s physical and mental health, especially for vulnerable population.

Keywords: child, depression, health, peer relation

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1213 Passenger Flow Characteristics of Seoul Metropolitan Subway Network

Authors: Kang Won Lee, Jung Won Lee

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Characterizing the network flow is of fundamental importance to understand the complex dynamics of networks. And passenger flow characteristics of the subway network are very relevant for an effective transportation management in urban cities. In this study, passenger flow of Seoul metropolitan subway network is investigated and characterized through statistical analysis. Traditional betweenness centrality measure considers only topological structure of the network and ignores the transportation factors. This paper proposes a weighted betweenness centrality measure that incorporates monthly passenger flow volume. We apply the proposed measure on the Seoul metropolitan subway network involving 493 stations and 16 lines. Several interesting insights about the network are derived from the new measures. Using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we also find out that monthly passenger flow between any two stations follows a power-law distribution and other traffic characteristics such as congestion level and throughflow traffic follow exponential distribution.

Keywords: betweenness centrality, correlation coefficient, power-law distribution, Korea traffic DB

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1212 Molecular Detection of Viruses Causing Hemorrhagic Fevers in Rodents in the South-West of Korea

Authors: Sehrish Jalal, Choon-Mee Kim, Dong-Min Kim

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Background: Many pathogens causing hemorrhagic fevers of medical and veterinary importance have been identified and isolated from rodents in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Objective: We investigated the prevalence of emerging viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and flaviviruses, from wild rodents. Methods: Striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius, (n=39) were captured during 2014-2015 in the south-west of ROK. Using molecular methods, lung samples were evaluated for SFTS virus, HFRS virus and flavivirus, and seropositivity was evaluated in the blood. Results: A high positive rate of Hantavirus (46.2%) was detected in A.agrarius lungs by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-N-PCR). The monthly prevalence of HFRS virus was 16.7% in October, 86.7% in November and 25% in August of the following year (p < 0.001). Moreover, 17.9% of blood samples were serologically positive for Hantavirus antibodies. The most prevalent strain in A. agrarius was Hantaan virus. All samples were positive for neither SFTS nor flavivirus. Conclusion: Hantan virus was detected in 86.7% of A. agrarius in November (autumn), and thus, virus shedding from A. agrarius can increase the risk of humans contracting HFRS. These findings may help to predict and prevent disease outbreaks in ROK.

Keywords: hemorrhagic fever virus, molecular diagnostic technique, rodents, Korea

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1211 Root Causes of Child Labour in Hargeisa, Somaliland

Authors: Abdikarim Yusuf

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This study uses data from Somalia to analyse child labour using a descriptive and qualitative method. The study set out to identify root causes of child labour in Hargeisa and its implications for children. The study shows that poverty, droughts, family separation, and loss of properties are primary drivers of child labour in Hargeisa. The study found that children work in very difficult jobs such as car wash, casual work, and shoe shining for boys while girls work as housemaids, selling tea, Khat and sometimes are at risk of exploitation such as sexual abuse, rape and harassment. The majority of the parents responded that they don’t know any policy, act or law that protects children. Men showed greater awareness than the women respondents in recognizing child labour as a child rights violation.

Keywords: abuse, child, violence, protection

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1210 Cooperation and Conflict in Child Rearing Practices among Parents in Indian Context

Authors: Jilly John

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The paper reports one of the study conducted to explore the dimensions of child rearing practice and effects of power difference among parents on child rearing practices adopted in the families. The first objective investigated dimensions of child rearing practices (a) overprotection (b) disciplinarian, (c) esteem building, (d) normal, (e) harsh (f) ridicule, and (g) rejection. The second objective investigated difference among father and mother on child rearing practices. The results of the study revealed that dimensions of child rearing practices are crucial variables which resulted in form of major deviations in distribution of parents in the seven dimensions. Analysis of objective two revealed that harsh and ridicule dimensions of child rearing practices are significantly different among father and mother. The dimensions are also different when the parents are employed and according to the type of families. Thus the results of the study present the possibility of changed child rearing practices among Indian families in relation to prevalent sociodemographic changes and indicate the necessity to re-examine culture-based explanations on child rearing practices.

