Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1773

Search results for: charge carrier mobility

1773 New Technique of Estimation of Charge Carrier Density of Nanomaterials from Thermionic Emission Data

Authors: Dilip K. De, Olukunle C. Olawole, Emmanuel S. Joel, Moses Emetere

Abstract:

A good number of electronic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivities depend on charge carrier densities of nanomaterials. By controlling the charge carrier densities during the fabrication (or growth) processes, the physical properties can be tuned. In this paper, we discuss a new technique of estimating the charge carrier densities of nanomaterials from the thermionic emission data using the newly modified Richardson-Dushman equation. We find that the technique yields excellent results for graphene and carbon nanotube.

Keywords: charge carrier density, nano materials, new technique, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1772 Charge Carrier Mobility Dependent Open-Circuit Voltage in Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells

Authors: David Ompong, Jai Singh

Abstract:

A better understanding of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) related losses in organic solar cells (OSCs) is desirable in order to assess the photovoltaic performance of these devices. We have derived Voc as a function of charge carrier mobilities (μe and μh) for organic and hybrid solar cells by optimizing the drift-diffusion current density. The optimum Voc thus obtained depends on the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and the quasi-Fermi level of holes of the donor material. We have found that the Voc depends on the ratio of the electron (μe) and hole (μh) mobilities and when μh > μe the Voc increases. The most important loss term in the Voc arises from the energetics of the donor and acceptor materials, which will be discussed in detail in this paper.

Keywords: charge carrier mobility, open-circuit voltage, organic solar cells, quasi-fermi levels

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
1771 Combined Influence of Charge Carrier Density and Temperature on Open-Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Douglas Yeboah, Monishka Narayan, Jai Singh

Abstract:

One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) is the open-circuit voltage, however, it is still not well understood. In order to examine the performance of OSCs, it is necessary to understand the losses associated with the open-circuit voltage and how best it can be improved. Here, an analytical expression for the open-circuit voltage of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs is derived from the charge carrier densities without considering the drift-diffusion current. The open-circuit voltage thus obtained is dependent on the donor-acceptor band gap, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the hole quasi-Fermi level of the donor material, temperature, the carrier density (electrons), the generation rate of free charge carriers and the bimolecular recombination coefficient. It is found that open-circuit voltage increases when the carrier density increases and when the temperature decreases. The calculated results are discussed in view of experimental results and agree with them reasonably well. Overall, this work proposes an alternative pathway for improving the open-circuit voltage in BHJ OSCs.

Keywords: charge carrier density, open-circuit voltage, organic solar cells, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1770 Nanocomposites Based Micro/Nano Electro-Mechanical Systems for Energy Harvesters and Photodetectors

Authors: Radhamanohar Aepuru, R. V. Mangalaraja

Abstract:

Flexible electronic devices have drawn potential interest and provide significant new insights to develop energy conversion and storage devices such as photodetectors and nanogenerators. Recently, self-powered electronic systems have captivated huge attention for next generation MEMS/NEMS devices that can operate independently by generating built-in field without any need of external bias voltage and have wide variety of applications in telecommunication, imaging, environmental and defence sectors. The basic physical process involved in these devices are charge generation, separation, and charge flow across the electrodes. Many inorganic nanostructures have been exploring to fabricate various optoelectronic and electromechanical devices. However, the interaction of nanostructures and their excited charge carrier dynamics, photoinduced charge separation, and fast carrier mobility are yet to be studied. The proposed research is to address one such area and to realize the self-powered electronic devices. In the present work, nanocomposites of inorganic nanostructures based on ZnO, metal halide perovskites; and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based nanocomposites are realized for photodetectors and nanogenerators. The characterization of the inorganic nanostructures is carried out through steady state optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopies as well as X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The detailed carrier dynamics is investigated using various spectroscopic techniques. The developed composite nanostructures exhibit significant optical and electrical properties, which have wide potential applications in various MEMS/NEMS devices such as photodetectors and nanogenerators.

Keywords: dielectrics, nanocomposites, nanogenerators, photodetectors

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1769 Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel and Sulphur Sensitized Zinc Oxide Structures

Authors: Ella C. Linganiso, Bonex W. Mwakikunga, Trilock Singh, Sanjay Mathur, Odireleng M. Ntwaeaborwa

Abstract:

The use of nanostructured semiconducting material to catalyze degradation of environmental pollutants still receives much attention to date. One of the desired characteristics for pollutant degradation under ultra-violet visible light is the materials with extended carrier charge separation that allows for electronic transfer between the catalyst and the pollutants. In this work, zinc oxide n-type semiconductor vertically aligned structures were fabricated on silicon (100) substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The as-synthesized structures were treated with nickel and sulphur. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase purity, structural dimensions and elemental composition of the obtained structures respectively. Photoluminescence emission measurements showed a decrease in both the near band edge emission as well as the defect band emission upon addition of nickel and sulphur with different concentrations. This was attributed to increased charger-carrier-separation due to the presence of Ni-S material on ZnO surface, which is linked to improved charge transfer during photocatalytic reactions.

