Search results for: critical theory
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9292

Search results for: critical theory

9292 Critical Realism as a Bridge between Critical Pedagogy and Queer Theory

Authors: Mike Seal


This paper explores the traditions of critical and queer pedagogy, its intersections, tensions and paradoxes. Critical pedagogy, with a materialist realist ontology, and queer theory, which is often post-modern, post-structural and anti-essential, may not seem compatible. Similarly, there are tensions between activist orientations, often enacted through essential sexual identities, and a queer approach that questions such identities and subjectivities. It will argue that critical realism gives us a bridge between critical and queer pedagogy in preserving a realist materialist ontology, where economic forces are real, and independent of consciousness and hermeneutic constructions of them. At the same time, it offers an epistemology that does not necessitate a binary view of the roles of the oppressed, liberator, or even oppressor. It accepts that our knowledge is contingent, partial and contestable, but has the potential, and enough validity, to demand action and potentially inform the actions of others.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, queer pedagogy, critical realsim, heteronormativity

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9291 The Process of Critical Care Nursing Resilience in Workplace Adversity

Authors: Jennifer Jackson


Critical care nurses are at risk for burnout when confronted with sustained workplace adversity, which stems from a variety of social, structural, and environmental factors. Researchers have suggested that nurses can become resilient and overcome workplace adversity to achieve positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to learn more about critical care nurses’ experiences with workplace adversity, and their process of becoming resilient. The research question will be: what is the process of critical care nursing resilience in workplace adversity? In-depth interviews with critical care nurses will provide the data to inductively generate the grounded theory. The resultant grounded theory will provide a framework to inform nurses and managers in developing interventions to support critical care nurses in their workplace. By enhancing nursing resilience, burnout may be avoided, and nurse satisfaction and overall quality of care may be improved.

Keywords: nursing, resilience, burnout, critical care

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9290 [Keynote Speech]: An Overview on the Effectiveness of Critical Thinking on Knowledge

Authors: Solehah Yaacob


The study focuses on revisiting the effectiveness of Critical Thinking in human mind capability as a major faculty in human life. The tool used as a measurement of this knowledge ability consists of several processes including experience and education background. To emphasize the `Overview` concept, the researcher highlights two major aspects of philosophical approach, they are; Divine Revelation Concept and Modern Scientific Theory. The research compares between the both parties to introduce the Divine Revelation into Modern Scientific theory. An analytical and critical study of the both concepts become the methodology of the discussion.

Keywords: critical thinking, knowledge, intellectual, language

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9289 Sociocultural and Critical Approach for Summer Study Abroad Program in Higher Education

Authors: Magda Silva


This paper presents the empirical and the theoretical principles associated with the Duke in Brazil Summer Program. Using a sociocultural model and critical theory, this study abroad maximizes students’ ability to enrich language competence, intercultural skills, and critical thinking. The fourteen-year implementation of this project demonstrates the global importance of foreign language teaching as the program unfolds into real life scenarios within the cultures of distinct regions of Brazil; Cosmopolitan Rio, in the southeast, and rural Belém, northern Amazon region.

Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoretical

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9288 Thermal Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams with Various Boundary Conditions

Authors: Gholamreza Koochaki


This paper presents the buckling analysis of functionally graded beams with various boundary conditions. The first order shear deformation beam theory (Timoshenko beam theory) and the classical theory (Euler-Bernoulli beam theory) of Reddy have been applied to the functionally graded beams buckling analysis The material property gradient is assumed to be in thickness direction. The equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, classical theory and first order shear deformation theory assumption. The temperature difference and applied voltage are assumed to be constant. The critical buckling temperature of FG beams are upper than the isotropic ones. Also, the critical temperature is different for various boundary conditions.

