Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 104

Search results for: Cameron Hamilton

104 Hamilton-Jacobi Treatment of Damped Motion

Authors: Khaled I. Nawafleh

Abstract:

In this work, we apply the method of Hamilton-Jacobi to obtain solutions of Hamiltonian systems in classical mechanics with two certain structures: the first structure plays a central role in the theory of time-dependent Hamiltonians, whilst the second is used to treat classical Hamiltonians, including dissipation terms. It is proved that the generalization of problems from the calculus of variation methods in the nonstationary case can be obtained naturally in Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. Then, another expression of geometry of the Hamilton Jacobi equation is retrieved for Hamiltonians with time-dependent and frictional terms. Both approaches shall be applied to many physical examples.

Keywords: Hamilton-Jacobi, time dependent lagrangians, dissipative systems, variational principle

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
103 Issues and Challenges for Plantation Agriculture in Cameron Highlands: Interpretations from Socio-Anthropological Viewpoints

Authors: A. H. M. Zehadul Karim

Abstract:

Cameron Highlands (4°28’N, 101°23’E) is an attractive mountainous region with steep slopes located in the state of Pahang, Malaysia stretching between 1070 and 1830m above sea level with a total land area of 71,218ha. It is one of the few places in Malaysia that has a tropical highland climate as the mean annual temperature of it is 18 °C (64 °F) thus making the atmosphere perfect for specialized agriculture. Being ecologically suitable, Cameron Highlands has recently been identified as a very strategic farming area, producing multifarious vegetables, flowers and tea with a commercial motive of marketing them to Singapore and all over the urban areas of Malaysia to meet the domestic and international demands. The main intricacies of this plantation agriculture are fully dependent on the policies formulated by a group of emerging entrepreneurs who employ foreign labourers to make these agricultural activities a success in the agrarian sector in Malaysia. Based on the socio-anthropological perspective, the paper entirely relies on empirical field data generated by interviewing 10 farm owners and 200 foreign workers to find out the intricacies of this plantation agriculture which makes the research innovative and pragmatically significant. The paper deals with important issues relating to this productive plantation agriculture of Cameron Highlands and as such, narrates the various exceptional and holistic skills adopted for this type of farming.

Keywords: Cameron Highlands Malaysia, plantation agriculture, issues and challenges, mechanisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
102 Solution for Thick Plate Resting on Winkler Foundation by Symplectic Geometry Method

Authors: Mei-Jie Xu, Yang Zhong

Abstract:

Based on the symplectic geometry method, the theory of Hamilton system can be applied in the analysis of problem solved using the theory of elasticity and in the solution of elliptic partial differential equations. With this technique, this paper derives the theoretical solution for a thick rectangular plate with four free edges supported on a Winkler foundation by variable separation method. In this method, the governing equation of thick plate was first transformed into state equations in the Hamilton space. The theoretical solution of this problem was next obtained by applying the method of variable separation based on the Hamilton system. Compared with traditional theoretical solutions for rectangular plates, this method has the advantage of not having to assume the form of deflection functions in the solution process. Numerical examples are presented to verify the validity of the proposed solution method.

Keywords: symplectic geometry method, Winkler foundation, thick rectangular plate, variable separation method, Hamilton system

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
101 A Study of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman Equation Systems Arising in Differential Game Models of Changing Society

Authors: Weihua Ruan, Kuan-Chou Chen

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with a system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations coupled with an autonomous dynamical system. The mathematical system arises in the differential game formulation of political economy models as an infinite-horizon continuous-time differential game with discounted instantaneous payoff rates and continuously and discretely varying state variables. The existence of a weak solution of the PDE system is proven and a computational scheme of approximate solution is developed for a class of such systems. A model of democratization is mathematically analyzed as an illustration of application.

Keywords: Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, infinite-horizon differential games, continuous and discrete state variables, political-economy models

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
100 Geo-Spatial Methods to Better Understand Urban Food Deserts

Authors: Brian Ceh, Alison Jackson-Holland

Abstract:

Food deserts are a reality in some cities. These deserts can be described as a shortage of healthy food options within close proximity of consumers. The shortage in this case is typically facilitated by a lack of stores in an urban area that provide adequate fruit and vegetable choices. This study explores new avenues to better understand food deserts by examining modes of transportation that are available to shoppers or consumers, e.g. walking, automobile, or public transit. Further, this study is unique in that it not only explores the location of large grocery stores, but small grocery and convenience stores too. In this study, the relationship between some socio-economic indicators, such as personal income, are also explored to determine any possible association with food deserts. In addition, to help facilitate our understanding of food deserts, complex network spatial models that are built on adequate algorithms are used to investigate the possibility of food deserts in the city of Hamilton, Canada. It is found that Hamilton, Canada is adequate serviced by retailers who provide healthy food choices and that the food desert phenomena is almost absent.

