Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2970

Search results for: convex index

2970 From Convexity in Graphs to Polynomial Rings

Authors: Ladznar S. Laja, Rosalio G. Artes, Jr.


This paper introduced a graph polynomial relating convexity concepts. A graph polynomial is a polynomial representing a graph given some parameters. On the other hand, a subgraph H of a graph G is said to be convex in G if for every pair of vertices in H, every shortest path with these end-vertices lies entirely in H. We define the convex subgraph polynomial of a graph G to be the generating function of the sequence of the numbers of convex subgraphs of G of cardinalities ranging from zero to the order of G. This graph polynomial is monic since G itself is convex. The convex index which counts the number of convex subgraphs of G of all orders is just the evaluation of this polynomial at 1. Relationships relating algebraic properties of convex subgraphs polynomial with graph theoretic concepts are established.

Keywords: convex subgraph, convex index, generating function, polynomial ring

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
2969 Measuring Development through Extreme Observations: An Archetypal Analysis Approach to Index Construction

Authors: Claudeline D. Cellan


Development is multifaceted, and efforts to hasten growth in all these facets have been gaining traction in recent years. Thus, producing a composite index that is reflective of these multidimensional impacts captures the interests of policymakers. The problem lies in going through a mixture of theoretical, methodological and empirical decisions and complexities which, when done carelessly, can lead to inconsistent and unreliable results. This study looks into index computation from a different and less complex perspective. Borrowing the idea of archetypes or ‘pure types’, archetypal analysis looks for points in the convex hull of the multivariate data set that captures as much information in the data as possible. The archetypes or 'pure types' are estimated such that they are convex combinations of all the observations, which in turn are convex combinations of the archetypes. This ensures that the archetypes are realistically observable, therefore achievable. In the sense of composite indices, we look for the best among these archetypes and use this as a benchmark for index computation. Its straightforward and simplistic approach does away with aggregation and substitutability problems which are commonly encountered in index computation. As an example of the application of archetypal analysis in index construction, the country data for the Human Development Index (HDI 2017) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is used. The goal of this exercise is not to replicate the result of the UNDP-computed HDI, but to illustrate the usability of archetypal analysis in index construction. Here best is defined in the context of life, education and gross national income sub-indices. Results show that the HDI from the archetypal analysis has a linear relationship with the UNDP-computed HDI.

Keywords: archetypes, composite index, convex combination, development

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2968 Jensen's Inequality and M-Convex Functions

Authors: Yamin Sayyari


In this paper, we generalized the Jensen's inequality for m-convex functions and also we present a correction of Jensen's inequality which is a better than the generalization of this inequality for m-convex functions. Finally, we have found new lower and new upper bounds for Jensen's discrete inequality.

Keywords: Jensen's inequality, m-convex function, Convex function, Inequality

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2967 Subclass of Close-To-Convex Harmonic Mappings

Authors: Jugal K. Prajapat, Manivannan M.


In this article we have studied a class of sense preserving harmonic mappings in the unit disk D. Let B⁰H (α, β) denote the class of sense-preserving harmonic mappings f=h+g ̅ in the open unit disk D and satisfying the condition |z h״(z)+α (h׳(z)-1) | ≤ β - |z g″(z)+α g′(z)| (α > -1, β > 0). We have proved that B⁰H (α, β) is close-to-convex in D. We also prove that the functions in B⁰H (α, β) are stable harmonic univalent, stable harmonic starlike and stable harmonic convex in D for different values of its parameters. Further, the coefficient estimates, growth results, area theorem, boundary behavior, convolution and convex combination properties of the class B⁰H (α, β) of harmonic mapping are obtained.

Keywords: analytic, univalent, starlike, convex and close-to-convex

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
2966 Approximation of Convex Set by Compactly Semidefinite Representable Set

Authors: Anusuya Ghosh, Vishnu Narayanan


The approximation of convex set by semidefinite representable set plays an important role in semidefinite programming, especially in modern convex optimization. To optimize a linear function over a convex set is a hard problem. But optimizing the linear function over the semidefinite representable set which approximates the convex set is easy to solve as there exists numerous efficient algorithms to solve semidefinite programming problems. So, our approximation technique is significant in optimization. We develop a technique to approximate any closed convex set, say K by compactly semidefinite representable set. Further we prove that there exists a sequence of compactly semidefinite representable sets which give tighter approximation of the closed convex set, K gradually. We discuss about the convergence of the sequence of compactly semidefinite representable sets to closed convex set K. The recession cone of K and the recession cone of the compactly semidefinite representable set are equal. So, we say that the sequence of compactly semidefinite representable sets converge strongly to the closed convex set. Thus, this approximation technique is very useful development in semidefinite programming.