Keywords: Carrier-charge-separation, nickel, photoluminescence, sulphur, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
1768 Further Study of Mechanism of Contrasting Charge Transport Properties for Phenyl and Thienyl Substituent Organic Semiconductors

Authors: Yanan Zhu

Abstract:

Based on the previous work about the influence mechanism of the mobility difference of phenyl and thienyl substituent semiconductors, we have made further exploration towards to design high-performance organic thin-film transistors. The substituent groups effect plays a significant role in materials properties and device performance as well. For the theoretical study, simulation of materials property and crystal packing can supply scientific guidance for materials synthesis in experiments. This time, we have taken the computational methods to design a new material substituent with furan groups, which are the potential to be used in organic thin-film transistors and organic single-crystal transistors. The reorganization energy has been calculated and much lower than 2,6-diphenyl anthracene (DPAnt), which performs large mobility as more than 30 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹. Moreover, the other important parameter, charge transfer integral is larger than DPAnt, which suggested the furan substituent material may get a much better charge transport data. On the whole, the mechanism investigation based on phenyl and thienyl assisted in designing novel materials with furan substituent, which is predicted to be an outperformed organic field-effect transistors.

Keywords: theoretical calculation, mechanism, mobility, organic transistors

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
1767 Modeling Thermionic Emission from Carbon Nanotubes with Modified Richardson-Dushman Equation

Authors: Olukunle C. Olawole, Dilip Kumar De

Abstract:

We have modified Richardson-Dushman equation considering thermal expansion of lattice and change of chemical potential with temperature in material. The corresponding modified Richardson-Dushman (MRDE) equation fits quite well the experimental data of thermoelectronic current density (J) vs T from carbon nanotubes. It provides a unique technique for accurate determination of W0 Fermi energy, EF0 at 0 K and linear thermal expansion coefficient of carbon nano-tube in good agreement with experiment. From the value of EF0 we obtain the charge carrier density in excellent agreement with experiment. We describe application of the equations for the evaluation of performance of concentrated solar thermionic energy converter (STEC) with emitter made of carbon nanotube for future applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, modified Richardson-Dushman equation, fermi energy at 0 K, charge carrier density

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1766 Study of Electrical Properties of An-Fl Based Organic Semiconducting Thin Film

Authors: A.G. S. Aldajani, N. Smida, M. G. Althobaiti, B. Zaidi

Abstract:

In order to exploit the good electrical properties of anthracene and the excellent properties of fluorescein, new hybrid material has been synthesized (An-Fl). Current-voltage measurements were done on a new single-layer ITO/An-FL/Al device of typically 100 nm thickness. Atypical diode behavior is observed with a turn-on voltage of 4.4 V, a dynamic resistance of 74.07 KΩ and a rectification ratio of 2.02 due to unbalanced transport. Results show also that the current-voltage characteristics present three different regimes of the power-law (J~Vᵐ) for which the conduction mechanism is well described with space-charge-limited current conduction mechanism (SCLC) with a charge carrier mobility of 2.38.10⁻⁵cm2V⁻¹S⁻¹. Moreover, the electrical transport properties of this device have been carried out using a dependent frequency study in the range (50 Hz–1.4 MHz) for different applied biases (from 0 to 6 V). At lower frequency, the σdc values increase with bias voltage rising, supporting that the mobile ion can hop successfully to its nearest vacant site. From σac and impedance measurements, the equivalent electrical circuit is evidenced, where the conductivity process is coherent with an exponential trap distribution caused by structural defects and/or chemical impurities.

Keywords: semiconducting polymer, conductivity, SCLC, impedance spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1765 Saturation Misbehavior and Field Activation of the Mobility in Polymer-Based OTFTs

Authors: L. Giraudet, O. Simonetti, G. de Tournadre, N. Dumelié, B. Clarenc, F. Reisdorffer

Abstract:

In this paper we intend to give a comprehensive view of the saturation misbehavior of thin film transistors (TFTs) based on disordered semiconductors, such as most organic TFTs, and its link to the field activation of the mobility. Experimental evidence of the field activation of the mobility is given for disordered semiconductor based TFTs, when reducing the gate length. Saturation misbehavior is observed simultaneously. Advanced transport models have been implemented in a quasi-2D numerical TFT simulation software. From the numerical simulations it is clearly established that field activation of the mobility alone cannot explain the saturation misbehavior. Evidence is given that high longitudinal field gradient at the drain end of the channel is responsible for an excess charge accumulation, preventing saturation. The two combined effects allow reproducing the experimental output characteristics of short channel TFTs, with S-shaped characteristics and saturation failure.