Keywords: child rearing practices, dimensions of child rearing, difference among parents, Indian families

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1209 Stop Forced Child Marriage: A Comparative Global Law Analysis

Authors: Michelle J. Miller

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Millions of girls are forcibly married during the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. At a stage of vulnerability; cultural practices, religious rights, and social standards place girls in a position where they are catapult into womanhood. An advocate against forced child marriage could argue that child rights, cultural rights, religious rights, right to marry, right to life, right to health, right to education, right to be free from slavery, right to be free from torture, right to consent to marriage are all violated by the practice of child marriage. This paper will present how some of these rights are violated and how they establish the need for change.

Keywords: child marriage, forced child marriage, children's rights, religious rights, cultural rights

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1208 Modeling Child Development Factors for the Early Introduction of ICTs in Schools

Authors: K. E. Oyetade, S. D. Eyono Obono

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One of the fundamental characteristics of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been the ever-changing nature of continuous release and models of ICTs with its impact on the academic, social, and psychological benefits of its introduction in schools. However, there seems to be a growing concern about its negative impact on students when introduced early in schools for teaching and learning. This study aims to design a model of child development factors affecting the early introduction of ICTs in schools in an attempt to improve the understanding of child development and introduction of ICTs in schools. The proposed model is based on a sound theoretical framework. It was designed following a literature review of child development theories and child development factors. The child development theoretical framework that fitted to the best of all child development factors was then chosen as the basis for the proposed model. This study hence found that the Jean Piaget cognitive developmental theory is the most adequate theoretical frameworks for modeling child development factors for ICT introduction in schools.

Keywords: child development factors, child development theories, ICTs, theory

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1207 Building Green Infrastructure Networks Based on Cadastral Parcels Using Network Analysis

Authors: Gon Park

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Seoul in South Korea established the 2030 Seoul City Master Plan that contains green-link projects to connect critical green areas within the city. However, the plan does not have detailed analyses for green infrastructure to incorporate land-cover information to many structural classes. This study maps green infrastructure networks of Seoul for complementing their green plans with identifying and raking green areas. Hubs and links of main elements of green infrastructure have been identified from incorporating cadastral data of 967,502 parcels to 135 of land use maps using geographic information system. Network analyses were used to rank hubs and links of a green infrastructure map with applying a force-directed algorithm, weighted values, and binary relationships that has metrics of density, distance, and centrality. The results indicate that network analyses using cadastral parcel data can be used as the framework to identify and rank hubs, links, and networks for the green infrastructure planning under a variable scenarios of green areas in cities.

Keywords: cadastral data, green Infrastructure, network analysis, parcel data

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1206 A Case Study on Improving Language Skills of Preschoolers by Parent-Child Reading

Authors: Hoi Yan Lau

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In Hong Kong, most families have working parents, and the primary caregivers of young children are helpers. This leads to a lack of interaction and language expression in children’s home environment, which affects their language development. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of parent-child reading in improving young children’s language skills. A 4-year-old girl and her mother are recruited to a 3 months’ parent-child reading program. There is a total of 26 reading sessions which target to enhance the parent’s skill of parent-child reading and to assess the child’s language ability. At the same time, the child’s use of language in normal classroom settings is analyzed by anecdotal records. It is shown that the parent is able to use more and better guiding questions during parent-child reading after this program, which in turn leads to more and longer response of the child during the reading sessions. The child also has an increase in Mean Length of Utterance and has a higher frequency of using complete sentences when interacting with other classmates in the classroom. It is worthwhile to further investigate the inclusion of promoting parent-child reading to enhance children’s language development in preschool curriculum planning.