Keywords: semidefinite programming, semidefinite representable set, compactly semidefinite representable set, approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2965 Generalized Central Paths for Convex Programming

Authors: Li-Zhi Liao


The central path has played the key role in the interior point method. However, the convergence of the central path may not be true even in some convex programming problems with linear constraints. In this paper, the generalized central paths are introduced for convex programming. One advantage of the generalized central paths is that the paths will always converge to some optimal solutions of the convex programming problem for any initial interior point. Some additional theoretical properties for the generalized central paths will be also reported.

Keywords: central path, convex programming, generalized central path, interior point method

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2964 Sparse-View CT Reconstruction Based on Nonconvex L1 − L2 Regularizations

Authors: Ali Pour Yazdanpanah, Farideh Foroozandeh Shahraki, Emma Regentova


The reconstruction from sparse-view projections is one of important problems in computed tomography (CT) limited by the availability or feasibility of obtaining of a large number of projections. Traditionally, convex regularizers have been exploited to improve the reconstruction quality in sparse-view CT, and the convex constraint in those problems leads to an easy optimization process. However, convex regularizers often result in a biased approximation and inaccurate reconstruction in CT problems. Here, we present a nonconvex, Lipschitz continuous and non-smooth regularization model. The CT reconstruction is formulated as a nonconvex constrained L1 − L2 minimization problem and solved through a difference of convex algorithm and alternating direction of multiplier method which generates a better result than L0 or L1 regularizers in the CT reconstruction. We compare our method with previously reported high performance methods which use convex regularizers such as TV, wavelet, curvelet, and curvelet+TV (CTV) on the test phantom images. The results show that there are benefits in using the nonconvex regularizer in the sparse-view CT reconstruction.

Keywords: computed tomography, non-convex, sparse-view reconstruction, L1-L2 minimization, difference of convex functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2963 Strong Convergence of an Iterative Sequence in Real Banach Spaces with Kadec Klee Property

Authors: Umar Yusuf Batsari


Let E be a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex real Banach space and C be a nonempty, closed and convex subset of E. Let $V= \{S_i : C\to C, ~i=1, 2, 3\cdots N\}$ be a convex set of relatively nonexpansive mappings containing identity. In this paper, an iterative sequence obtained from CQ algorithm was shown to have strongly converge to a point $\hat{x}$ which is a common fixed point of relatively nonexpansive mappings in V and also solve the system of equilibrium problems in E. The result improve some existing results in the literature.

Keywords: relatively nonexpansive mappings, strong convergence, equilibrium problems, uniformly smooth space, uniformly convex space, convex set, kadec klee property

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2962 An Improved Lower Bound for Minimal-Area Convex Cover for Closed Unit Curves

Authors: S. Som-Am, B. Grechuk


Moser’s worm problem is the unsolved problem in geometry which asks for the minimal area of a convex region on the plane which can cover all curves of unit length, assuming that curves may be rotated and translated to fit inside the region. We study a version of this problem asking for a minimal convex cover for closed unit curves. By combining geometric methods with numerical box’s search algorithm, we show that any such cover should have an area at least 0.0975. This improves the best previous lower bound of 0.096694. In fact, we show that the minimal area of convex hull of circle, equilateral triangle, and rectangle of perimeter 1 is between 0.0975 and 0.09763.

Keywords: Moser’s worm problem, closed arcs, convex cover, minimal-area cover

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2961 Neural Network in Fixed Time for Collision Detection between Two Convex Polyhedra

Authors: M. Khouil, N. Saber, M. Mestari


In this paper, a different architecture of a collision detection neural network (DCNN) is developed. This network, which has been particularly reviewed, has enabled us to solve with a new approach the problem of collision detection between two convex polyhedra in a fixed time (O (1) time). We used two types of neurons, linear and threshold logic, which simplified the actual implementation of all the networks proposed. The study of the collision detection is divided into two sections, the collision between a point and a polyhedron and then the collision between two convex polyhedra. The aim of this research is to determine through the AMAXNET network a mini maximum point in a fixed time, which allows us to detect the presence of a potential collision.