Keywords: buckling, functionally graded beams, Hamilton's principle, Euler-Bernoulli beam

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9287 Rethinking International Relations Theory through the Lens of Outside-in Logic of State-Building

Authors: Nana Kwasi Amoateng


The paper uses secondary information to investigate some longstanding limitations in International Relations (IR) theory. Specifically, the analysis highlights IR theory through the lens of J. C. Sharman’s brilliant concept of outside-in state-building logic in which some states, particularly those in Africa, have relied mainly on foreign resources to address local threats. The key findings are that IR theory has been largely understood from the perspective of an inside-out state-building logic, whereby Western and other advanced states have heavily relied on local resources to address foreign threats. In this vein, IR theorists, including Critical Theorists, have not been able to fully grasp African states and states elsewhere that have generally relied on an outside-in logic of state-building. The paper helps to fill a major gap in IR theory, which has mainly addressed criticisms of being Euro- or Western-centric or failing to include the unique experiences of states and other actors in the Global South by developing critical theories such as post-colonial theory and neo-colonialism. Although this has helped to understand some experiences of actors in the Global South, the fundamental difference between state-building in the West and the Global South, particularly Africa, has not been adequately explored to fully comprehend why, despite the works of Critical Theorists, IR theory still fails to capture many political and socioeconomic realities in Africa and elsewhere.

Keywords: international relations theory, outside-in state-building logic, inside-out state-building logic, Africa

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9286 Towards an Adornian Critical Theory of the Environment

Authors: Dominic Roulx


Many scholars have in the past decade emphasized the relevance of Adorno’s criticism of the rationalized domination of nature (Naturbeherrschung) for thinking the environmental crisis. Beyond the intersubjective critical models of thinkers such as Habermas and Honneth, Adorno’s critical theory has the benefit, according to them, of disclosing the entwinement of social and natural domination in a critically productive way. The author will be arguing in this paper that Adorno’s model of critical theory displays a theoretical framework that is both original and relevant for thinking the ins and outs of the currentenvironmental crisis. To do so, he first construe Adorno’s understanding of the historical domination of nature and argue that Adorno’s method for its criticizing is immanent critique. He puts emphasis on how his understanding of the domination of nature implicitly implies an account of thedialectical relationship between reason and nature. In doing so, he presents a naturalistic understanding of his idea of the primacy of the object. Second, regarding Adorno’s concept of nature, he discusses what he sees as the shortcomings of many commentators’ understanding of the concept of nature in Adorno. He contends that they tend to fall short of Adorno’s concept of nature in failing to make sense of its thoroughly negative signification, thereby falling into an uncritical and fetichized comprehension of “nature. Third, he discusses the prospect for a possible “reconciliation” (Versöhnung) of nature with society. Highlighting how the domination of nature proves to produce the necessary conditions for its own overcoming, he contends that reconciliation with nature relies mainly on the subject’s capacity for critical self-reflection.

Keywords: german philosophy, adorno, nature, environmental crisis

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9285 Identifying Chaotic Architecture: Origins of Nonlinear Design Theory

Authors: Mohammadsadegh Zanganehfar


Since the modernism, movement, and appearance of modern architecture, an aggressive desire for a general design theory in the theoretical works of architects in the form of books and essays emerges. Since Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown’s published complexity and contradiction in architecture in 1966, the discourse of complexity and volumetric composition has been an important and controversial issue in the discipline. Ever since various theories and essays were involved in this discourse, this paper attempt to identify chaos theory as a scientific model of complexity and its relation to architecture design theory by conducting a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary critical approach through architecture and basic sciences resources. As a result, we identify chaotic architecture as the correlation of chaos theory and architecture as an independent nonlinear design theory with specific characteristics and properties.

Keywords: architecture complexity, chaos theory, fractals, nonlinear dynamic systems, nonlinear ontology

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9284 Comprehensive Critical Review for Static and Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Between Winkler, Pasternak and Three-Dimensional Method of Buried Pipelines

Authors: N.E.Sam, S.R.Singh


Pipeline infrastructure are a valuable asset to the country that help in transporting fluid and gas from one place to another and contribute in keeping the country functioning both physically and economically. During seismic activity, additional loads are acted on the buried pipelines becoming a salient parameter to be studied in soil pipe interaction. Winkler Beam Theory is a commonly used approach for design of underground buried structures however this theory does not take into account shear and dynamic loading parameters in consideration. Shear can be addressed in Pasternak Theory – an improved model of Winkler Theory. However dynamic loading condition and horizontal displacement is not considered in either method. A comprehensive critical review between Winkler Beam Method, Pasternak Method and Three-Dimensional Method in finite element analysis is to be done in this paper for seismic forces. Study of the influence of depth and displacement of soil in correspondence to stiffness value and influence of horizontal displacement for design of underground structures is considered.