Keywords: Hong Kong, language skills, parent-child reading, preschoolers

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1205 Child Mental Abuse: An Unseen Scar

Authors: Ian C. Padgett

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Future of society is built on the foundations built by the parents of today and how they raise their children. Strong foundations are made by accepting environments, good morals, and sound educations. Child abuse is a harm that immediately corrupts a child and everything that could do for society. Every child is a segment of modern society and future society, every child corrupted is a segment of society corrupted. Physical abuse is a clear abuse that leaves bruises and can traumatize a child for life, it can leave scars but effect a child’s mind for life. Another form of abuse, however, still impacts a child for life but with no scars to be seen. Child mental abuse directly targets children’s minds to control, manipulate, and belittle them. It becomes close to impossible to escape as there is no clear law defining mental abuse, the parent manipulates the child to stay quiet, and finally the child must come to terms that there parent is harming them. Society does not react to mental and physical abuse in the same manner. In a society that works to protect it future and it children, mental abuse is given a strange lack of attention. In order to protect children, all forms of abuse must be treated and given attention to. Mental abuse comes in many forms and can be extremely hard to spot, unlike physical abuse, but can still lead to the trauma other abuse can cause. While no abuse is worse than others, mental abuse should not be treated like it is nonexistent.

Keywords: Abuse Awareness, Child Mental Abuse, Effects of Abuse, Societal Issues

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1204 Using Urban Conversion to Green Public Space as a Tool to Generate Urban Change: Case of Seoul

Authors: Rachida Benabbou, Sang Hun Park, Hee Chung Lee

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The world’s population is increasing with unprecedented speed, leading to fast growing urbanization pace. Cities since the Industrial revolution had evolved to fit the growing demand on infrastructure, roads, transportation, and housing. Through this evolution, cities had grown into grey, polluted, and vehicle-oriented urban areas with a significant lack of green spaces. Consequently, we ended up with low quality of life for citizens. Therefore, many cities, nowadays, are revising the way we think urbanism and try to grow into more livable and citizen-friendly, by creating change from the inside out. Thus, cities are trying to bring back nature in its crowded grey centers and regenerate many urban areas as green public spaces not only as a way to give new breath to the city, but also as a way to create change either in the environmental, social and economic levels. The city of Seoul is one of the fast growing global cities. Its population is over 12 million and it is expected to continue to grow to a point where the quality of life may seriously deteriorate. As most green areas in Seoul are located in the suburbs in form of mountains, the city’s urban areas suffer from lack of accessible green spaces in a walking distance. Understanding the gravity and consequences of this issue, Seoul city is undergoing major changes. Many of its projects are oriented to be green public spaces where citizens can enjoy the public life in healthy outdoors. The aim of this paper is to explore the results of urban conversions into green public spaces. Starting with different locations, nature, size, and scale, these conversions can lead to significant change in the surrounding areas, thus can be used as an efficient tool of regeneration for urban areas. Through a comparative analysis of three different types of urban conversions projects in the city of Seoul, we try to show the positive urban influence of the outcomes, in order to encourage cities to use green spaces as a strategic tool for urban regeneration and redevelopment.

Keywords: urban conversion, green public space, change, urban regeneration

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1203 First Formaldehyde Retrieval Using the Raw Data Obtained from Pandora in Seoul: Investigation of the Temporal Characteristics and Comparison with Ozone Monitoring Instrument Measurement

Authors: H. Lee, J. Park

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In this present study, for the first time, we retrieved the Formaldehyde (HCHO) Vertical Column Density (HCHOVCD) using Pandora instruments in Seoul, a megacity in northeast Asia, for the period between 2012 and 2014 and investigated the temporal characteristics of HCHOVCD. HCHO Slant Column Density (HCHOSCD) was obtained using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. HCHOSCD was converted to HCHOVCD using geometric Air Mass Factor (AMFG) as Pandora is the direct-sun measurement. The HCHOVCDs is low at 12:00 Local Time (LT) and is high in the morning (10:00 LT) and late afternoon (16:00 LT) except for winter. The maximum (minimum) values of Pandora HCHOVCD are 2.68×1016 (1.63×10¹⁶), 3.19×10¹⁶ (2.23×10¹⁶), 2.00×10¹⁶ (1.26×10¹⁶), and 1.63×10¹⁶ (0.82×10¹⁶) molecules cm⁻² in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. In terms of seasonal variations, HCHOVCD was high in summer and low in winter which implies that photo-oxidation plays an important role in HCHO production in Seoul. In comparison with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, the HCHOVCDs from the OMI are lower than those from Pandora. The correlation coefficient (R) between monthly HCHOVCDs values from Pandora and OMI is 0.61, with slop of 0.35. Furthermore, to understand HCHO mixing ratio within Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) in Seoul, we converted Pandora HCHOVCDs to HCHO mixing ratio in the PBL using several meteorological input data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). Seasonal HCHO mixing ratio in PBL converted from Pandora (OMI) HCHOVCDs are estimated to be 6.57 (5.17), 7.08 (6.68), 7.60 (4.70), and 5.00 (4.76) ppbv in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively.