Keywords: collision identification, fixed time, convex polyhedra, neural network, AMAXNET

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
2960 Comparative Analysis of Classical and Parallel Inpainting Algorithms Based on Affine Combinations of Projections on Convex Sets

Authors: Irina Maria Artinescu, Costin Radu Boldea, Eduard-Ionut Matei


The paper is a comparative study of two classical variants of parallel projection methods for solving the convex feasibility problem with their equivalents that involve variable weights in the construction of the solutions. We used a graphical representation of these methods for inpainting a convex area of an image in order to investigate their effectiveness in image reconstruction applications. We also presented a numerical analysis of the convergence of these four algorithms in terms of the average number of steps and execution time in classical CPU and, alternatively, in parallel GPU implementation.

Keywords: convex feasibility problem, convergence analysis, inpainting, parallel projection methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
2959 Solving Linear Systems Involved in Convex Programming Problems

Authors: Yixun Shi


Many interior point methods for convex programming solve an (n+m)x(n+m)linear system in each iteration. Many implementations solve this system in each iteration by considering an equivalent mXm system (4) as listed in the paper, and thus the job is reduced into solving the system (4). However, the system(4) has to be solved exactly since otherwise the error would be entirely passed onto the last m equations of the original system. Often the Cholesky factorization is computed to obtain the exact solution of (4). One Cholesky factorization is to be done in every iteration, resulting in higher computational costs. In this paper, two iterative methods for solving linear systems using vector division are combined together and embedded into interior point methods. Instead of computing one Cholesky factorization in each iteration, it requires only one Cholesky factorization in the entire procedure, thus significantly reduces the amount of computation needed for solving the problem. Based on that, a hybrid algorithm for solving convex programming problems is proposed.

Keywords: convex programming, interior point method, linear systems, vector division

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
2958 Topological Indices of Some Graph Operations

Authors: U. Mary


Let be a graph with a finite, nonempty set of objects called vertices together with a set of unordered pairs of distinct vertices of called edges. The vertex set is denoted by and the edge set by. Given two graphs and the wiener index of, wiener index for the splitting graph of a graph, the first Zagreb index of and its splitting graph, the 3-steiner wiener index of, the 3-steiner wiener index of a special graph are explored in this paper.

Keywords: complementary prism graph, first Zagreb index, neighborhood corona graph, steiner distance, splitting graph, steiner wiener index, wiener index

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2957 A Numerical Study on the Flow in a Pipe with Perforated Plates

Authors: Myeong Hee Jeong, Man Young Kim


The use of perforated plate and tubes is common in applications such as vehicle exhaust silencers, attenuators in air moving ducts and duct linings in jet engines. Also, perforated plate flow conditioners designed to improve flow distribution upstream of an orifice plate flow meter typically have 50–60% free area but these generally employ a non-uniform distribution of holes of several sizes to encourage the formation of a fully developed pipe flow velocity distribution. In this study, therefore, numerical investigations on the flow characteristics with the various perforated plates have been performed and then compared to the case without a perforated plate. Three different models are adopted such as a flat perforated plate, a convex perforated plate in the direction of the inlet, and a convex perforated plate in the direction of the outlet. Simulation results show that the pressure drop with and without perforated plates are similar each other. However, it can be found that that the different shaped perforated plates influence the velocity contour, flow uniformity index, and location of the fully developed fluid flow. These results can be used as a practical guide to the best design of pipe with the perforated plate.

Keywords: perforated plate, flow uniformity, pipe turbulent flow, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

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2956 Optimal Economic Restructuring Aimed at an Optimal Increase in GDP Constrained by a Decrease in Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions

Authors: Alexander Vaninsky


The objective of this paper is finding the way of economic restructuring - that is, change in the shares of sectoral gross outputs - resulting in the maximum possible increase in the gross domestic product (GDP) combined with decreases in energy consumption and CO2 emissions. It uses an input-output model for the GDP and factorial models for the energy consumption and CO2 emissions to determine the projection of the gradient of GDP, and the antigradients of the energy consumption and CO2 emissions, respectively, on a subspace formed by the structure-related variables. Since the gradient (antigradient) provides a direction of the steepest increase (decrease) of the objective function, and their projections retain this property for the functions' limitation to the subspace, each of the three directional vectors solves a particular problem of optimal structural change. In the next step, a type of factor analysis is applied to find a convex combination of the projected gradient and antigradients having maximal possible positive correlation with each of the three. This convex combination provides the desired direction of the structural change. The national economy of the United States is used as an example of applications.