Keywords: finite element, pasternak theory, seismic, soil-structure interaction, three-dimensional theory, winkler theory

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9283 Comparison of Two Theories for the Critical Laser Radius in Thermal Quantum Plasma

Authors: Somaye Zare


The critical beam radius is a significant factor that predicts the behavior of the laser beam in the plasma, so if the laser beam radius is adequately greater in comparison to it, the beam will experience stable focusing on the plasma; otherwise, the beam will diverge after entering into the plasma. In this work, considering the paraxial approximation and moment theories, the localization of a relativistic laser beam in thermal quantum plasma is investigated. Using the dielectric function obtained in the quantum hydrodynamic model, the mathematical equation for the laser beam width parameter is attained and solved numerically by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The results demonstrate that the stouter focusing effect is occurred in the moment theory compared to the paraxial approximation. Besides, similar to the two theories, with increasing Fermi temperature, plasma density, and laser intensity, the oscillation rate of the beam width parameter growths and focusing length reduces which means improving the focusing effect. Furthermore, it is understood that behaviors of the critical laser radius are different in the two theories, in the paraxial approximation, the critical radius after a minimum value is enhanced with increasing laser intensity, but in the moment theory, with increasing laser intensity, the critical radius decreases until it becomes independent of the laser intensity.

Keywords: laser localization, quantum plasma, paraxial approximation, moment theory, quantum hydrodynamic model

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9282 Physical Theory for One-Dimensional Correlated Electron Systems

Authors: Nelson Nenuwe


The behavior of interacting electrons in one dimension was studied by calculating correlation functions and critical exponents at zero and external magnetic fields for arbitrary band filling. The technique employed in this study is based on the conformal field theory (CFT). The charge and spin degrees of freedom are separated, and described by two independent conformal theories. A detailed comparison of the t-J model with the repulsive Hubbard model was then undertaken with emphasis on their Tomonaga-Luttinger (TL) liquid properties. Near half-filling the exponents of the t-J model take the values of the strong-correlation limit of the Hubbard model, and in the low-density limit the exponents are those of a non-interacting system. The critical exponents obtained in this study belong to the repulsive TL liquid (conducting phase) and attractive TL liquid (superconducting phase). The theoretical results from this study find applications in one-dimensional organic conductors (TTF-TCNQ), organic superconductors (Bechgaard salts) and carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, DWCNTs and MWCNTs). For instance, the critical exponent at from this study is consistent with the experimental result from optical and photoemission evidence of TL liquid in one-dimensional metallic Bechgaard salt- (TMTSF)2PF6.

Keywords: critical exponents, conformal field theory, Hubbard model, t-J model

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9281 Implications of Stakeholder Theory as a Critical Theory

Authors: Louis Hickman


Stakeholder theory is a powerful conception of the firm based on the notion that a primary focus on shareholders is inadequate and, in fact, detrimental to the long-term health of the firm. As such it represents a departure from prevalent business school teachings with their focus on accounting and cost controls. Herein, it is argued that stakeholder theory can be better conceptualized as a critical theory, or one which represents a fundamental change in business behavior and can transform the behavior of businesses if accepted. By arguing that financial interests underdetermine the success of the firm, stakeholder theory further democratizes business by endorsing an increased awareness of the importance of non-shareholder stakeholders. Stakeholder theory requires new, non-financial, measures of success that provide a new consciousness for management and businesses when conceiving their actions and place in society. Thereby, stakeholder theory can show individuals through self-reflection that the capitalist impulses to generate wealth cannot act as primary drivers of business behavior, but rather, that we would choose to support interests outside ourselves if we made the decision in free discussion. This is due to the false consciousness embedded in our capitalism that the firm’s finances are the foremost concern of modern organizations at the expense of other goals. A focus on non-shareholder stakeholders in addition to shareholders generates greater benefits for society by improving the state of customers, employees, suppliers, the community, and shareholders alike. These positive effects generate further positive gains in well-being for stakeholders and translate into increased health for the future firm. Additionally, shareholders are the only stakeholder group that does not provide long-term firm value since there are not always communities with qualified employees, suppliers capable of providing the quality of product needed, or persons with purchasing power for all conceivable products. Therefore, the firm’s long-term health is benefited most greatly by improving the greatest possible parts of the society in which it inhabits, rather than solely the shareholder.