Keywords: formaldehyde, OMI, Pandora, remote sensing

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1202 The Aspect of Urban Inequality after Urban Redevelopment Projects

Authors: Sungik Kang, Ja-Hoon Koo

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Globally, urban environments have become unequal, and cities have been segmented by income class. It is predicted that urban inequality has arisen by urban redevelopment and reconstruction projects that improve the urban environment and innovate cities. This study aims to analyze the occurrence and characteristics of urban inequality by using the housing price and sale price and demonstrating the correlation with the urban redevelopment project. This study measures 14 years of urban inequality index for 25 autonomous districts in Seoul and analyzes the correlation between urban inequality with urban redevelopment projects. As a conclusion of this study, first, the urban inequality index of Seoul has been continuously rising since 2015. Trends from 2006 to 2019 have been in U-curved shape in between 2015. In 2019, Seoul's urban inequality index was 0.420, a level similar to that of the 2007 financial crisis. Second, the correlation between urban redevelopment and urban inequality was not statistically significant. Therefore, we judged that urban redevelopment's scale or project structure has nothing with urban inequality. Third, while district designation of urban reconstruction temporarily alleviates urban inequality, the completion of the project increases urban inequality. When designating a district, urban inequality is likely to decrease due to decreased outdated housing transactions. However, the correlation with urban inequality increases as expensive houses has been placed after project completion.

Keywords: urban inequality, urban redevelopment projects, urban reconstruction projects, housing price inequality, panel analysis

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1201 The Implementation of Child Adoption as Legal Protection of Children

Authors: Sonny Dewi Judiasih

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The principle of a marriage is to achieve a happy and eternity family based on the willing of the God. The family has a fundamental role in the society as a social individual and as a nuclear family consists of father, mother, and children. Thus, each family always would like to have children who will continue the family. However, not all family will be blessed with children and consequently, there is family without children. Therefore, the said the certain family will do any effort to fulfill the wish to have children. One of the ways is to adopt children. The implementation of child adoption is conducted by the family who does not have children but sometimes child adoption is conducted by a family who has already children. The implementation of child adoption is based on the interest of the welfare and the intellectual of the said child. Moreover, it should be based on the social liability of the individual in accordance with the developing of the traditional values as part of the nation culture. The child adoption is conducted for the welfare of the child demonstrates that a change on the basic motive (value) whereby in the past the child adoption is to fulfill the wish of foster parent (to have children in the family). Nowadays the purpose of child adoption is not merely for the interest of foster parent but in particular for the interest, welfare and the future of the child. The development of the society has caused the occurrence of changes of perspective in the society which lead to a need for new law. The court of justice has an impact of such changes. It is evidenced by the court order for child adoption in the legal framework of certainty of law. The changes of motives (value) of the child adoption in the society can be fully understood in the event that the society fully understand that the ultimate purpose of Indonesia nation is to achieve a justice and prosperity society, i.e., social welfare for all Indonesian people.

Keywords: child adoption, family law, legal protection, children

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1200 Infant and Child Mortality among the Low Socio-Economic Households in India

Authors: Narendra Kumar

Abstract:

This study uses data from the ‘National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06’ to investigate the predictors of infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. The cross tabulation, life table survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard model techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of infant and child mortality. The life table survival estimates for infant and child mortality shows that infant mortality in female child is lower in comparison to male child but with child mortality, the rates are higher for female in comparison to male child and the Cox proportional hazard model also give highly significant in female in comparison to male child. The infant and child mortality rates among poor households highest in the Central region followed by North and Northeast region and the lowest in South region in comparison to all regions of India. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics in both analyzes, further birth interval, respondent occupation, caste/tribe and place of delivery has substantial impact on infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. Finally these findings specified that an increase in parents’ education, improve health care services and improve socioeconomic conditions of low economic households which should in turn raise infant and child survival and should decrease child mortality among low economic households in India.