Keywords: Canada, desert, food, Hamilton, store

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
99 Solar Radiation Time Series Prediction

Authors: Cameron Hamilton, Walter Potter, Gerrit Hoogenboom, Ronald McClendon, Will Hobbs

Abstract:

A model was constructed to predict the amount of solar radiation that will make contact with the surface of the earth in a given location an hour into the future. This project was supported by the Southern Company to determine at what specific times during a given day of the year solar panels could be relied upon to produce energy in sufficient quantities. Due to their ability as universal function approximators, an artificial neural network was used to estimate the nonlinear pattern of solar radiation, which utilized measurements of weather conditions collected at the Griffin, Georgia weather station as inputs. A number of network configurations and training strategies were utilized, though a multilayer perceptron with a variety of hidden nodes trained with the resilient propagation algorithm consistently yielded the most accurate predictions. In addition, a modeled DNI field and adjacent weather station data were used to bolster prediction accuracy. In later trials, the solar radiation field was preprocessed with a discrete wavelet transform with the aim of removing noise from the measurements. The current model provides predictions of solar radiation with a mean square error of 0.0042, though ongoing efforts are being made to further improve the model’s accuracy.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, resilient propagation, solar radiation, time series forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
98 Deciding Graph Non-Hamiltonicity via a Closure Algorithm

Authors: E. R. Swart, S. J. Gismondi, N. R. Swart, C. E. Bell

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We present an heuristic algorithm that decides graph non-Hamiltonicity. All graphs are directed, each undirected edge regarded as a pair of counter directed arcs. Each of the n! Hamilton cycles in a complete graph on n+1 vertices is mapped to an n-permutation matrix P where p(u,i)=1 if and only if the ith arc in a cycle enters vertex u, starting and ending at vertex n+1. We first create exclusion set E by noting all arcs (u, v) not in G, sufficient to code precisely all cycles excluded from G i.e. cycles not in G use at least one arc not in G. Members are pairs of components of P, {p(u,i),p(v,i+1)}, i=1, n-1. A doubly stochastic-like relaxed LP formulation of the Hamilton cycle decision problem is constructed. Each {p(u,i),p(v,i+1)} in E is coded as variable q(u,i,v,i+1)=0 i.e. shrinks the feasible region. We then implement the Weak Closure Algorithm (WCA) that tests necessary conditions of a matching, together with Boolean closure to decide 0/1 variable assignments. Each {p(u,i),p(v,j)} not in E is tested for membership in E, and if possible, added to E (q(u,i,v,j)=0) to iteratively maximize |E|. If the WCA constructs E to be maximal, the set of all {p(u,i),p(v,j)}, then G is decided non-Hamiltonian. Only non-Hamiltonian G share this maximal property. Ten non-Hamiltonian graphs (10 through 104 vertices) and 2000 randomized 31 vertex non-Hamiltonian graphs are tested and correctly decided non-Hamiltonian. For Hamiltonian G, the complement of E covers a matching, perhaps useful in searching for cycles. We also present an example where the WCA fails.

Keywords: Hamilton cycle decision problem, computational complexity theory, graph theory, theoretical computer science

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97 Failure to React Positively to Flood Early Warning Systems: Lessons Learned by Flood Victims from Flash Flood Disasters: the Malaysia Experience

Authors: Mohamad Sukeri Khalid, Che Su Mustaffa, Mohd Najib Marzuki, Mohd Fo’ad Sakdan, Sapora Sipon, Mohd Taib Ariffin, Shazwani Shafiai

Abstract:

This paper describes the issues relating to the role of the flash flood early warning system provided by the Malaysian Government to the communities in Malaysia, specifically during the flash flood disaster in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Normally, flash flood disasters can occur as a result of heavy rainfall in an area, and that water may possibly cause flooding via streams or narrow channels. For this study, the flash flood disaster in the Cameron Highlands occurred on 23 October 2013, and as a result the Sungai Bertam overflowed after the release of water from the Sultan Abu Bakar Dam. This release of water from the dam caused flash flooding which led to damage to properties and also the death of residents and livestock in the area. Therefore, the effort of this study is to identify the perceptions of the flash flood victims on the role of the flash flood early warning system. For the purposes of this study, data collection was gathered from those flood victims who were willing to participate in this study through face-to-face interviews. This approach helped the researcher to glean in-depth information about their feeling and perceptions on the role of the flash flood early warning system offered by the government. The data were analysed descriptively and the findings show that the respondents of 22 flood victims believe strongly that the flash flood early warning system was confusing and dysfunctional, and communities had failed to response positively to it. Therefore, most of the communities were not well prepared for the releasing of water from the dam that caused property damage and 3 people were killed in Cameron Highland flash flood disaster.