Keywords: capitalism, critical theory, self-reflection, stakeholder theory

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9280 Relativistic Effects of Rotation

Authors: Yin Rui, Yin Ming, Wang Yang


For a rotational reference frame of the theory of special relativity, the critical radius is defined as the distance from the axis to the point where the tangential velocity is equal to the speed of light, and the critical cylinder as the set of all points separated from the axis by this critical radius. Based on these terms, two relativistic effects of rotation are discovered: (i) the tangential velocity in the region of Outside Critical Cylinder (OCC) is not superluminal due to the existence of space-time exchange; (ii) some of the physical quantities of the rotational body have an opposite mathematic sign at OCC versus those at Inside Critical Cylinder (ICC), which is termed as the Critical Cylindrical Effect (CCE). The laboratory experiments demonstrate that the repulsive force exerted on an anion by electrons will change to an attractive force by the electrons in precession while the anion is at OCC of the precession. Thirty-six screenshots from four experimental videos are provided. Theoretical proofs for both space-time exchange and CCE are then presented. The CCEs of field force are also discussed.

Keywords: critical radius, critical cylindrical effect, special relativity, space-time exchange

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9279 Codifying the Creative Self: Conflicts of Theory and Content in Creative Writing

Authors: Danielle L. Iamarino


This paper explores the embattled territory of academic creative writing—and most focally, the use of critical theory in the teaching and structuring of creative practice. It places creative writing in contemporary social, cultural, and otherwise anthropological contexts, and evaluates conventional creative writing pedagogies based on how well they serve the updated needs of increasingly diverse student congregations. With continued emphasis on student-centered learning, this paper compares theoretical to practical applications of discipline-specific knowledge, examining and critiquing theory in terms of its relevance, accessibility, and whether or not it is both actionable and beneficial in the creative writing classroom.

Keywords: creative writing, literary theory, content, pedagogy, workshop, teaching

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9278 Analysis of Delamination in Drilling of Composite Materials

Authors: Navid Zarif Karimi, Hossein Heidary, Giangiacomo Minak, Mehdi Ahmadi


In this paper analytical model based on the mechanics of oblique cutting, linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and bending plate theory has been presented to determine the critical feed rate causing delamination in drilling of composite materials. Most of the models in this area used LEFM and bending plate theory; hence, they can only determine the critical thrust force which is an incorporable parameter. In this model by adding cutting oblique mechanics to previous models, critical feed rate has been determined. Also instead of simplification in loading condition, actual thrust force induced by chisel edge and cutting lips on composite plate is modeled.

Keywords: composite material, delamination, drilling, thrust force

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9277 Contested Visions of Exploration in IR: Theoretical Engagements, Reflections and New Agendas on the Dynamics of Global Order

Authors: Ananya Sharma


International Relations is a discipline of paradoxes. The State is the dominant political institution, with mainstream analysis theorizing the State, but theory remains at best a reactionary monolith. Critical Theorists have been pushing the envelope and to that extent, there has been a clear shift in the dominant discourse away from State-centrism to individuals and group-level behaviour. This paradigm shift has been accompanied with more nuanced conceptualizations of other variables at play–power, security, and trust, to name a few. Yet, the ambit of “what is discussed” remains primarily embedded in realist conceptualizations. With this background in mind, this paper will attempt to understand, juxtapose and evaluate how “order” has been conceptualized in International Relations theory. This paper is a tentative attempt to present a “state of the art” and in the process, set the stage for a deeper study to draw attention to what the author feels is a gaping lacuna in IR theory. The paper looks at how different branches of international relations theory envisage world order and the silences embedded therein. Further, by locating order and disorder inhabiting the same reality along a continuum, alternative readings of world orders are drawn from the critical theoretical traditions, in which various articulations of justice impart the key normative pillar to the world order.

Keywords: global justice, international relations theory, legitimacy, world order

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9276 Jalal-Ale-Ahmad and ‘Critical Consciousness’: A Comparative Study

Authors: Zohreh Ramin


One of the most important contributions that Edward Said has had in the realm of critical theory is his insistence on the worldliness of the text and the critic. By this, Said meant that the critic and the text must be considered in their ‘material’ contexts. Foregrounding the substantial role of a critic as embodying what he refers to as ‘critical consciousness’, a true critic, Said maintains, is one who can stand between the ‘dominant culture’ and ‘the totalizing forms of critical systems.’ Considered as one of Iran’s major contemporary intellectuals, Jalal Ale Ahmad is responsible for introducing the idea of ‘Westoxication’ in Iran, constructing a social paradigm of the necessity to return to tradition in contemporary Iran. The present paper intends to study Al-Ahmad’s definition of the orient versus the occident, his criticism of the ‘machination’ of contemporary Iranian society, and his solution to the problem of ‘Westoxication’. The objective of this study is to see whether Ale Ahmad can be considered as embodying the spirit of ‘critical consciousness’ as described by Said as the necessary tool in the hands of an intellectual who is simultaneously attached filitavely to his culture but can detach himself affilitavely through employing critical consciousness.