Keywords: mobility field activation, numerical simulation, OTFT, saturation failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
1764 A Numerical Study on Electrophoresis of a Soft Particle with Charged Core Coated with Polyelectrolyte Layer

Authors: Partha Sarathi Majee, S. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Migration of a core-shell soft particle under the influence of an external electric field in an electrolyte solution is studied numerically. The soft particle is coated with a positively charged polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) and the rigid core is having a uniform surface charge density. The Darcy-Brinkman extended Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the motion of the ionized fluid, the non-linear Nernst-Planck equations for the ion transport and the Poisson equation for the electric potential. A pressure correction based iterative algorithm is adopted for numerical computations. The effects of convection on double layer polarization (DLP) and diffusion dominated counter ions penetration are investigated for a wide range of Debye layer thickness, PEL fixed surface charge density, and permeability of the PEL. Our results show that when the Debye layer is in order of the particle size, the DLP effect is significant and produces a reduction in electrophoretic mobility. However, the double layer polarization effect is negligible for a thin Debye layer or low permeable cases. The point of zero mobility and the existence of mobility reversal depending on the electrolyte concentration are also presented.

Keywords: debye length, double layer polarization, electrophoresis, mobility reversal, soft particle

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
1763 Enhancing the Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells Using Metallic Nanoparticles

Authors: Sankara Rao Gollu, Ramakant Sharma, G. Srinivas, Souvik Kundu, Dipti Gupta

Abstract:

In recent years, bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) based on polymer–fullerene attracted a large research attention due to their numerous advantages such as light weight, easy processability, eco-friendly, low-cost, and capability for large area roll-to-roll manufacturing. BHJ OSCs usually suffer from insufficient light absorption due to restriction on keeping thin ( < 150 nm) photoactive layer because of small exciton diffusion length ( ~ 10 nm) and low charge carrier mobilities. It is thus highly desirable that light absorption as well as charge transport properties are enhanced by alternative methods so as to improve the device efficiency. In this work, therefore, we have focused on the strategy of incorporating metallic nanostructures in the active layer or charge transport layer to enhance the absorption and improve the charge transport.

Keywords: organic solar cell, efficiency, bulk heterojunction, polymer-fullerene

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1762 Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers

Authors: Pejman Hosseinioun, Ali Safari, Hamed Sarbazi

Abstract:

Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon with numerous impressive properties. It is a promising material for future high-speed nanoelectronics due to its intrinsic superior carrier mobility and very high saturation velocity. These exceptional carrier transport properties suggest that graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) can potentially outperform other FET technologies. In this paper, detailed discussions are introduced for Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers.

Keywords: graphene, microwave FETs, microwave amplifiers, transistors

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
1761 Characterization of Carbazole-Based Host Material for Highly Efficient Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter

Authors: Malek Mahmoudi, Jonas Keruckas, Dmytro Volyniuk, Jurate Simokaitiene, Juozas V. Grazulevicius

Abstract:

Host materials have been discovered as one of the most appealing methods for harvesting triplet states in organic materials for application in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The ideal host-guest system for emission in thermally delayed fluorescence OLEDs with 20% guest concentration for efficient energy transfer has been demonstrated in the present investigation. In this work, 3,3'-bis[9-(4-fluorophenyl) carbazole] (bFPC) has been used as the host, which induces balanced charge carrier transport for high-efficiency OLEDs.For providing a complete characterization of the synthesized compound, photophysical, photoelectrical, charge-transporting, and electrochemical properties of the compound have been examined. Excited-state lifetimes and singlet-triplet energy gaps were measured for characterization of photophysical properties, while thermogravimetric analysis, as well as differential scanning calorimetry measurements, were performed for probing of electrochemical and thermal properties of the compound. The electrochemical properties of this compound were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method, and ionization potential (IPCV) value of 5.68 eV was observed. UV–Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectrum of a solution of the compound in toluene (10-5 M) showed maxima at 302 and 405 nm, respectively. Photoelectron emission spectrometry was used for the characterization of charge-injection properties of the studied compound in solid. The ionization potential of this material was found to be 5.78 eV, and time-of-flight measurement was used for testing charge-transporting properties and hole mobility estimated using this technique in a vacuum-deposited layer reached 4×10-4 cm2 V-1s-1. Since the compound with high charge mobilities was tested as a host in an organic light-emitting diode. The device was fabricated by successive deposition onto a pre-cleaned indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate under a vacuum of 10-6 Torr and consisting of an indium-tin-oxide anode, hole injection and transporting layer(MoO3, NPB), emitting layer with bFPC as a host and 4CzIPN (2,4,5,6-tetra(9-carbazolyl)isophthalonitrile) which is a new highly efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material as an emitter, an electron transporting layer(TPBi) and lithium fluoride layer topped with aluminum layer as a cathode exhibited the highest maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of 33.9 cd/A and 23.5 lm/W, respectively and the electroluminescence spectrum showed only a peak at 512nm. Furthermore, the new bicarbazole-based compound was tested as a host in thermally activated delayed fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes are reaching luminance of 25300 cd m-2 and external quantum efficiency of 10.1%. Interestingly, the turn-on voltage was low enough (3.8 V), and such a device can be used for highly efficient light sources.

