Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: plasmonic waveguide

122 Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications

Authors: Maidul Islam, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury, Gagan Kumar


We investigate sensing capabilities of a planar plasmonic THz waveguide. The waveguide is comprised of one dimensional array of periodically arranged sub wavelength scale corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure the plasmonic response. The THz waveguide transmission is observed for polyimide (as thin film) substance filling the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance supported by the waveguide. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in developing new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.

Keywords: plasmonics, sensors, sub-wavelength structures, terahertz

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121 Equations of Pulse Propagation in Three-Layer Structure of As2S3 Chalcogenide Plasmonic Nano-Waveguides

Authors: Leila Motamed-Jahromi, Mohsen Hatami, Alireza Keshavarz


This research aims at obtaining the equations of pulse propagation in nonlinear plasmonic waveguides created with As2S3 chalcogenide materials. Via utilizing Helmholtz equation and first-order perturbation theory, two components of electric field are determined within frequency domain. Afterwards, the equations are formulated in time domain. The obtained equations include two coupled differential equations that considers nonlinear dispersion.

Keywords: nonlinear optics, plasmonic waveguide, chalcogenide, propagation equation

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120 Photodetector Engineering with Plasmonic Properties

Authors: Hasan Furkan Kurt, Tugba Nur Atabey, Onat Cavit Dereli, Ahmad Salmanogli, H. Selcuk Gecim


In the article, the main goal is to study the effect of the plasmonic properties on the photocurrent generated by a photodetector. Fundamentally, a typical photodetector is designed and simulated using the finite element methods. To utilize the plasmonic effect, gold nanoparticles with different shape, size and morphology are buried into the intrinsic region. Plasmonic effect is arisen through the interaction of the incoming light with nanoparticles by which electrical properties of the photodetector are manipulated. In fact, using plasmonic nanoparticles not only increases the absorption bandwidth of the incoming light, but also generates a high intensity near-field close to the plasmonic nanoparticles. Those properties strongly affect the generated photocurrent. The simulation results show that using plasmonic nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrical properties of the photodetectors. More importantly, one can easily manipulate the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles through engineering the nanoparticles' size, shape and morphology. Another important phenomenon is plasmon-plasmon interaction inside the photodetector. It is shown that plasmon-plasmon interaction improves the electron-hole generation rate by which the rate of the current generation is severely enhanced. This is the key factor that we want to focus on, to improve the photodetector electrical properties.

Keywords: plasmonic photodetector, plasmon-plasmon interaction, Gold nanoparticle, electrical properties

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119 New Neuroplasmonic Sensor Based on Soft Nanolithography

Authors: Seyedeh Mehri Hamidi, Nasrin Asgari, Foozieh Sohrabi, Mohammad Ali Ansari


New neuro plasmonic sensor based on one dimensional plasmonic nano-grating has been prepared. To record neural activity, the sample has been exposed under different infrared laser and then has been calculated by ellipsometry parameters. Our results show that we have efficient sensitivity to different laser excitation.

Keywords: neural activity, Plasmonic sensor, Nanograting, Gold thin film

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118 Control of Oxide and Silicon Loss during Exposure of Silicon Waveguide

Authors: Gu Zhonghua


Control method of bulk silicon dioxide etching process to approach then expose silicon waveguide has been developed. It has been demonstrated by silicon waveguide of photonics devices. It is also able to generalize other applications. Use plasma dry etching to etch bulk silicon dioxide and approach oxide-silicon interface accurately, then use dilute HF wet etching to etch silicon dioxide residue layer to expose the silicon waveguide as soft landing. Plasma dry etch macro loading effect and endpoint technology was used to determine dry etch time accurately with a low wafer expose ratio.

Keywords: waveguide, etch, control, silicon loss

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117 Compact Low Loss Design of SOI 1x2 Y-Branch Optical Power Splitter with S-Bend Waveguide and Study on the Variation of Transmitted Power with Various Waveguide Parameters

Authors: Nagaraju Pendam, C. P. Vardhani


A simple technology–compatible design of silicon-on-insulator based 1×2 optical power splitter is proposed. For developing large area Opto-electronic Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices, the power splitter is a key passive device. The SOI rib- waveguide dimensions (height, width, and etching depth, refractive indices, length of waveguide) leading simultaneously to single mode propagation. In this paper a low loss optical power splitter is designed by using R Soft cad tool and simulated by Beam propagation method, here s-bend waveguides proposed. We concentrate changing the refractive index difference, branching angle, width of the waveguide, free space wavelength of the waveguide and observing transmitted power, effective refractive index in the designed waveguide, and choosing the best simulated results to be fabricated on silicon-on insulator platform. In this design 1550 nm free spacing are used.