Keywords: communities affected, disaster management, early warning system, flash flood disaster

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96 A Lagrangian Hamiltonian Computational Method for Hyper-Elastic Structural Dynamics

Authors: Hosein Falahaty, Hitoshi Gotoh, Abbas Khayyer

Abstract:

Performance of a Hamiltonian based particle method in simulation of nonlinear structural dynamics is subjected to investigation in terms of stability and accuracy. The governing equation of motion is derived based on Hamilton's principle of least action, while the deformation gradient is obtained according to Weighted Least Square method. The hyper-elasticity models of Saint Venant-Kirchhoff and a compressible version similar to Mooney- Rivlin are engaged for the calculation of second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, respectively. Stability along with accuracy of numerical model is verified by reproducing critical stress fields in static and dynamic responses. As the results, although performance of Hamiltonian based model is evaluated as being acceptable in dealing with intense extensional stress fields, however kinds of instabilities reveal in the case of violent collision which can be most likely attributed to zero energy singular modes.

Keywords: Hamilton's principle of least action, particle-based method, hyper-elasticity, analysis of stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
95 Vibration Analysis of Power Lines with Moving Dampers

Authors: Mohammad Bukhari, Oumar Barry

Abstract:

In order to reduce the Aeolian vibration of overhead transmission lines, the Stockbridge damper is usually attached. The efficiency of Stockbridge damper depends on its location on the conductor and its resonant frequencies. When the Stockbridge damper is located on a vibration node, it becomes inefficient. Hence, the static damper should be subrogated by a dynamic one. In the present study, a proposed dynamic absorber for transmission lines is studied. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the governing equations, then the system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically. Parametric studies are conducted to determine how certain parameters affect the performance of the absorber. The results demonstrate that replacing the static absorber by a dynamic one enhance the absorber performance for wider range of frequencies. The results also indicate that the maximum displacement decreases as the absorber speed and the forcing frequency increase. However, this reduction in maximum displacement is accompanying with increasing in the steady state vibration displacement. It is also indicated that the energy dissipation in moving absorber covers higher range of frequencies.

Keywords: absorber performance, Aeolian vibration, Hamilton’s principle, stockbridge damper

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
94 Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Headache Patients: Major Concern for Community Mental Health

Authors: Neeti Sharma, Harshika Pareek, Prerna Puri, Manika Mohan

Abstract:

The present study is aimed at studying the significant relationship between anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. Chronic Headache patients coming to the Neurology Unit-1 Outpatient Department of the Sawai Mansingh Hospital (SMS) Jaipur, Rajasthan, were included in this study. The sample consisted of 100 patients (N=100). Initially patients were examined by a physician and then they were assessed for Anxiety and Depression using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The relevant information was recorded on a Performa designed for this purpose comprising of socio-demographic variables like age, gender and triggering factors. The correlation-coefficient indicated a significant positive relationship between the anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. These findings implicate high prevalence of anxiety and depression in the general population, and also indicate an association between headache and psychological disorders. Many evidences support the anxiety-headache-depression syndrome as a distinct disorder, and the association of co-morbid psychiatric illness with headache intractability. This study highlights the importance of prospective research for studying the developmental course and consequences of headache syndromes. Also, various psychotherapies should be applied to the headache patients so as to treat them, at the onset level of anxiety and depression, with the help of medication.