Keywords: economic restructuring, input-output analysis, divisia index, factorial decomposition, E3 models

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2955 Polarization Dependent Flexible GaN Film Nanogenerators and Electroluminescence Properties

Authors: Jeong Min Baik


We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties and electrical output power of flexible N-face p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by strain-induced piezo-potential generated across the metal-semiconductor-metal structures. Under different staining conditions (convex and concave bending modes), the transport properties of the GaN films can be changed due to the spontaneous polarization of the films. The I-V characteristics with the bending modes show that the convex bending can increase the current across the films by the decrease in the barrier height at the metal-semiconductor contact, increasing the EL intensity of the P-N junction. At convex bending, it is also shown that the flexible p-type GaN films can generate an output voltage of up to 1.0 V, while at concave bending, 0.4 V. The change of the band bending with the crystal polarity of GaN films was investigated using high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices and nanogenerators under a working environment.

Keywords: GaN, flexible, laser lift-off, nanogenerator

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2954 Estimating View-Through Ad Attribution from User Surveys Using Convex Optimization

Authors: Yuhan Lin, Rohan Kekatpure, Cassidy Yeung


In Digital Marketing, robust quantification of View-through attribution (VTA) is necessary for evaluating channel effectiveness. VTA occurs when a product purchase is aided by an Ad but without an explicit click (e.g. a TV ad). A lack of a tracking mechanism makes VTA estimation challenging. Most prevalent VTA estimation techniques rely on post-purchase in-product user surveys. User surveys enable the calculation of channel multipliers, which are the ratio of the view-attributed to the click-attributed purchases of each marketing channel. Channel multipliers thus provide a way to estimate the unknown VTA for a channel from its known click attribution. In this work, we use Convex Optimization to compute channel multipliers in a way that enables a mathematical encoding of the expected channel behavior. Large fluctuations in channel attributions often result from overfitting the calculations to user surveys. Casting channel attribution as a Convex Optimization problem allows an introduction of constraints that limit such fluctuations. The result of our study is a distribution of channel multipliers across the entire marketing funnel, with important implications for marketing spend optimization. Our technique can be broadly applied to estimate Ad effectiveness in a privacy-centric world that increasingly limits user tracking.

Keywords: digital marketing, survey analysis, operational research, convex optimization, channel attribution

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2953 A Comparative Study of Multi-SOM Algorithms for Determining the Optimal Number of Clusters

Authors: Imèn Khanchouch, Malika Charrad, Mohamed Limam


The interpretation of the quality of clusters and the determination of the optimal number of clusters is still a crucial problem in clustering. We focus in this paper on multi-SOM clustering method which overcomes the problem of extracting the number of clusters from the SOM map through the use of a clustering validity index. We then tested multi-SOM using real and artificial data sets with different evaluation criteria not used previously such as Davies Bouldin index, Dunn index and silhouette index. The developed multi-SOM algorithm is compared to k-means and Birch methods. Results show that it is more efficient than classical clustering methods.

Keywords: clustering, SOM, multi-SOM, DB index, Dunn index, silhouette index

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
2952 Optrix: Energy Aware Cross Layer Routing Using Convex Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ali Shareef, Aliha Shareef, Yifeng Zhu


Energy minimization is of great importance in wireless sensor networks in extending the battery lifetime. One of the key activities of nodes in a WSN is communication and the routing of their data to a centralized base-station or sink. Routing using the shortest path to the sink is not the best solution since it will cause nodes along this path to fail prematurely. We propose a cross-layer energy efficient routing protocol Optrix that utilizes a convex formulation to maximize the lifetime of the network as a whole. We further propose, Optrix-BW, a novel convex formulation with bandwidth constraint that allows the channel conditions to be accounted for in routing. By considering this key channel parameter we demonstrate that Optrix-BW is capable of congestion control. Optrix is implemented in TinyOS, and we demonstrate that a relatively large topology of 40 nodes can converge to within 91% of the optimal routing solution. We describe the pitfalls and issues related with utilizing a continuous form technique such as convex optimization with discrete packet based communication systems as found in WSNs. We propose a routing controller mechanism that allows for this transformation. We compare Optrix against the Collection Tree Protocol (CTP) and we found that Optrix performs better in terms of convergence to an optimal routing solution, for load balancing and network lifetime maximization than CTP.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, Energy Efficient Routing

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2951 Effect of Addition and Reduction of Sharia Index Constituents

Authors: Rosyidah, Permata Wulandari


We investigate the price effect of addition and deletions from the Indonesia Sharia Stock Index (ISSI) and Jakarta Islamic Index (JII). Using event study methodology, we measure abnormal returns for firms over the period June 2019 - to December 2021. Through the sample of 107 additions and 95 deletions, we find evidence to support the theory of Muslim country investment behavior. We find that additions to the Islamic index led to a significant positive stock market reaction and deletions to the Islamic index led to a negative stock market reaction on Jakarta Islamic Index (JII) and there is no significant reaction of addition and deletion on Indonesia Sharia Stock Index (ISSI).