Keywords: beam propagation method, insertion loss, optical power splitter, rib waveguide, transmitted power

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116 Simulation and Fabrication of Plasmonic Lens for Bacteria Detection

Authors: Sangwoo Oh, Jaewoo Kim, Dongmin Seo, Jaewon Park, Yongha Hwang, Sungkyu Seo


Plasmonics has been regarded one of the most powerful bio-sensing modalities to evaluate bio-molecular interactions in real-time. However, most of the plasmonic sensing methods are based on labeling metallic nanoparticles, e.g. gold or silver, as optical modulation markers, which are non-recyclable and expensive. This plasmonic modulation can be usually achieved through various nano structures, e.g., nano-hole arrays. Among those structures, plasmonic lens has been regarded as a unique plasmonic structure due to its light focusing characteristics. In this study, we introduce a custom designed plasmonic lens array for bio-sensing, which was simulated by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) approach and fabricated by top-down approach. In our work, we performed the FDTD simulations of various plasmonic lens designs for bacteria sensor, i.e., Samonella and Hominis. We optimized the design parameters, i.e., radius, shape, and material, of the plasmonic lens. The simulation results showed the change in the peak intensity value with the introduction of each bacteria and antigen i.e., peak intensity 1.8711 a.u. with the introduction of antibody layer of thickness of 15nm. For Salmonella, the peak intensity changed from 1.8711 a.u. to 2.3654 a.u. and for Hominis, the peak intensity changed from 1.8711 a.u. to 3.2355 a.u. This significant shift in the intensity due to the interaction between bacteria and antigen showed a promising sensing capability of the plasmonic lens. With the batch processing and bulk production of this nano scale design, the cost of biological sensing can be significantly reduced, holding great promise in the fields of clinical diagnostics and bio-defense.

Keywords: plasmonic lens, FDTD, fabrication, bacteria sensor, salmonella, hominis

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115 Theory of Gyrotron Amplifier in a Vane-Loaded Waveguide with Inner Dielectric Material

Authors: Reyhaneh Hashemi, Shahrooz Saviz


In his study, we have survey the theory of gyrotron amplifier in a vane-loaded waveguide with inner dielectric material. Dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves emitted by a cylindrical waveguide that provided with wedge-shaped metal vanes projecting radially inward from the wall of the guide and exited in the transverse-electric mode was analysed. From numerical analysis of this dispersion relation, it is shown that the stability behavior of the fast-wave mode is dependent of the dielectric constant. With a small axial momentum spreed, a super bandwidth is shown to be attainable by a mixed mode operation. Also, with the utilization from the numeric analysis of relation dispersion. We show that in the –speed mode, the constant is independent de-electric. With the ratio of dispersion of smell, high –bandwith was obtained for the combined mode. And at the end, we were comparing the result of our work (vane-loaded) by the waveguide with a smooth wall.

Keywords: gyrotron amplifier, waveguide, vane-loaded waveguide, dielectric material, dispersion relation, cylindrical waveguide, fast-wave mode, mixed mode operation

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114 Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption

Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Isao Tomita


We have studied a method to widen the spectrum of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with chi^(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes 10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse width of 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a 1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 um^2.

Keywords: InGaAsP waveguide, Chi^(3) nonlinearity, spectral broadening, photon absorption

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113 One Dimensional Magneto-Plasmonic Structure Based On Metallic Nano-Grating

Authors: S. M. Hamidi, M. Zamani


Magneto-plasmonic (MP) structures have turned into essential tools for the amplification of magneto-optical (MO) responses via the combination of MO activity and surface Plasmon resonance (SPR). Both the plasmonic and the MO properties of the resulting MP structure become interrelated because the SPR of the metallic medium. This interconnection can be modified the wave vector of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) in MP multilayer [1] or enhanced the MO activity [2- 3] and also modified the sensor responses [4]. There are several types of MP structures which are studied to enhance MO response in miniaturized configuration. In this paper, we propose a new MP structure based on the nano-metal grating and we investigate the MO and optical properties of this new structure. Our new MP structure fabricate by DC magnetron sputtering method and our home made MO experimental setup use for characterization of the structure.