Keywords: anxiety, chronic headaches, depression, HAM-A, HAM

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93 Hawking Radiation of Grumiller Black

Authors: Sherwan Kher Alden Yakub Alsofy

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation and study the Hawking radiation (HR) of scalar particles from uncharged Grumiller black hole (GBH) which is affordable for testing in astrophysics. GBH is also known as Rindler modified Schwarzschild BH. Our aim is not only to investigate the effect of the Rindler parameter A on the Hawking temperature (TH ), but to examine whether there is any discrepancy between the computed horizon temperature and the standard TH as well. For this purpose, in addition to its naive coordinate system, we study on the three regular coordinate systems which are Painlev´-Gullstrand (PG), ingoing Eddington- Finkelstein (IEF) and Kruskal-Szekeres (KS) coordinates. In all coordinate systems, we calculate the tunneling probabilities of incoming and outgoing scalar particles from the event horizon by using the HJ equation. It has been shown in detail that the considered HJ method is concluded with the conventional TH in all these coordinate systems without giving rise to the famous factor- 2 problem. Furthermore, in the PG coordinates Parikh-Wilczek’s tunneling (PWT) method is employed in order to show how one can integrate the quantum gravity (QG) corrections to the semiclassical tunneling rate by including the effects of self-gravitation and back reaction. We then show how these corrections yield a modification in the TH.

Keywords: ingoing Eddington, Finkelstein, coordinates Parikh-Wilczek’s, Hamilton-Jacobi equation

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92 Forecasting Residential Water Consumption in Hamilton, New Zealand

Authors: Farnaz Farhangi

Abstract:

Many people in New Zealand believe that the access to water is inexhaustible, and it comes from a history of virtually unrestricted access to it. For the region like Hamilton which is one of New Zealand’s fastest growing cities, it is crucial for policy makers to know about the future water consumption and implementation of rules and regulation such as universal water metering. Hamilton residents use water freely and they do not have any idea about how much water they use. Hence, one of proposed objectives of this research is focusing on forecasting water consumption using different methods. Residential water consumption time series exhibits seasonal and trend variations. Seasonality is the pattern caused by repeating events such as weather conditions in summer and winter, public holidays, etc. The problem with this seasonal fluctuation is that, it dominates other time series components and makes difficulties in determining other variations (such as educational campaign’s effect, regulation, etc.) in time series. Apart from seasonality, a stochastic trend is also combined with seasonality and makes different effects on results of forecasting. According to the forecasting literature, preprocessing (de-trending and de-seasonalization) is essential to have more performed forecasting results, while some other researchers mention that seasonally non-adjusted data should be used. Hence, I answer the question that is pre-processing essential? A wide range of forecasting methods exists with different pros and cons. In this research, I apply double seasonal ARIMA and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), considering diverse elements such as seasonality and calendar effects (public and school holidays) and combine their results to find the best predicted values. My hypothesis is the examination the results of combined method (hybrid model) and individual methods and comparing the accuracy and robustness. In order to use ARIMA, the data should be stationary. Also, ANN has successful forecasting applications in terms of forecasting seasonal and trend time series. Using a hybrid model is a way to improve the accuracy of the methods. Due to the fact that water demand is dominated by different seasonality, in order to find their sensitivity to weather conditions or calendar effects or other seasonal patterns, I combine different methods. The advantage of this combination is reduction of errors by averaging of each individual model. It is also useful when we are not sure about the accuracy of each forecasting model and it can ease the problem of model selection. Using daily residential water consumption data from January 2000 to July 2015 in Hamilton, I indicate how prediction by different methods varies. ANN has more accurate forecasting results than other method and preprocessing is essential when we use seasonal time series. Using hybrid model reduces forecasting average errors and increases the performance.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), double seasonal ARIMA, forecasting, hybrid model

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
91 Geodesign Application for Bio-Swale Design: A Data-Driven Design Approach for a Case Site in Ottawa Street North in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Authors: Adele Pierre, Nadia Amoroso

Abstract:

Changing climate patterns are resulting in increased in storm severity, challenging traditional methods of managing stormwater runoff. This research compares a system of bioswales to existing curb and gutter infrastructure in a post-industrial streetscape of Hamilton, Ontario. Using the geodesign process, including rule-based set parameters and an integrated approach combining geospatial information with stakeholder input, a section of Ottawa St. North was modelled to show how green infrastructure can ease the burden on aging, combined sewer systems. Qualitative data was gathered from residents of the neighbourhood through field notes, and quantitative geospatial data through GIS and site analysis. Parametric modelling was used to generate multiple design scenarios, each visualizing resulting impacts on stormwater runoff along with their calculations. The selected design scenarios offered both an aesthetically pleasing urban bioswale street-scape system while minimizing and controlling stormwater runoff. Interactive maps, videos and the 3D model were presented for stakeholder comment via ESRI’s (Environmental System Research Institute) web-scene. The results of the study demonstrate powerful tools that can assist landscape architects in designing, collaborating and communicating stormwater strategies.