Keywords: infant, child, mortality, socio-economic, India

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1199 The Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students from Only-Child Families: A National Survey in China

Authors: Jiashu Shen

Abstract:

This study aims at exploring the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Chinese college students from the 'one-child' families compared with those with siblings. This study utilized the data from the 'National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019'. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between the 'only-child' and their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors (RSB) stratified by sex and home regions, respectively. Compared with students with siblings, the 'only-child' students scored higher in sex-related knowledge (only-child students: 4.49 ± 2.28, students with siblings: 3.60 ± 2.27). Stronger associations between only-child and more liberal sexual attitudes were found in urban areas, including the approval of premarital sexual intercourse (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.50-1.65) and multiple sexual partners (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.72-1.99). For risky sexual behaviors, being only-child is more likely to use condoms in first sexual intercourse, especially among male students (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80). Only-child students are more likely to have more sexual knowledge, more liberal sexual attitude, and less risky sexual behavior. Further health policy and sex education should focus more on students with siblings.

Keywords: attitudes and behaviors, only-child students, sexual knowledge, students with siblings

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1198 Criminal Protection Objectivity of the Child's Right to Life and Physical and Psychological Safety

Authors: Hezha Hewa, Taher Sur

Abstract:

Nowadays, child affairs is a matter of both national and international interests. This issue is regarded a vital topic for various scientific fields across ages, and for all the communities without exception. However, the nature of child caring may vary due to the verities in science perspectives. So, considering child's affairs from different perspectives is helpful to have a complementary image about this matter. The purpose behind selecting this topic is to keep a balance between the victim on the one hand, and the guardian and the offender on the other hand, (i.e.) to avoid any kind of excessiveness either in the protection of the child and its rights not in the punishment of the offender. This is achieved through considering various legal materials in the Iraqi legislation and in the comparative legislations that are concerned with the child's issue and the extent to which the child makes use of these rights. The scope of this study involves the crimes that are considered as aggressions against the child's right to life, and the crimes that are dangerous to their physical and psychological safety. So, this study comprehensively considers the intentional murder of child, child murder to avoid disgrace, child kidnapping, child abandonment, physical abuse for the sake of punishment or not, child circumcision, verbal violence, and abstaining from leaving a child with a person who has the right of custody. This study ends with the most significant concluding points that have been derived throughout this study, which are: Unlike the Iraqi legislation, the Egyptian legislation defines the child in the Article 2 of the Child Law No. 12 of 1996 amended by the Law No. 126 of 2008 that the child is a person who does not exceed 18 years of age. Some legislation does not provide special criminal protection for child intentional murder, as in the Iraqi and the Egyptian legislation. However, some others have provided special criminal protection for a child, as in French and Syrian legislations. Child kidnapping is regarded as one of the most dangerous crimes that affects the child and the family as well, as it may expose the child's life to danger or to death. The most significant recommendations from the researcher are: The Iraqi legislation is recommended to take the necessary measures to establish a particular legislation for the child by including all the legal provisions that are associated with this weak creature, and make use of the Egyptian legislator’s experience as a pioneer in this respect. Both the Iraqi legislation and the Egyptian legislation are recommended to enact special laws to protect a child from the crimes of intentional murder, as the crime of child murder is currently subjected to the same provisions consider for adult murder.