Keywords: Magneto-plasmonic structures, magneto-optical effect, nano-garting

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112 Gas Sensor Based On a One-Dimensional Nano-Grating Au/ Co/ Au/ TiO2 Magneto-Plasmonic Structure

Authors: S. M. Hamidi, M. Afsharnia


Gas sensors based on magneto-plasmonic (MP) structures have attracted much attention due to the high signal to noise ratio in these type of sensors. In these sensors, both the plasmonic and the MO properties of the resulting MP structure become interrelated because the surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metallic medium. This interconnection can be modified the sensor responses and enhanced the signal to noise ratio. So far the sensor features of multilayered structures made of noble and ferromagnetic metals as Au/Co/Au MP multilayer with TiO2 sensor layer have been extensively studied, but their SPR assisted sensor response need to the krestchmann configuration. Here, we present a systematic study on the new MP structure based on one-dimensional nano-grating Au/ Co/ Au/ TiO2 multilayer to utilize as an inexpensive and easy to use gas sensor.

Keywords: Magneto-plasmonic structures, Gas sensor, nano-garting

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111 A Plasmonic Mass Spectrometry Approach for Detection of Small Nutrients and Toxins

Authors: Haiyang Su, Kun Qian


We developed a novel plasmonic matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) approach to detect small nutrients and toxin in complex biological emulsion samples. We used silver nanoshells (SiO₂@Ag) with optimized structures as matrices and achieved direct analysis of ~6 nL of human breast milk without any enrichment or separation. We performed identification and quantitation of small nutrients and toxins with limit-of-detection down to 0.4 pmol (for melamine) and reaction time shortened to minutes, superior to the conventional biochemical methods currently in use. Our approach contributed to the near-future application of MALDI MS in a broad field and personalized design of plasmonic materials for real case bio-analysis.

Keywords: plasmonic materials, laser desorption/ionization, mass spectrometry, small nutrients, toxins

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110 Application of MoM-GEC Method for Electromagnetic Study of Planar Microwave Structures: Shielding Application

Authors: Ahmed Nouainia, Mohamed Hajji, Taoufik Aguili


In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis is presented for describing the influence of shielding in a rectangular waveguide. A hybridization based on the method of moments combined to the generalized equivalent circuit MoM-GEC is used to model the problem. This is validated by applying the MoM-GEC hybridization to investigate a diffraction structure. It consists of electromagnetic diffraction by an iris in a rectangular waveguide. Numerical results are shown and discussed and a comparison with FEM and Marcuvitz methods is achieved.

Keywords: method MoM-GEC, waveguide, shielding, equivalent circuit

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109 Numerical Analysis and Design of Dielectric to Plasmonic Waveguides Couplers

Authors: Emanuela Paranhos Lima, Vitaly Félix Rodríguez Esquerre


In this work, efficient directional coupler composed of dielectric waveguides and metallic film has been analyzed in details by simulations using finite element method (FEM). The structure consists of a step-index fiber with dielectric core, silica cladding, and a metal nanowire parallel to the core. The results show that an efficient conversion of optical dielectric modes to long range plasmonic is possible. Low insertion losses in conjunction with short coupling length and a broadband operation can be achieved under certain conditions. This kind of couplers has potential applications for the design of photonic integrated circuits for signal routing between dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, sensing, lithography, and optical storage systems. A high efficient focusing of light in a very small region can be obtained.

Keywords: directional coupler, finite element method, metallic nanowire, plasmonic, surface plasmon polariton, superfocusing

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108 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh


Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots

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107 Semiconductor Device of Tapered Waveguide for Broadband Optical Communications

Authors: Keita Iwai, Isao Tomita


To expand the optical spectrum for use in broadband optical communications, we study the properties of a semiconductor waveguide device with a tapered structure including its third-order optical nonlinearity. Spectral-broadened output by the tapered structure has the potential to create a compact, built-in device for optical communications. Here we deal with a compound semiconductor waveguide, the material of which is the same as that of laser diodes used in the communication systems, i.e., InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, which has large optical nonlinearity. We confirm that our structure widens the output spectrum sufficiently by controlling its taper form factor while utilizing the large nonlinear refraction of InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ. We also examine the taper effect for nonlinear optical loss.