Keywords: thermally-activated delayed fluorescence, host material, ionization energy, charge mobility, electroluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
1760 Modeling of Bipolar Charge Transport through Nanocomposite Films for Energy Storage

Authors: Meng H. Lean, Wei-Ping L. Chu

Abstract:

The effects of ferroelectric nanofiller size, shape, loading, and polarization, on bipolar charge injection, transport, and recombination through amorphous and semicrystalline polymers are studied. A 3D particle-in-cell model extends the classical electrical double layer representation to treat ferroelectric nanoparticles. Metal-polymer charge injection assumes Schottky emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, migration through field-dependent Poole-Frenkel mobility, and recombination with Monte Carlo selection based on collision probability. A boundary integral equation method is used for solution of the Poisson equation coupled with a second-order predictor-corrector scheme for robust time integration of the equations of motion. The stability criterion of the explicit algorithm conforms to the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy limit. Trajectories for charge that make it through the film are curvilinear paths that meander through the interspaces. Results indicate that charge transport behavior depends on nanoparticle polarization with anti-parallel orientation showing the highest leakage conduction and lowest level of charge trapping in the interaction zone. Simulation prediction of a size range of 80 to 100 nm to minimize attachment and maximize conduction is validated by theory. Attached charge fractions go from 2.2% to 97% as nanofiller size is decreased from 150 nm to 60 nm. Computed conductivity of 0.4 x 1014 S/cm is in agreement with published data for plastics. Charge attachment is increased with spheroids due to the increase in surface area, and especially so for oblate spheroids showing the influence of larger cross-sections. Charge attachment to nanofillers and nanocrystallites increase with vol.% loading or degree of crystallinity, and saturate at about 40 vol.%.

Keywords: nanocomposites, nanofillers, electrical double layer, bipolar charge transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
1759 Real-Space Mapping of Surface Trap States in Cigse Nanocrystals Using 4D Electron Microscopy

Authors: Riya Bose, Ashok Bera, Manas R. Parida, Anirudhha Adhikari, Basamat S. Shaheen, Erkki Alarousu, Jingya Sun, Tom Wu, Osman M. Bakr, Omar F. Mohammed

Abstract:

This work reports visualization of charge carrier dynamics on the surface of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGSe) nanocrystals in real space and time using four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM) and correlates it with the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals. The surface of the nanocrystals plays a key role in controlling their applicability for light emitting and light harvesting purposes. Typically for quaternary systems like CIGSe, which have many desirable attributes to be used for optoelectronic applications, relative abundance of surface trap states acting as non-radiative recombination centre for charge carriers remains as a major bottleneck preventing further advancements and commercial exploitation of these nanocrystals devices. Though ultrafast spectroscopic techniques allow determining the presence of picosecond carrier trapping channels, because of relative larger penetration depth of the laser beam, only information mainly from the bulk of the nanocrystals is obtained. Selective mapping of such ultrafast dynamical processes on the surfaces of nanocrystals remains as a key challenge, so far out of reach of purely optical probing time-resolved laser techniques. In S-UEM, the optical pulse generated from a femtosecond (fs) laser system is used to generate electron packets from the tip of the scanning electron microscope, instead of the continuous electron beam used in the conventional setup. This pulse is synchronized with another optical excitation pulse that initiates carrier dynamics in the sample. The principle of S-UEM is to detect the secondary electrons (SEs) generated in the sample, which is emitted from the first few nanometers of the top surface. Constructed at different time delays between the optical and electron pulses, these SE images give direct and precise information about the carrier dynamics on the surface of the material of interest. In this work, we report selective mapping of surface dynamics in real space and time of CIGSe nanocrystals applying 4D S-UEM. We show that the trap states can be considerably passivated by ZnS shelling of the nanocrystals, and the carrier dynamics can be significantly slowed down. We also compared and discussed the S-UEM kinetics with the carrier dynamics obtained from conventional ultrafast time-resolved techniques. Additionally, a direct effect of the state trap removal can be observed in the enhanced photoresponse of the nanocrystals after shelling. Direct observation of surface dynamics will not only provide a profound understanding of the photo-physical mechanisms on nanocrystals’ surfaces but also enable to unlock their full potential for light emitting and harvesting applications.