Keywords: bioswale, geodesign, data-driven and rule-based design, geodesign, GIS, stormwater management

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
90 ‘Nature Will Slow You Down for a Reason’: Virtual Elder-Led Support Services during COVID-19

Authors: Grandmother Roberta Oshkawbewisens, Elder Isabelle Meawasige, Lynne Groulx, Chloë Hamilton, Lee Allison Clark, Dana Hickey, Wansu Qiu, Jared Leedham, Nishanthini Mahendran, Cameron Maclaine

Abstract:

In March of 2020, the world suddenly shifted with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic; in-person programs and services were unavailable and a scramble to shift to virtual service delivery began. The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) established virtual programming through the Resiliency Lodge model and connected with Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people across Turtle Island and Inuit Nunangat through programs that provide a safe space to slow down and reflect on their lives, environment, and well-being. To continue to grow the virtual Resiliency Lodge model, NWAC needed to develop an understanding of three questions: how COVID-19 affects Elder-led support services, how Elder-led support services have adapted during the pandemic, and what Wise Practices need to be implemented to continue to develop, refine, and evaluate virtual Elder-led support services specifically for Indigenous women, girls, two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people. Through funding from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR), NWAC gained deeper insight into these questions and developed a series of key findings and recommendations that are outlined throughout this report. The goals of this project are to contribute to a more robust participatory analysis that reflects the complexities of Elder-led virtual cultural responses and the impacts of COVID-19 on Elder-led support services; develop culturally and contextually meaningful virtual protocols and wise practices for virtual Indigenous-led support; and develop an Evaluation Strategy to improve the capacity of the Resiliency Lodge model. Significant findings from the project include Resiliency Lodge programs, especially crafting and business sessions, have provided participants with a sense of community and contributed to healing and wellness; Elder-led support services need greater and more stable funding to offer more workshops to more Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people; and Elder- and Indigenous-led programs play a significant role in healing and building a sense of purpose and belonging among Indigenous people. Ultimately, the findings and recommendations outlined in this research project help to guide future Elder-led virtual support services and emphasize the critical need to increase access to Elder-led programming for Indigenous women, girls, Two-Spirit, transgender, and gender-diverse people.

Keywords: indigenous women, traditional healing, virtual programs, covid-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
89 Sportomics Analysis of Metabolic Responses in Olympic Sprint Canoeists

Authors: A. Magno-França, A. M. Magalhães-Neto, F. Bachini, E. Cataldi, A. Bassini, L. C. Cameron

Abstract:

Sprint canoeing (SC) is part of the Olympic Games since 1936. Athletes compete in solo or double races of 200m and 1000m (40 sec and 240 sec, respectively). Due to its high intensity and duration, SC is extremely useful to study the blood kinetics of some metabolites in high energetic demand. Sportomics is a field of study combining “-omics” sciences with classical biochemical analyses in order to understand sports induced systemic changes. Here, we compare Sportomics findings during SC training sessions to describe metabolic responses of five top-level canoeists. Five Olympic world-class male athletes were evaluated during two days of training.

Keywords: biochemistry of exercise, metabolomics, injury markers, sportomics

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88 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity

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87 The Subtle Influence of Hindu Doctrines on Film Industry: A Case Study of Movie Avatar

Authors: Cemil Kutlutürk

Abstract:

Hindu culture and religious doctrines such as caste, reincarnation, yoga, nirvana have always proved a popular theme for the film industry. The analyzing of these motifs in the movies with a scientific approach enables to individuals either to comprehend the messages and deep meanings of films or to understand others’ religious beliefs systems and daily lives in a properly way. The primary aim of this study is to handle the subtle influence of Hindu doctrines on cinema industry by focusing on James Cameron’s film, Avatar and its relationship with Hindu concept of avatara by referring to original Hindu sacred texts where this doctrine is basically clarified. The Sanskrit word avatara means to come down or to descend. Although an avatara is commonly considered as an appearance of any deity on earth, the term refers the Vishnu’s descending on earth. When the movie avatar and avatara doctrine are compared, various similarities have noteworthy revealed. Firstly in the movie, Jake is chosen by Eywa to protect Pandora from evils. Similarly in the movie, avatar is born when there is a rise of jealousy and unrighteousness. The same concept is found in avatara doctrine. According to this belief whenever righteousness (dharma) wanes and unrighteousness (adharma) increases God incarnates himself as an avatara. In Hindu tradition, the ten avataras of Vishnu are the most popular. This standard list of ten avataras includes the Fish, the Tortoise, the Boar, the Man-Lion (Narasimha), the Dwarf, Parasurama, Rama, Krishna, the Buddha and Kalki. In the movie the avatar has tail, eyes, nose, ear which is similar to Narasimha (half man-half lion) avatara. On the other hand use of bow and arrow by Navis in the film, evokes us Rama avatara whose basic gun is same. Navis fly on a dragon like bird called Ikra and ride a horse-like quadruped animal. The vehicle for transformation of the avatar in the movie is also resemblance with the idea of Garuda, the great mythical bird, which is used by Vishnu in Hindu mythology. In addition, the last avatara, Kalki, will be seen on a white horse according to Puranas. The basic difference is that for Hinduism avatara means descent of a God, yet in the movie, a human being named Jake Sully, is manifested as humanoid of another planet, this is called as avatar. While in the movie the avatar manifests himself in another planet, Pandora, in Hinduism avataras descent on this world. On the other hand, in Hindu scriptures, there are many avataras and they are categorized according to their functions and attributes. These sides of avatara doctrine cannot be also seen clearly in the film. Even though there are some differences between each other, the main hypothesis of this study is that the general character of the movie is similar to avatara doctrine. In the movie instead of emphasizing on a specific avatara, qualities of different Vishnu avataras have been properly used.