Keywords: abnormal return, abnormal volume, event study, index changes, sharia index

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2950 On the Solidness of the Polar of Recession Cones

Authors: Sima Hassankhali, Ildar Sadeqi


In the theory of Pareto efficient points, the existence of a bounded base for a cone K of a normed space X is so important. In this article, we study the geometric structure of a nonzero closed convex cone K with a bounded base. For this aim, we study the structure of the polar cone K# of K. Furthermore, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a nonempty closed convex set C so that its recession cone C∞ has a bounded base.

Keywords: solid cones, recession cones, polar cones, bounded base

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2949 Comparison of the H-Index of Researchers of Google Scholar and Scopus

Authors: Adian Fatchur Rochim, Abdul Muis, Riri Fitri Sari


H-index has been widely used as a performance indicator of researchers around the world especially in Indonesia. The Government uses Scopus and Google scholar as indexing references in providing recognition and appreciation. However, those two indexing services yield to different H-index values. For that purpose, this paper evaluates the difference of the H-index from those services. Researchers indexed by Webometrics, are used as reference’s data in this paper. Currently, Webometrics only uses H-index from Google Scholar. This paper observed and compared corresponding researchers’ data from Scopus to get their H-index score. Subsequently, some researchers with huge differences in score are observed in more detail on their paper’s publisher. This paper shows that the H-index of researchers in Google Scholar is approximately 2.45 times of their Scopus H-Index. Most difference exists due to the existence of uncertified publishers, which is considered in Google Scholar but not in Scopus.

Keywords: Google Scholar, H-index, Scopus, performance indicator

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2948 Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems

Authors: P. Góes, J. Manzi


This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial reactor. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that the energy efficiency index applied to the reactive system is consistent because it extracts the information expected of an efficient indicator, and that it is useful as an analytical tool besides being feasible from a practical standpoint. Furthermore, it has proved to be much simpler to use than tools based on traditional methodologies.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, entropy, reactive

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2947 An Efficiency Measurement of E-Government Performance for United Nation Ranking Index

Authors: Yassine Jadi, Lin Jie


In order to serve the society in an electronic manner, many developing countries have launched tremendous e-government projects. The strategies of development and implementation e-government system have reached different levels, and to ensure consistency of development, the governments need to evaluate e-government performance. The United nation has design e-government development ranking index (EGDI) that rely on three indexes, Online service index (OSI), Telecommunication Infrastructure index (TII), and human capital index( HCI) which are not reflecting the interaction between a government and their citizens. Based on data envelopment analyses (DEA) technique, we are using E-participating index (EPI) as an output of government effort to evaluate the performance of e-government system. Therefore, the ranking index can be achieved in efficiency manner.

Keywords: e-government, DEA, efficiency measurement, EGDI

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2946 Eccentric Connectivity Index, First and Second Zagreb Indices of Corona Graph

Authors: A. Kulandai Therese


The eccentric connectivity index based on degree and eccentricity of the vertices of a graph is a widely used graph invariant in mathematics.In this paper, we present the explicit eccentric connectivity index, first and second Zagreb indices for a Corona graph and sub division-related corona graphs.

Keywords: corona graph, degree, eccentricity, eccentric connectivity index, first zagreb index, second zagreb index, subdivision graphs

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2945 Optimum Design of Hybrid (Metal-Composite) Mechanical Power Transmission System under Uncertainty by Convex Modelling

Authors: Sfiso Radebe


The design models dealing with flawless composite structures are in abundance, where the mechanical properties of composite structures are assumed to be known a priori. However, if the worst case scenario is assumed, where material defects combined with processing anomalies in composite structures are expected, a different solution is attained. Furthermore, if the system being designed combines in series hybrid elements, individually affected by material constant variations, it implies that a different approach needs to be taken. In the body of literature, there is a compendium of research that investigates different modes of failure affecting hybrid metal-composite structures. It covers areas pertaining to the failure of the hybrid joints, structural deformation, transverse displacement, the suppression of vibration and noise. In the present study a system employing a combination of two or more hybrid power transmitting elements will be explored for the least favourable dynamic loads as well as weight minimization, subject to uncertain material properties. Elastic constants are assumed to be uncertain-but-bounded quantities varying slightly around their nominal values where the solution is determined using convex models of uncertainty. Convex analysis of the problem leads to the computation of the least favourable solution and ultimately to a robust design. This approach contrasts with a deterministic analysis where the average values of elastic constants are employed in the calculations, neglecting the variations in the material properties.