Keywords: Westoxication, filiative, affiliative, machination

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9275 Reformulation of Theory of Critical Distances to Predict the Strength of Notched Plain Concrete Beams under Quasi Static Loading

Authors: Radhika V., J. M. Chandra Kishen


The theory of critical distances (TCD), due to its appealing characteristics, has been successfully used in the past to predict the strength of brittle as well as ductile materials, weakened by the presence of stress risers under both static and fatigue loading. By utilising most of the TCD's unique features, this paper summarises an attempt for a reformulation of the point method of the TCD to predict the strength of notched plain concrete beams under mode I quasi-static loading. A zone of micro cracks, which is responsible for the non-linearity of concrete, is taken into account considering the concept of an effective elastic crack. An attempt is also made to correlate the value of the material characteristic length required for the application of TCD with the maximum aggregate size in the concrete mix, eliminating the need for any extensive experimentation prior to the application of TCD. The devised reformulation and the proposed power law based relationship is found to yield satisfactory predictions for static strength of notched plain concrete beams, with geometric dimensions of the beam, tensile strength, and maximum aggregate size of the concrete mix being the only needed input parameters.

Keywords: characteristic length, effective elastic crack, inherent material strength, modeI loading, theory of critical distances

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9274 Protection of the Object of the Critical Infrastructure in the Czech Republic

Authors: Michaela Vašková


With the increasing dependence of countries on the critical infrastructure, it increases their vulnerability. Big threat is primarily in the human factor (personnel of the critical infrastructure) and in terrorist attacks. It emphasizes the development of methodology for searching of weak points and their subsequent elimination. This article discusses methods for the analysis of safety in the objects of critical infrastructure. It also contains proposal for methodology for training employees of security services in the objects of the critical infrastructure and developing scenarios of attacks on selected objects of the critical infrastructure.

Keywords: critical infrastructure, object of critical infrastructure, protection, safety, security, security audit

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9273 The Magic Bullet in Africa: Exploring an Alternative Theoretical Model

Authors: Daniel Nkrumah


The Magic Bullet theory was a popular media effect theory that defined the power of the mass media in altering beliefs and perceptions of its audiences. However, following the People's Choice study, the theory was said to have been disproved and was supplanted by the Two-Step Flow Theory. This paper examines the relevance of the Magic Bullet theory in Africa and establishes whether it is still relevant in Africa's media spaces and societies. Using selected cases on the continent, it adopts a grounded theory approach and explores a new theoretical model that attempts to enforce an argument that the Two-Step Flow theory though important and valid, was ill-conceived as a direct replacement to the Magic Bullet theory.

Keywords: magic bullet theory, two-step flow theory, media effects, african media

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9272 A Qualitative Study for Establishing Critical Success Factors for PPPs in Research Reactors

Authors: Khalid Almarri


The UAE is currently developing a peaceful nuclear energy program as part of its low Carbon energy strategy to meet future energy demands. Research of nuclear energy technologies is required to support nuclear energy generation projects and maximize their performance. Research of this type will require building an operating a research reactor (RR), a costly undertaking in most circumstances. Collaboration between government and private parties through public, private partnerships (PPP) can maximize the benefits expected from the adoption of an RR project. The aim of this research is to establish the critical success factors (CSF) for developing an RR project for newcomer countries, with the UAE taken as a case study, through the utilization of public, private partnerships (PPP). The results of this study were arrived at through the use of semi-structured interviews conducted with ten experts in the field of research reactors, using grounded theory method. Underutilization was identified as the main stumbling block that impairs the success of research reactors.