Keywords: film industry, Hinduism, incarnation, James Cameron, movie avatar

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86 Evaluation of tribological performance of aged and unaged biodiesel

Authors: Yuan-Ching Lin, Tian-Yi Huang, Ming-Jhe Hsieh

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In this work, soybean biodiesel was blended with petroleum diesel as testing oils (B2). The tribiological performance of the B2 biodiesel before and after aging was evaluated using a reciprocating cylinder-on-flat wear test rig (Cameron-Plint TE-77) at various temperatures. The worn surface of each tested specimen was observed using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The compositions of the chemical films on each worn surface were determined using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The experimental results demonstrate that the tribiological behavior of the B2 was superior to that of other testing oils. Furthermore, the aging of biodiesel caused acidification, which resulted in poorer wear performance in the same experimental condition compared with others. The worn morphology of the specimen that was tested in the aged soybean biodiesel exhibited corrosion wear, reflecting low wear resistance.

Keywords: biodiesel, soybean, tribological performance

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85 Synchronization of Chaotic T-System via Optimal Control as an Adaptive Controller

Authors: Hossein Kheiri, Bashir Naderi, Mohamad Reza Niknam

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In this paper we study the optimal synchronization of chaotic T-system with complete uncertain parameter. Optimal control laws and parameter estimation rules are obtained by using Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) technique and Lyapunov stability theorem. The derived control laws are optimal adaptive control and make the states of drive and response systems asymptotically synchronized. Numerical simulation shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability, synchronization, chaos, optimal control, adaptive control

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84 Options Trading and Crash Risk

Authors: Cameron Truong, Mikhail Bhatia, Yangyang Chen, Viet Nga Cao

Abstract:

Using a sample of U.S. firms between 1996 and 2011, this paper documents a positive association between options trading volume and future stock price crash risk. This relation is evidently more pronounced among firms with higher information asymmetry, business uncertainty, and short-sale constraints. In a dichotomous cross-sectional setting, we also document that firms with options trading have higher future crash risk than firms without options trading. We further show in a difference-in-difference analysis that firms experience an increase in crash risk immediately after the listing of options. The results suggest that options traders are able of identifying bad news hoarding by management and choose to trade in a liquid options market in anticipation of future crashes.

Keywords: bad news hoarding, cross-sectional setting, options trading, stock price crash

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83 Melnikov Analysis for the Chaos of the Nonlocal Nanobeam Resting on Fractional-Order Softening Nonlinear Viscoelastic Foundations

Authors: Guy Joseph Eyebe, Gambo Betchewe, Alidou Mohamadou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

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In the present study, the dynamics of nanobeam resting on fractional order softening nonlinear viscoelastic pasternack foundations is studied. The Hamilton principle is used to derive the nonlinear equation of the motion. Approximate analytical solution is obtained by applying the standard averaging method. The Melnikov method is used to investigate the chaotic behaviors of device, the critical curve separating the chaotic and non-chaotic regions are found. It is shown that appearance of chaos in the system depends strongly on the fractional order parameter.