Keywords: 4D scanning ultrafast microscopy, charge carrier dynamics, nanocrystals, optoelectronics, surface passivation, trap states

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
1758 Estimation of Mobility Parameters and Threshold Voltage of an Organic Thin Film Transistor Using an Asymmetric Capacitive Test Structure

Authors: Rajesh Agarwal

Abstract:

Carrier mobility at the organic/insulator interface is essential to the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The present work describes estimation of field dependent mobility (FDM) parameters and the threshold voltage of an OTFT using a simple, easy to fabricate two terminal asymmetric capacitive test structure using admittance measurements. Conventionally, transfer characteristics are used to estimate the threshold voltage in an OTFT with field independent mobility (FIDM). Yet, this technique breaks down to give accurate results for devices with high contact resistance and having field dependent mobility. In this work, a new technique is presented for characterization of long channel organic capacitor (LCOC). The proposed technique helps in the accurate estimation of mobility enhancement factor (γ), the threshold voltage (V_th) and band mobility (µ₀) using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in OTFT. This technique also helps to get rid of making short channel OTFT or metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for making C-V measurements. To understand the behavior of devices and ease of analysis, transmission line compact model is developed. The 2-D numerical simulation was carried out to illustrate the correctness of the model. Results show that proposed technique estimates device parameters accurately even in the presence of contact resistance and field dependent mobility. Pentacene/Poly (4-vinyl phenol) based top contact bottom-gate OTFT’s are fabricated to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique. Small signal of frequency varying from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and gate potential ranging from +40 V to -40 V have been applied to the devices for measurement.

Keywords: capacitance, mobility, organic, thin film transistor

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
1757 Mobility Management via Software Defined Networks (SDN) in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

Authors: Bilal Haider, Farhan Aadil

Abstract:

A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) provides various services to end-users traveling on the road at high speeds. However, this high-speed mobility of mobile nodes can cause frequent service disruptions. Various mobility management protocols exist for managing node mobility, but due to their centralized nature, they tend to suffer in the VANET environment. In this research, we proposed a distributed mobility management protocol using software-defined networks (SDN) for VANETs. Instead of relying on a centralized mobility anchor, the mobility functionality is distributed at multiple infrastructural nodes. The protocol is based on the classical Proxy Mobile IP version 6 (PMIPv6). It is evident from simulation results that this work has improved the network performance with respect to nodes throughput, delay, and packet loss.

Keywords: SDN, VANET, mobility management, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
1756 Absorption and Carrier Transport Properties of Doped Hematite

Authors: Adebisi Moruf Ademola

Abstract:

Hematite (Fe2O3),commonly known as ‘rust’ which usually surfaced on metal when exposed to some climatic materials. This emerges as a promising candidate for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its favorable physiochemical properties of the narrow band gap (2.1–2.2 eV), chemical stability, nontoxicity, abundance, and low cost. However, inherent limitations such as short hole diffusion length (2–4 nm), high charge recombination rate, and slow oxygen evolution reaction kinetics inhibit the PEC performances of a-Fe2O3 photoanodes. As such, given the narrow bandgap enabling excellent optical absorption, increased charge carrier density and accelerated surface oxidation reaction kinetics become the key points for improved photoelectrochemical performances for a-Fe2O3 photoanodes and metal ion doping as an effective way to promote charge transfer by increasing donor density and improving the electronic conductivity of a-Fe2O3. Hematite attracts enormous efforts with a number of metal ions (Ti, Zr, Sn, Pt ,etc.) as dopants. A facile deposition-annealing process showed greatly enhanced PEC performance due to the increased donor density and reduced electron-hole recombination at the time scale beyond a few picoseconds. Zr doping was also found to enhance the PEC performance of a-Fe2O3 nanorod arrays by reducing the rate of electron-hole recombination. Slow water oxidation reaction kinetics, another main factor limiting the PEC water splitting efficiency of aFe2O3 as photoanodes, was previously found to be effectively improved by surface treatment.