Keywords: InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, waveguide, nonlinear refraction, spectral spreading, taper device

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106 On Transferring of Transient Signals along Hollow Waveguide

Authors: E. Eroglu, S. Semsit, E. Sener, U.S. Sener


In Electromagnetics, there are three canonical boundary value problem with given initial conditions for the electromagnetic field sought, namely: Cavity Problem, Waveguide Problem, and External Problem. The Cavity Problem and Waveguide Problem were rigorously studied and new results were arised at original works in the past decades. In based on studies of an analytical time domain method Evolutionary Approach to Electromagnetics (EAE), electromagnetic field strength vectors produced by a time dependent source function are sought. The fields are took place in L2 Hilbert space. The source function that performs signal transferring, energy and surplus of energy has been demonstrated with all clarity. Depth of the method and ease of applications are emerged needs of gathering obtained results. Main discussion is about perfect electric conductor and hollow waveguide. Even if well studied time-domain modes problems are mentioned, specifically, the modes which have a hollow (i.e., medium-free) cross-section domain are considered.

Keywords: evolutionary approach to electromagnetics, time-domain waveguide mode, Neumann problem, Dirichlet boundary value problem, Klein-Gordon

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105 Study of Waveguide Silica Glasses by Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Mohamed Abdelmounim Bakkali, Mustapha El Mataouy, Abellatif Aaliti, Mouhamed Khaddor


In the paper, we study the effects of introducing hafnium oxide on Raman spectra of silica glass planar waveguide activated by 0.3 mol% Er3+ ions. This work compares Raman spectra measured for three thin films deposited on silicon substrate. The films were prepared with different molar ratio of Si/Hf using sol-gel method and deposited by dip coating technique. The effect of hafnium oxide incorporation on the waveguides shows the evolution of the structure of this material. This structural information is useful to understand the luminescence intensity by means of ion–ion interaction mechanisms.

Keywords: optical amplifiers, non-bridging oxygen, erbium, sol-gel, waveguide, silica-hafnia

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104 Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures

Authors: D. G. Piliposyan


Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.

Keywords: piezoelectric layered structure, periodic phononic crystal, bandgap, bloch waves

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103 High Gain Broadband Plasmonic Slot Nano-Antenna

Authors: H. S. Haroyan, V. R. Tadevosyan


High gain broadband plasmonic slot nano-antenna has been considered. The theory of plasmonic slot nano-antenna (PSNA) has been developed. The analytical model takes into account also the electrical field inside the metal due to imperfectness of metal in optical range, as well as numerical investigation based on FEM method has been realized. It should be mentioned that Yagi-Uda configuration improves directivity in the plane of structure. In contrast, in this paper the possibility of directivity improvement of proposed PSNA in perpendicular plane of structure by using reflection metallic surface placed under the slot in fixed distance has been demonstrated. It is well known that a directivity improvement brings to the antenna gain increasing. This method of diagram improving is also well known from RF antenna design theory. Moreover the improvement of directivity in the perpendicular plane gives more flexibility in such application as improving the light and atom, ion, molecule interactions by using such type of plasmonic slot antenna. By the analogy of dipole type optical antennas the widening of working wavelengths has been realized by using bowtie geometry of slots, which made the antenna broadband.

Keywords: broadband antenna, high gain, slot nano-antenna, plasmonics.

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102 Plasmonic Nanoshells Based Metabolite Detection for in-vitro Metabolic Diagnostics and Therapeutic Evaluation