Keywords: chaos, fractional-order, Melnikov method, nanobeam

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82 Non Linear Dynamic Analysis of Cantilever Beam with Breathing Crack Using XFEM

Authors: K. Vigneshwaran, Manoj Pandey

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In this paper, breathing crack is considered for the non linear dynamic analysis. The stiffness of the cracked beam is found out by using influence coefficients. The influence coefficients are calculated by using Castigliano’s theorem and strain energy release rate (SERR). The equation of motion of the beam was derived by using Hamilton’s principle. The stiffness and natural frequencies for the cracked beam has been calculated using XFEM and Eigen approach. It is seen that due to presence of cracks, the stiffness and natural frequency changes. The mode shapes and the FRF for the uncracked and breathing cracked cantilever beam also obtained and compared.

Keywords: breathing crack, XFEM, mode shape, FRF, non linear analysis

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81 A Critical Evaluation of Building Information Modelling in New Zealand: Deepening Our Understanding of the Benefits and Drawbacks

Authors: Garry Miller, Thomas Alexander, Cameron Lee

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There is belief that Building Information Modelling (BIM) will improve performance of the New Zealand (NZ) Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector, however, widespread use of BIM is yet to be seen. Previous research indicates there are many issues affecting the uptake of BIM in NZ; nevertheless the underlying benefits, drawbacks, and barriers preventing more widespread uptake are not fully understood. This investigation aimed to understand these factors more clearly and make suggestions on how to improve the uptake of BIM in NZ. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of industry professionals to gather a qualitative understanding. Findings indicated the ability to incorporate better information into a BIM model could drive many benefits. However scepticism and lack of positive incentives in NZ are affecting its widespread use. This concluded that there is a need for the government to produce a number of BIM case studies and develop a set of BIM standards to resolve payment issues surrounding BIM use. This study provides useful information for those interested in BIM and members of government interested in improving the performance of the construction industry. This study may also be of interest to small, developed countries such as NZ where the level of BIM maturity is relatively low.

Keywords: BIM, New Zealand, AEC sector, building information modelling

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80 Free Vibration Analysis of Symmetric Sandwich Beams

Authors: Ibnorachid Zakaria, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali, Farah Abdoun

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is to study the linear free symmetric vibration of three-layer sandwich beam using the energy method. The zigzag model is used to describe the displacement field. The theoretical model is based on the top and bottom layers behave like Euler-Bernoulli beams while the core layer like a Timoshenko beam. Based on Hamilton’s principle, the governing equation of motion sandwich beam is obtained in order to calculate the linear frequency parameters for a clamped-clamped and simple supported-simple-supported beams. The effects of material properties and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies are also investigated.

Keywords: linear vibration, sandwich, shear deformation, Timoshenko zig-zag model

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79 Geometrically Linear Symmetric Free Vibration Analysis of Sandwich Beam

Authors: Ibnorachid Zakaria, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali, Farah Abdoun

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is to study the linear free symmetric vibration of three-layer sandwich beam using the energy method. The zigzag model is used to describe the displacement field. The theoretical model is based on the top and bottom layers behave like Euler-Bernoulli beams while the core layer like a Timoshenko beam. Based on Hamilton’s principle, the governing equation of motion sandwich beam is obtained in order to calculate the linear frequency parameters for a clamped-clamped and simple supported-simple-supported beams. The effects of material properties and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies are also investigated.

Keywords: linear vibration, sandwich, shear deformation, Timoshenko zig-zag model

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78 Comparative Assessment of the Thermal Tolerance of Spotted Stemborer, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Its Larval Parasitoid, Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Authors: Reyard Mutamiswa, Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa

Abstract:

Under stressful thermal environments, insects adjust their behaviour and physiology to maintain key life-history activities and improve survival. For interacting species, mutual or antagonistic, thermal stress may affect the participants in differing ways, which may then affect the outcome of the ecological relationship. In agroecosystems, this may be the fate of relationships between insect pests and their antagonistic parasitoids under acute and chronic thermal variability. Against this background, we therefore investigated the thermal tolerance of different developmental stages of Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its larval parasitoid Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using both dynamic and static protocols. In laboratory experiments, we determined lethal temperature assays (upper and lower lethal temperatures) using direct plunge protocols in programmable water baths (Systronix, Scientific, South Africa), effects of ramping rate on critical thermal limits following standardized protocols using insulated double-jacketed chambers (‘organ pipes’) connected to a programmable water bath (Lauda Eco Gold, Lauda DR.R. Wobser GMBH and Co. KG, Germany), supercooling points (SCPs) following dynamic protocols using a Pico logger connected to a programmable water bath, heat knock-down time (HKDT) and chill-coma recovery (CCRT) time following static protocols in climate chambers (HPP 260, Memmert GmbH + Co.KG, Germany) connected to a camera (HD Covert Network Camera, DS-2CD6412FWD-20, Hikvision Digital Technology Co., Ltd, China). When exposed for two hours to a static temperature, lower lethal temperatures ranged -9 to 6; -14 to -2 and -1 to 4ºC while upper lethal temperatures ranged from 37 to 48; 41 to 49 and 36 to 39ºC for C. partellus eggs, larvae and C. sesamiae adults respectively. Faster heating rates improved critical thermal maxima (CTmax) in C. partellus larvae and adult C. partellus and C. sesamiae. Lower cooling rates improved critical thermal minima (CTmin) in C. partellus and C. sesamiae adults while compromising CTmin in C. partellus larvae. The mean SCPs for C. partellus larvae, pupae and adults were -11.82±1.78, -10.43±1.73 and -15.75±2.47 respectively with adults having the lowest SCPs. Heat knock-down time and chill-coma recovery time varied significantly between C. partellus larvae and adults. Larvae had higher HKDT than adults, while the later recovered significantly faster following chill-coma. Current results suggest developmental stage differences in C. partellus thermal tolerance (with respect to lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits) and a compromised temperature tolerance of parasitoid C. sesamiae relative to its host, suggesting potential asynchrony between host-parasitoid population phenology and consequently biocontrol efficacy under global change. These results have broad implications to biological pest management insect-natural enemy interactions under rapidly changing thermal environments.

Keywords: chill-coma recovery time, climate change, heat knock-down time, lethal temperatures, supercooling point

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77 Compromised Sexual Territoriality under Reflexive Cosmopolitanism: From Coffee Bean to Gay Bean in South Korea

Authors: Robert Christopher Hamilton

Abstract:

This research examined the effects of reflexive cosmopolitanism on the competition for sexual territoriality. By adopting Michel De Certeau’s (1984) spatial didactic model, the article maps out the key elements at play and the dynamics explaining how gays gay place in the backdrop of rapid modernization. It found that heterosexual space and heteronormative assumptions helped to create temporal and spatial opportunities that allow for sexual performativity of gay males. Moreover, using data collected from multiple semi-controlled one-on-one interviews over 13 months, this article illustrates how spatial competition culminates in non-zero sum game outcomes and particularly to compromise of sexual territoriality while further demonstrating the need to understand the sexual coping tactics used in cultures with similar backgrounds. The findings enable researchers to better understand how gay men gay space, and how space performatively embodies gay men.

Keywords: South Korea, coffee bean, sexual territoriality, reflexive cosmopolitanism

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76 A Grounded Theory of Educational Leadership Development Using Generative Dialogue

Authors: Elizabeth Hartney, Keith Borkowsky, Jo Axe, Doug Hamilton

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to develop a grounded theory of educational leadership development, using an approach to initiating and maintaining professional growth in school principals and vice principals termed generative dialogue. The research was conducted in a relatively affluent, urban school district in Western Canada. Generative dialogue interviews were conducted by a team of consultants, and anonymous data in the form of handwritten notes were voluntarily submitted to the research team. The data were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. The results indicate that a key focus of educational leadership development is focused on navigating relationships within the school setting and that the generative dialogue process is helpful for principals and vice principals to explore how they might do this. Applicability and limitations of the study are addressed.

Keywords: generative dialogue, school principals, grounded theory, leadership development

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75 The Relationship between Conceptual Organizational Culture and the Level of Tolerance in Employees

Authors: M. Sadoughi, R. Ehsani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is examining the relationship between conceptual organizational culture and the level of tolerance in employees of Islamic Azad University of Shahre Ghods. This research is a correlational and analytic-descriptive one. The samples included 144 individuals. A 24-item standard questionnaire of organizational culture by Cameron and Queen was used in this study. This questionnaire has six criteria and each criterion includes four items that each item indicates one cultural dimension. Reliability coefficient of this questionnaire was normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Also, the 25-item questionnaire of tolerance by Conor and Davidson was used. This questionnaire is in a five-degree Likert scale form. It has seven criteria and is designed to measure the power of coping with pressure and threat. It has the needed content reliability and its reliability coefficient is normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression. The results showed among various dimensions of organizational culture, there is a positive significant relationship between three dimensions (family, adhocracy, bureaucracy) and tolerance, there is a negative significant relationship between dimension of market and tolerance and components of organizational culture have the power of prediction and explaining the tolerance. In this explanation, the component of family is the most effective and the best predictor of tolerance.

Keywords: adhocracy, bureaucracy, organizational culture, tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 362