Keywords: deposition-annealing, hematite, metal ion doping, nanorod

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
1755 Characterization of Particle Charge from Aerosol Generation Process: Impact on Infrared Signatures and Material Reactivity

Authors: Erin M. Durke, Monica L. McEntee, Meilu He, Suresh Dhaniyala

Abstract:

Aerosols are one of the most important and significant surfaces in the atmosphere. They can influence weather, absorption, and reflection of light, and reactivity of atmospheric constituents. A notable feature of aerosol particles is the presence of a surface charge, a characteristic imparted via the aerosolization process. The existence of charge can complicate the interrogation of aerosol particles, so many researchers remove or neutralize aerosol particles before characterization. However, the charge is present in real-world samples, and likely has an effect on the physical and chemical properties of an aerosolized material. In our studies, we aerosolized different materials in an attempt to characterize the charge imparted via the aerosolization process and determine what impact it has on the aerosolized materials’ properties. The metal oxides, TiO₂ and SiO₂, were aerosolized expulsively and then characterized, using several different techniques, in an effort to determine the surface charge imparted upon the particles via the aerosolization process. Particle charge distribution measurements were conducted via the employment of a custom scanning mobility particle sizer. The results of the charge distribution measurements indicated that expulsive generation of 0.2 µm SiO₂ particles produced aerosols with upwards of 30+ charges on the surface of the particle. Determination of the degree of surface charging led to the use of non-traditional techniques to explore the impact of additional surface charge on the overall reactivity of the metal oxides, specifically TiO₂. TiO₂ was aerosolized, again expulsively, onto a gold-coated tungsten mesh, which was then evaluated with transmission infrared spectroscopy in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The TiO₂ aerosols were exposed to O₂, H₂, and CO, respectively. Exposure to O₂ resulted in a decrease in the overall baseline of the aerosol spectrum, suggesting O₂ removed some of the surface charge imparted during aerosolization. Upon exposure to H₂, there was no observable rise in the baseline of the IR spectrum, as is typically seen for TiO₂, due to the population of electrons into the shallow trapped states and subsequent promotion of the electrons into the conduction band. This result suggests that the additional charge imparted via aerosolization fills the trapped states, therefore no rise is seen upon exposure to H₂. Dosing the TiO₂ aerosols with CO showed no adsorption of CO on the surface, even at lower temperatures (~100 K), indicating the additional charge on the aerosol surface prevents the CO molecules from adsorbing to the TiO₂ surface. The results observed during exposure suggest that the additional charge imparted via aerosolization impacts the interaction with each probe gas.

Keywords: aerosols, charge, reactivity, infrared

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1754 Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan

Authors: Emad A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behaviour of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.

Keywords: electron mobility, relaxation time, GaN, scattering, computer software, computation physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 523
1753 Behaviour of an RC Circuit near Extreme Point

Authors: Tribhuvan N. Soorya

Abstract:

Charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor can be shown as exponential curve. Theoretically, it takes infinite time to fully charge or discharge a capacitor. The flow of charge is due to electrons having finite and fixed value of charge. If we carefully examine the charging and discharging process after several time constants, the points on q vs t graph become discrete and curve become discontinuous. Moreover for all practical purposes capacitor with charge (q0-e) can be taken as fully charged, as it introduces an error less than one part per million. Similar is the case for discharge of a capacitor, where the capacitor with the last electron (charge e) can be taken as fully discharged. With this, we can estimate the finite value of time for fully charging and discharging a capacitor.

Keywords: charging, discharging, RC Circuit, capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
1752 Surface Modification of TiO2 Layer with Phosphonic Acid Monolayer in Perovskite Solar Cells: Effect of Chain Length and Terminal Functional Group

Authors: Seid Yimer Abate, Ding-Chi Huang, Yu-Tai Tao

Abstract:

In this study, charge extraction characteristics at the perovskite/TiO2 interface in the conventional perovskite solar cell is studied by interface engineering. Self-assembled monolayers of phosphonic acids with different chain length and terminal functional group were used to modify mesoporous TiO2 surface to modulate the surface property and interfacial energy barrier to investigate their effect on charge extraction and transport from the perovskite to the mp-TiO2 and then the electrode. The chain length introduces a tunnelling distance and the end group modulate the energy level alignment at the mp-TiO2 and perovskite interface. The work function of these SAM-modified mp-TiO2 varied from −3.89 eV to −4.61 eV, with that of the pristine mp-TiO2 at −4.19 eV. A correlation of charge extraction and transport with respect to the modification was attempted. The study serves as a guide to engineer ETL interfaces with simple SAMs to improve the charge extraction, carrier balance and device long term stability. In this study, a maximum PCE of ~16.09% with insignificant hysteresis was obtained, which is 17% higher than the standard device.