Keywords: public private partnerships, research reactors, grounded theory, critical success factors

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9271 A New Developed Formula to Determine the Shear Buckling Stress in Welded Aluminum Plate Girders

Authors: Badr Alsulami, Ahmed S. Elamary


This paper summarizes and presents main results of an in-depth numerical analysis dealing with the shear buckling resistance of aluminum plate girders. The studies conducted have permitted the development of a simple design expression to determine the critical shear buckling stress in aluminum web panels. This expression takes into account the effects of reduction of strength in aluminum alloys due to the welding process. Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of plate girders can be obtained theoretically using Cardiff theory or Hӧglund’s theory. USR of aluminum alloy plate girders predicted theoretically using BS8118 appear inconsistent when compared with test data. Theoretical predictions based on Hӧglund’s theory, are more realistic. Cardiff theory proposed to predict the USR of steel plate girders only. Welded aluminum alloy plate girders studied experimentally by others; the USR resulted from tests are reviewed. Comparison between the test results with the values obtained from Hӧglund’s theory, BS8118 design method, and Cardiff theory performed theoretically. Finally, a new equation based on Cardiff tension-field theory proposed to predict theoretically the USR of aluminum plate girders.

Keywords: shear resistance, aluminum, Cardiff theory, Hӧglund's theory, plate girder

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9270 An Examination of the Effects of Implantable Technologies on the Practices of Governmentality

Authors: Benn Van Den Ende


Over the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in developments in implantable technologies such as the cardiac pacemaker, bionic prosthesis, and implantable chips. The effect of these technologies has been well researched in many areas. However, there is a lack of critical research in security studies. This paper will provide preliminary findings to an ongoing research project which aims to examine how implantable technologies effect the practices of governmentality in the context of security. It will do this by looking at the practices and techniques of governmentality along with different implantable technologies which increase, change or otherwise affect governmental practices. The preliminary research demonstrates that implantable technologies have a profound effect on the practices of governmentality, while also paving the way for further research into a potential ‘new’ form of governmentality in relation to these implantable technologies.

Keywords: critical security studies, governmentality, security theory, political theory, Foucault

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9269 Ads on Social Issues: A Tool for Improving Critical Thinking Skills in a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Fonseca Jully, Chia Maribel, Rodríguez Ilba


This paper is a qualitative research report. A group of students form a public university in a small town in Colombia participated in this study which aimed at describing to what extend the use of social ads, published on the internet, helped to develop their critical thinking skills. Students’ productions, field notes, video recordings and direct observation were the instruments and techniques used by the researches in order to gather the data which was analyzed under the principles of grounded theory and triangulation. The implementation of social ads into the classroom evidenced a noticeable improvement in students’ ability to interpret and argue social issues, as well as, their self-improvement in oral and written production in English, as a foreign language.

Keywords: Ads, critical argumentation, critical thinking, social issues

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9268 Sustainable Enterprise Theory: A Starting Point for Reporting Sustainable Business Values

Authors: Arne Fagerstrom, Gary Cunningham, Fredrik Hartwig


In this paper, a theory of sustainable enterprises, sustainable enterprise theory (SET), is developed. The sustainable enterprise theory can only be a valid theory if knowledge about life and nature is complete. Knowledge limitations should not stop enterprises from doing business with a goal of better long-term life on earth. Life demands stewardship of the resources used during one’s lifetime. This paper develops a model influenced by (the classical) enterprise theory and resource theory that includes more than money in the business activities of an enterprise. The sustainable enterprise theory is then used in an analysis of accountability and in discussions about sustainable businesses.

Keywords: sustainable business, sustainability reporting, sustainable values, theory of the firm

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9267 Critical Discourse Analysis of President Mamnoon Hussain Speech in the Joint Session of Parliament.

Authors: Saeed Qaisrani


This article briefly reviews the rise of Critical Discourse Analysis about the Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain speech which delivered in the joint session of Parliament and teases out a detailed analysis of the various critiques that have been levelled at CDA and its practitioners over the last twenty years, both by scholars working within the “critical” paradigm and by other critics. A range of criticisms are discussed which target the underlying premises, the analytical methodology and the disputed areas of reader response and the integration of contextual factors. Controversial issues such as the predominantly negative focus of much CDA scholarship, and the status of CDA as an emergent “intellectual orthodoxy”, are also reviewed. The conclusions offer a summary of the principal criticisms that emerge from this overview, and suggest some ways in which these problems could be attenuated. It also focused on the different views about president speech and how it is presented in the Pakistani print and electronic media.

Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Analytical methodology, Corpus linguistics, Reader response theory, Critical paradigm, Contextualization.