Authors: Deepanjali Gurav, Kun Qian


In-vitro metabolic diagnosis relies on designed materials-based analytical platforms for detection of selected metabolites in biological samples, which has a key role in disease detection and therapeutic evaluation in clinics. However, the basic challenge deals with developing a simple approach for metabolic analysis in bio-samples with high sample complexity and low molecular abundance. In this work, we report a designer plasmonic nanoshells based platform for direct detection of small metabolites in clinical samples for in-vitro metabolic diagnostics. We first synthesized a series of plasmonic core-shell particles with tunable nanoshell structures. The optimized plasmonic nanoshells as new matrices allowed fast, multiplex, sensitive, and selective LDI MS (Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry) detection of small metabolites in 0.5 μL of bio-fluids without enrichment or purification. Furthermore, coupling with isotopic quantification of selected metabolites, we demonstrated the use of these plasmonic nanoshells for disease detection and therapeutic evaluation in clinics. For disease detection, we identified patients with postoperative brain infection through glucose quantitation and daily monitoring by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. For therapeutic evaluation, we investigated drug distribution in blood and CSF systems and validated the function and permeability of blood-brain/CSF-barriers, during therapeutic treatment of patients with cerebral edema for pharmacokinetic study. Our work sheds light on the design of materials for high-performance metabolic analysis and precision diagnostics in real cases.

Keywords: plasmonic nanoparticles, metabolites, fingerprinting, mass spectrometry, in-vitro diagnostics

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101 Efficient Study of Substrate Integrated Waveguide Devices

Authors: J. Hajri, H. Hrizi, N. Sboui, H. Baudrand


This paper presents a study of SIW circuits (Substrate Integrated Waveguide) with a rigorous and fast original approach based on Iterative process (WCIP). The theoretical suggested study is validated by the simulation of two different examples of SIW circuits. The obtained results are in good agreement with those of measurement and with software HFSS.

Keywords: convergence study, HFSS, modal decomposition, SIW circuits, WCIP method

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100 Nonreciprocal Optical Effects in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates

Authors: Ward Brullot, Thierry Verbiest


Nonreciprocal optical effects, such as Faraday rotation or magnetic circular dichroism, are very useful both for fundamental studies as for applications such as magnetic field sensors or optical isolators. In this study, we developed layer-by-layer deposited 20nm thick plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates consisting of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles that show broadband nonreciprocal asymmetric transmission. As such, the optical transmittance, or absorbance, depends on the direction of light propagation in the material, which means that looking from one direction or the other, more or less light passes through the sample. Theoretical analysis showed that strong electric quadrupole fields, which are electric field gradients, occur in the aggregates and that these quadrupole fields are responsible for the observed asymmetric transmission and the nonreciprocity of the effect. Apart from nonreciprocal asymmetric transmission, also other effects such as, but not limited to, optical rotation, circular dichroism or nonlinear optical responses were measured in the plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates and the influences of the intense electric quadrupole fields determined. In conclusion, the presence of strong electric quadrupole fields make the developed plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates ideal candidates for the study and application of various nonreciprocal optical effects.

Keywords: asymmetric transmission, electric quadrupoles, nanoparticle aggregates, nonreciprocity

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99 Semiconductor Variable Wavelength Generator of Near-Infrared-to-Terahertz Regions

Authors: Isao Tomita


Power characteristics are obtained for laser beams of near-infrared and terahertz wavelengths when produced by difference-frequency generation with a quasi-phase-matched (QPM) waveguide made of gallium phosphide (GaP). A refractive-index change of the QPM GaP waveguide is included in computations with Sellmeier’s formula for varying input wavelengths, where optical loss is also included. Although the output power decreases with decreasing photon energy as the beam wavelength changes from near-infrared to terahertz wavelengths, the beam generation with such greatly different wavelengths, which is not achievable with an ordinary laser diode without the replacement of semiconductor material with a different bandgap one, can be made with the same semiconductor (GaP) by changing the QPM period, where a way of changing the period is provided.

Keywords: difference-frequency generation, gallium phosphide, quasi-phase-matching, waveguide

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98 CRLH and SRR Based Microwave Filter Design Useful for Communication Applications

Authors: Subal Kar, Amitesh Kumar, A. Majumder, S. K. Ghosh, S. Saha, S. S. Sikdar, T. K. Saha


CRLH (composite right/left-handed) based and SRR (split-ring resonator) based filters have been designed at microwave frequency which can provide better performance compared to conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency, 2.45 GHz. Both CRLH and SRR are unit cells used in metamaterial design. The primary aim of designing filters with such structures is to realize size reduction and also to realize novel filter performance. The CRLH based filter has been designed in microstrip transmission line, while the SRR based filter is designed with SRR loading in waveguide. The CRLH based filter designed at 2.45 GHz provides an insertion loss of 1.6 dB with harmonic suppression up to 10 GHz with 67 % size reduction when compared with a conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency. One dimensional (1-D) SRR matrix loaded in a waveguide shows the possibility of realizing a stop-band with sharp skirts in the pass-band while a stop-band in the pass-band of normal rectangular waveguide with tailoring of the dimensions of SRR unit cells. Such filters are expected to be very useful for communication systems at microwave frequency.