Keywords: child, criminal, penal, law, safety

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1197 Emotion Regulation in Young Adult Relationships in Relation to Parenting Styles

Authors: Taylor Brown

Abstract:

The parent-child attachment bond begins early, often before the birth of the child. Both father and mother begin to form a bond with their child by selecting a name, preparing for the birth, etc. The biological mother carries the child and often breastfeeds the infant after birth. While fathers play an important role in caring for the child as well, the mother is traditionally seen as the caregiver with the primary role of caring for her baby. These core ideas could include how to form bonds, how to communicate emotions, and even how to create and maintain relationships. Mothers tend to shape their children’s minds based on their own. Studies have even shown that when mothers stroke their children’s bodies with their fingers, the child does calm down more than most other methods. The bond between mother and child is one that happens immediately and strengthens over time. This attachment affects the child’s overall development. The mother-child attachment style is directly linked to a multitude of patterns in adolescents, and later on, adults. The researcher believes that the subsequent patterns of communication in romantic relationships are included in the multitude. Awareness of these patterns and their effects could improve experiences in romantic relationships during young adulthood.

Keywords: emotion regulation, parenting, maternal, attachment, romantic

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1196 Associations between Parental Divorce Process Variables and Parent-Child Relationships Quality in Young Adulthood

Authors: Klara Smith-Etxeberria

Abstract:

main goal of this study was to analyze the predictive ability of some variables associated with the parental divorce process alongside attachment history with parents on both, mother-child and father-child relationship quality. Our sample consisted of 173 undergraduate and vocational school students from the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. All of them belonged to a divorced family. Results showed that adequate maternal strategies during the divorce process (e.g.: stable, continuous and positive role as a mother) was the variable with greater predictive ability on mother-child relationships quality. In addition, secure attachment history with mother also predicted positive mother-child relationships. On the other hand, father-child relationship quality was predicted by adequate paternal strategies during the divorce process, such as his stable, continuous and positive role as a father, along with not badmouthing the mother and promoting good mother-child relationships. Furthermore, paternal negative emotional state due to divorce was positively associated with father-child relationships quality, and both, history of attachment with mother and with father predicted father-child relationships quality. In conclusion, our data indicate that both, paternal and maternal strategies for children´s adequate adjustment during the divorce process influence on mother-child and father-child relationships quality. However, these results suggest that paternal strategies during the divorce process have a greater predictive ability on father-child relationships quality, whereas maternal positive strategies during divorce determine positive mother-child relationships among young adults.

Keywords: father-child relationships quality, mother-child relationships quality, parental divorce process, young adulthood

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1195 Case Study of Child Labour in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Ali Ansari, Hassan Arshad, Basharat Hussani, Adnan Raza, Ahmad Ali Khan

Abstract:

Child labor is a kind of an issue which was found all over the world, but now the first world countries like countries in Europe and America (USA) got hold of it up to a large extent but Underdeveloped or the developing countries including Pakistan are still a victim of this issue. The following attempt has been made in this research article to figure out the main reasons of child labor in underdeveloped countries especially in Pakistan and also some of the issues are discussed which are hindering the solution of child labor in Pakistan. In this research we interviewed 70 working children in the area of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Hatar who belonged to the different parts of the country and figured out the basic causes of the child labor in Pakistan, what are its bad effects on the young one who is a victim of it and we also put a light on what the government of Pakistan is doing in this context and what the government still have to do.

Keywords: child labour, Pakistan, case study, underdeveloped countries

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1194 Adopting Home Nursing as a Remedy for Child Labour in Nigeria

Authors: T. O. Adeoye

Abstract:

In Nigeria prior to the arrival of the colonial masters, there used to be good family relationship, things were done through cooperation and community effort, even training and upbringing of a child was the responsibility of every member of the community. The advent of western education and civilization brought about movement of youths from rural to urban areas. Hence the tie that binds the village life is broken, community as a whole is no more responsible for the upbringing or home training of her children any more. The study investigates adoption of home nursing as a remedy for child labour in Nigeria, considered challenges like poverty, broken homes and illiteracy among others. For the purpose of verification, a survey in form of an opinion poll was conducted by means of interview using questionnaires for about 3000 respondents. However, out of the respondents that were interviewed as regard parental poverty and its resultant effect on a child only 14.2% of the respondent strongly disagreed that children work on the street because their parents are poor. The study shows that possible solutions of effective ways of controlling child labour is home nursing and also promoting and advocating for the policies against child labour in Nigeria.

Keywords: child abuse, child labour, psychological problem, Street children

Procedia PDF Downloads 268