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9266 Carl von Clausewitz and Foucault on War and Power

Authors: Damian Winczewski


Carl von Clausewitz’s political theory of war was criticized in the 20th century in several ways. It was also the source of many disagreements over readings of its most popular theses. Among them, the reflections of thinkers categorized as part of the broader postmodern current stand out, such as Michael Foucault and his successors, who presented a nuanced and critical approach to strategy theory. Foucault viewed it as part of a broader political–legal discourse of sovereignty rooted in the Middle Ages, which underlies modern biopower. Clausewitz’s theory of strategy underpinned a new humanist discourse rationalizing the phenomenon of war while, in a methodological sense, becoming an epistemic model of how Foucault conceived power strategy. Foucault’s contemporary commentators try to develop his position by arguing the analogy between the discourse prevailing in Clausewitz’s time and the contemporary neoliberal discourse and technological revolution on the battlefield, which create a new order of power. Meanwhile, they recognize that the modern development of strategy was to make Clausewitz’s understanding of war obsolete. However, postmodernists focusing on showy stylistics in their assessments rely on a mythologized narrative about Clausewitz, reducing his theories to a discourse of war as a way for nation-states to conduct foreign policy. In this article, Clausewitz shows that his theory goes much deeper and provides a critical perspective on the relationship between war and politics. The dialectical structure makes it possible to understand war as a historically variable but constantly policy-dependent phenomenon.

Keywords: Clausewitz, Foucault, Virilio, postmodernism, war and politics, power

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9265 A Review of Critical Thinking Formative Assessment Framework: Coping with Teachers Resistance to Critical Pedagogy

Authors: Chenhui Wang, Chwee Beng Lee


The practice of critical pedagogy is challenged by resistance from teachers. This study presents a discussion on teachers' resistance to critical pedagogy and previous practical frameworks for assessing critical thinking in formative assessment in the classroom through a critical review of the related literature. The authors found out that the main issue of teachers' resistance is not whether teachers should possess theoretical knowledge of critical thinking but how they apply that knowledge in their classroom teaching. In addition, critical thinking in formative assessment may provide teachers with a comprehensive understanding of critical pedagogical planning, implementing, and reflecting. Therefore, this paper intends to discuss a practical step-by-step framework for critical thinking formative assessment to address this resistance. Such discussion is based on a thorough examination of the related theories and frameworks. This review paper will benefit teachers in understanding and reducing their resistance to critical pedagogy as well as in implementing critical pedagogy.

Keywords: critical thinking, critical pedagogy, critical thinking formative assessment framework, teachers resistance

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9264 Exploring the Governmentality of Practice in Communication Education in Ghana

Authors: Wincharles Coker


This study troubles the role the state as the chief sponsor of higher education plays in shaping communication training in Ghana. Using a public university as a case study, it explores how the government of Ghana, through its regimes of control, exercises its authority over the means of production in the academy. Based on Wenger’s community of practice theory and critical theory, the research analyzes the political economy within which higher education in the country operates, focusing on the mandates of two of its bodies: the National Council for Tertiary Education (NCTE) and the National Accreditation Board (NAB). Results show that communication training in Ghana is shaped by three basic strategies of control: developmentalism, bureaucratization, and corporatization. This governmentality, the research reveals nonetheless, largely constrains the agency and practices of the community of communication faculty and administrators, and thus presents a major challenge to the exercise of intellectual freedom, and the self-critical nature of the academy. The study bears implications for further research in the political economy of communication studies, the administration of higher education, and critical/cultural studies in education.

Keywords: communication, developmentalism, educattion, governmentality

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9263 A Framework for Investigating Reverse Logistics Capability of E-Tailers

Authors: Wen-Shan Lin, Shu-Lu Hsu


Environmental concern and consumer rights have entailed e-tailers to adopt better strategies to facilitate product returns from customers. As the demand for reverse logistics (RL) continues to grow, little is known about what motivates e-tailers to enhance their RL capabilities and about the role RL capabilities plays in enabling e-tailers to achieve better customer satisfaction and economic performance. Based on resource-based theory and institutional theory, this article proposes that the following factors play a critical role in influencing the RL capability of e-tailers: (a) Financial resource commitment to RL, (b) managerial resource commitment to RL, and (c) institutional pressure to implement RL. Based on the role of these factors, the study provides a framework and propositions that serve to guide future research addressing the link among resources, institutional pressure, and RL capability.

Keywords: reverse logistics, e-tailing, resource-based theory, institutional theory

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