Keywords: Energy level alignment, Interface engineering, Perovskite solar cells, Phosphonic acid monolayer, Tunnelling distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
1751 Lead Chalcogenide Quantum Dots for Use in Radiation Detectors

Authors: Tom Nakotte, Hongmei Luo

Abstract:

Lead chalcogenide-based (PbS, PbSe, and PbTe) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized for the purpose of implementing them in radiation detectors. Pb based materials have long been of interest for gamma and x-ray detection due to its high absorption cross section and Z number. The emphasis of the studies was on exploring how to control charge carrier transport within thin films containing the QDs. The properties of QDs itself can be altered by changing the size, shape, composition, and surface chemistry of the dots, while the properties of carrier transport within QD films are affected by post-deposition treatment of the films. The QDs were synthesized using colloidal synthesis methods and films were grown using multiple film coating techniques, such as spin coating and doctor blading. Current QD radiation detectors are based on the QD acting as fluorophores in a scintillation detector. Here the viability of using QDs in solid-state radiation detectors, for which the incident detectable radiation causes a direct electronic response within the QD film is explored. Achieving high sensitivity and accurate energy quantification in QD radiation detectors requires a large carrier mobility and diffusion lengths in the QD films. Pb chalcogenides-based QDs were synthesized with both traditional oleic acid ligands as well as more weakly binding oleylamine ligands, allowing for in-solution ligand exchange making the deposition of thick films in a single step possible. The PbS and PbSe QDs showed better air stability than PbTe. After precipitation the QDs passivated with the shorter ligand are dispersed in 2,6-difloupyridine resulting in colloidal solutions with concentrations anywhere from 10-100 mg/mL for film processing applications, More concentrated colloidal solutions produce thicker films during spin-coating, while an extremely concentrated solution (100 mg/mL) can be used to produce several micrometer thick films using doctor blading. Film thicknesses of micrometer or even millimeters are needed for radiation detector for high-energy gamma rays, which are of interest for astrophysics or nuclear security, in order to provide sufficient stopping power.

Keywords: colloidal synthesis, lead chalcogenide, radiation detectors, quantum dots

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1750 Studying the Effect of Silicon Substrate Intrinsic Carrier Concentration on Performance of ZnO/Si Solar Cells

Authors: Syed Sadique Anwer Askari, Mukul Kumar Das

Abstract:

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) solar cells have drawn great attention due to the enhanced efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this study, ZnO thin film is used as the active layer, hole blocking layer, antireflection coating (ARC) as well as transparent conductive oxide. To improve the conductivity of ZnO, top layer of ZnO is doped with aluminum, for top contact. Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon substrate plays an important role in enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ZnO/Si solar cell. With the increase of intrinsic carrier concentration PCE decreased due to increase in dark current in solar cell. At 80nm ZnO and 160µm Silicon substrate thickness, power conversion efficiency of 26.45% and 21.64% is achieved with intrinsic carrier concentration of 1x109/cm3, 1.4x1010/cm3 respectively.

Keywords: hetero-junction solar cell, solar cell, substrate intrinsic carrier concentration, ZnO/Si

Procedia PDF Downloads 513
1749 2D PbS Nanosheets Synthesis and Their Applications as Field Effect Transistors or Solar Cells

Authors: T. Bielewicz, S. Dogan, C. Klinke

Abstract:

Two-dimensional, solution-processable semiconductor materials are interesting for low-cost electronic applications [1]. We demonstrate the synthesis of lead sulfide nanosheets and how their size, shape and height can be tuned by varying concentrations of pre-cursors, ligands and by varying the reaction temperature. Especially, the charge carrier confinement in the nanosheets’ height adjustable from 2 to 20 nm has a decisive impact on their electronic properties. This is demonstrated by their use as conduction channel in a field effect transistor [2]. Recently we also showed that especially thin nanosheets show a high carrier multiplication (CM) efficiency [3] which could make them, through the confinement induced band gap and high photoconductivity, very attractive for application in photovoltaic devices. We are already able to manufacture photovoltaic devices out of single nanosheets which show promising results.

Keywords: physical sciences, chemistry, materials, chemistry, colloids, physics, condensed-matter physics, semiconductors, two-dimensional materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
1748 Educational Mobility as a Factor of Tourism Development in the Regional University

Authors: К. Lisinchuk

Abstract:

An effective approach to the management of international educational mobility in regional universities with the purpose of increasing tourist activity in the region is considered.

Keywords: export and import of tourist and educational services, international academic mobility, regional tourist activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
1747 Guidelines for Sustainable Urban Mobility in Historic Districts from International Experiences

Authors: Tamer ElSerafi

Abstract:

In recent approaches to heritage conservation, the whole context of historic areas becomes as important as the single historic building. This makes the provision of infrastructure and network of mobility an effective element in the urban conservation. Sustainable urban conservation projects consider the high density of activities, the need for a good quality access system to the transit system, and the importance of the configuration of the mobility network by identifying the best way to connect the different districts of the urban area through a complex unique system that helps the synergic development to achieve a sustainable mobility system. A sustainable urban mobility is a key factor in maintaining the integrity between socio-cultural aspects and functional aspects. This paper illustrates the mobility aspects, mobility problems in historic districts, and the needs of the mobility systems in the first part. The second part is a practical analysis for different mobility plans. It is challenging to find innovative and creative conservation solutions fitting modern uses and needs without risking the loss of inherited built resources. Urban mobility management is becoming an essential and challenging issue in the urban conservation projects. Depending on literature review and practical analysis, this paper tries to define and clarify the guidelines for mobility management in historic districts as a key element in sustainability of urban conservation and development projects. Such rules and principles could control the conflict between the socio–cultural and economic activities, and the different needs for mobility in these districts in a sustainable way. The practical analysis includes a comparison between mobility plans which have been implemented in four different cities; Freiburg in Germany, Zurich in Switzerland and Bray Town in Ireland. This paper concludes with a matrix of guidelines that considers both principles of sustainability and livability factors in urban historic districts.

Keywords: sustainable mobility, urban mobility, mobility management, historic districts

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
1746 Effective Charge Coupling in Low Dimensional Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets

Authors: Suraka Bhattacharjee, Ranjan Chaudhury

Abstract:

The interaction between the charge degrees of freedom for itinerant antiferromagnets is investigated in terms of generalized charge stiffness constant corresponding to nearest neighbour t-J model and t1-t2-t3-J model. The low dimensional hole doped antiferromagnets are the well known systems that can be described by the t-J-like models. Accordingly, we have used these models to investigate the fermionic pairing possibilities and the coupling between the itinerant charge degrees of freedom. A detailed comparison between spin and charge couplings highlights that the charge and spin couplings show very similar behaviour in the over-doped region, whereas, they show completely different trends in the lower doping regimes. Moreover, a qualitative equivalence between generalized charge stiffness and effective Coulomb interaction is also established based on the comparisons with other theoretical and experimental results. Thus it is obvious that the enhanced possibility of fermionic pairing is inherent in the reduction of Coulomb repulsion with increase in doping concentration. However, the increased possibility can not give rise to pairing without the presence of any other pair producing mechanism outside the t-J model. Therefore, one can conclude that the t-J-like models themselves solely are not capable of producing conventional momentum-based superconducting pairing on their own.

Keywords: generalized charge stiffness constant, charge coupling, effective Coulomb interaction, t-J-like models, momentum-space pairing

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1745 Modeling and Design of E-mode GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal Asthana, Benjamin Sullivan

Abstract:

The wide energy gap of GaN is the major parameter justifying the design and fabrication of high-power electronic components made of this material. However, the existence of a piezo-electrics in nature sheet charge at the AlGaN/GaN interface complicates the control of carrier injection into the intrinsic channel of GaN HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistors). As a result, most of the transistors created as R&D prototypes and all of the designs used for mass production are D-mode devices which introduce challenges in the design of integrated circuits. This research presents the design and modeling of an E-mode GaN HEMT with a very low turn-on voltage. The proposed device includes two critical elements allowing the transistor to achieve zero conductance across the channel when Vg = 0V. This is accomplished through the inclusion of an extremely thin, 2.5nm intrinsic Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N spacer layer. The added spacer layer does not create piezoelectric strain but rather elastically follows the variations of the crystal structure of the adjacent GaN channel. The second important factor is the design of a gate metal with a high work function. The use of a metal gate with a work function (Ni in this research) greater than 5.3eV positioned on top of n-type doped (Nd=10¹⁷cm⁻³) Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N creates the necessary built-in potential, which controls the injection of electrons into the intrinsic channel as the gate voltage is increased. The 5µm long transistor with a 0.18µm long gate and a channel width of 30µm operate at Vd=10V. At Vg =1V, the device reaches the maximum drain current of 0.6mA, which indicates a high current density. The presented device is operational at frequencies greater than 10GHz and exhibits a stable transconductance over the full range of operational gate voltages.

Keywords: compound semiconductors, device modeling, enhancement mode HEMT, gallium nitride

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1744 X-Ray and DFT Electrostatics Parameters Determination of a Coumarin Derivative Compound C17H13NO3

Authors: Y. Megrous, A. Chouaih, F. Hamzaoui

Abstract:

The crystal structure of 4-Methyl-7-(salicylideneamino)coumarin C17H13NO3has been determined using X-ray diffraction to establish the configuration and stereochemistry of the molecule. This crystal is characterized by its nolinear activity. The molecular electron charge density distribution of the title compound is described accurately using the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. The net atomic charge and the molecular dipole moment in-crystal have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter-and intramolecular charge transfer. The study present the thermal motion and the structural analysis obtained from the least-square refinement on F2,this study has also allowed us to determine the electrostatic potential and therefore locate the electropositive part and the electronegative part in molecular scale of the title compound.

Keywords: electron charge density, net atomic charge, molecular dipole moment, X-ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 349