Keywords: BPF, CRLH, harmonic, metamaterial, SRR and waveguide

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97 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee


Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

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96 Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications

Authors: Waqas A. Toor, Anis U. Baig, Nuaman Shafqat, Raafia Irfan, Muhammad Ashraf


A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.

Keywords: HFSS high frequency structure simulator, Microwave plasma, UV ultraviolet, WR rectangular waveguide

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95 Visualization of Energy Waves via Airy Functions in Time-Domain

Authors: E. Sener, O. Isik, E. Eroglu, U. Sahin


The main idea is to solve the system of Maxwell’s equations in accordance with the causality principle to get the energy quantities via Airy functions in a hollow rectangular waveguide. We used the evolutionary approach to electromagnetics that is an analytical time-domain method. The boundary-value problem for the system of Maxwell’s equations is reformulated in transverse and longitudinal coordinates. A self-adjoint operator is obtained and the complete set of Eigen vectors of the operator initiates an orthonormal basis of the solution space. Hence, the sought electromagnetic field can be presented in terms of this basis. Within the presentation, the scalar coefficients are governed by Klein-Gordon equation. Ultimately, in this study, time-domain waveguide problem is solved analytically in accordance with the causality principle. Moreover, the graphical results are visualized for the case when the energy and surplus of the energy for the time-domain waveguide modes are represented via airy functions.

Keywords: airy functions, Klein-Gordon Equation, Maxwell’s equations, Surplus of energy, wave boundary operators

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94 Investigation of Cylindrical Multi-Layer Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides

Authors: Prateeksha Sharma, V. Dinesh Kumar


Performances of cylindrical multilayer hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been investigated in detail considering their structural and material aspects. Characteristics of hybrid metal insulator metal (HMIM) and hybrid insulator metal insulator (HIMI) waveguides have been compared on the basis of propagation length and confinement factor. Necessity of this study is to understand newer kind of waveguides that overcome the limitations of conventional waveguides. Investigation reveals that sub wavelength confinement can be obtained in two low dielectric spacer layers. This study provides gateway for many applications such as nano lasers, interconnects, bio sensors and optical trapping etc.

Keywords: hybrid insulator metal insulator, hybrid metal insulator metal, nano laser, surface plasmon polariton

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93 Self-Assembled Laser-Activated Plasmonic Substrates for High-Throughput, High-Efficiency Intracellular Delivery

Authors: Marinna Madrid, Nabiha Saklayen, Marinus Huber, Nicolas Vogel, Christos Boutopoulos, Michel Meunier, Eric Mazur


Delivering material into cells is important for a diverse range of biological applications, including gene therapy, cellular engineering and imaging. We present a plasmonic substrate for delivering membrane-impermeable material into cells at high throughput and high efficiency while maintaining cell viability. The substrate fabrication is based on an affordable and fast colloidal self-assembly process. When illuminated with a femtosecond laser, the light interacts with the electrons at the surface of the metal substrate, creating localized surface plasmons that form bubbles via energy dissipation in the surrounding medium. These bubbles come into close contact with the cell membrane to form transient pores and enable entry of membrane-impermeable material via diffusion. We use fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to verify delivery of membrane-impermeable material into HeLa CCL-2 cells. We show delivery efficiency and cell viability data for a range of membrane-impermeable cargo, including dyes and biologically relevant material such as siRNA. We estimate the effective pore size by determining delivery efficiency for hard fluorescent spheres with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 2 um. To provide insight to the cell poration mechanism, we relate the poration data to pump-probe measurements of micro- and nano-bubble formation on the plasmonic substrate. Finally, we investigate substrate stability and reusability by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to inspect for damage on the substrate after laser treatment. SEM images show no visible damage. Our findings indicate that self-assembled plasmonic substrates are an affordable tool for high-throughput, high-efficiency delivery of material into mammalian cells.

Keywords: femtosecond laser, intracellular delivery, plasmonic, self-assembly

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