Keywords: convex modelling, hybrid, metal-composite, robust design

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2944 Optimality Conditions for Weak Efficient Solutions Generated by a Set Q in Vector Spaces

Authors: Elham Kiyani, S. Mansour Vaezpour, Javad Tavakoli


In this paper, we first introduce a new distance function in a linear space not necessarily endowed with a topology. The algebraic concepts of interior and closure are useful to study optimization problems without topology. So, we define Q-weak efficient solutions generated by the algebraic interior of a set Q, where Q is not necessarily convex. Studying nonconvex vector optimization is valuable since, for a convex cone K in topological spaces, we have int(K)=cor(K), which means that topological interior of a convex cone K is equal to the algebraic interior of K. Moreover, we used the scalarization technique including the distance function generated by the vectorial closure of a set to characterize these Q-weak efficient solutions. Scalarization is a useful approach for solving vector optimization problems. This technique reduces the optimization problem to a scalar problem which tends to be an optimization problem with a real-valued objective function. For instance, Q-weak efficient solutions of vector optimization problems can be characterized and computed as solutions of appropriate scalar optimization problems. In the convex case, linear functionals can be used as objective functionals of the scalar problems. But in the nonconvex case, we should present a suitable objective function. It is the aim of this paper to present a new distance function that be useful to obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for Q-weak efficient solutions of general optimization problems via scalarization.

Keywords: weak efficient, algebraic interior, vector closure, linear space

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2943 Impact of Curvatures in the Dike Line on Wave Run-up and Wave Overtopping, ConDike-Project

Authors: Malte Schilling, Mahmoud M. Rabah, Sven Liebisch


Wave run-up and overtopping are the relevant parameters for the dimensioning of the crest height of dikes. Various experimental as well as numerical studies have investigated these parameters under different boundary conditions (e.g. wave conditions, structure type). Particularly for the dike design in Europe, a common approach is formulated where wave and structure properties are parameterized. However, this approach assumes equal run-up heights and overtopping discharges along the longitudinal axis. However, convex dikes have a heterogeneous crest by definition. Hence, local differences in a convex dike line are expected to cause wave-structure interactions different to a straight dike. This study aims to assess both run-up and overtopping at convexly curved dikes. To cast light on the relevance of curved dikes for the design approach mentioned above, physical model tests were conducted in a 3D wave basin of the Ludwig-Franzius-Institute Hannover. A dike of a slope of 1:6 (height over length) was tested under both regular waves and TMA wave spectra. Significant wave heights ranged from 7 to 10 cm and peak periods from 1.06 to 1.79 s. Both run-up and overtopping was assessed behind the curved and straight sections of the dike. Both measurements were compared to a dike with a straight line. It was observed that convex curvatures in the longitudinal dike line cause a redirection of incident waves leading to a concentration around the center point. Measurements prove that both run-up heights and overtopping rates are higher than on the straight dike. It can be concluded that deviations from a straight longitudinal dike line have an impact on design parameters and imply uncertainties within the design approach in force. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these influencing factors for such cases.

Keywords: convex dike, longitudinal curvature, overtopping, run-up

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2942 Brainwave Classification for Brain Balancing Index (BBI) via 3D EEG Model Using k-NN Technique

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan


In this paper, the comparison between k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithms for classifying the 3D EEG model in brain balancing is presented. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 51 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, maximum PSD values were extracted as features from the model. There are three indexes for the balanced brain; index 3, index 4 and index 5. There are significant different of the EEG signals due to the brain balancing index (BBI). Alpha-α (8–13 Hz) and beta-β (13–30 Hz) were used as input signals for the classification model. The k-NN classification result is 88.46% accuracy. These results proved that k-NN can be used in order to predict the brain balancing application.

Keywords: power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, kNN

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2941 Quality of Age Reporting from Tanzania 2012 Census Results: An Assessment Using Whipple’s Index, Myer’s Blended Index, and Age-Sex Accuracy Index

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman, Hamisi F. Hamisi


Background: Many socio-economic and demographic data are age-sex attributed. However, a variety of irregularities and misstatement are noted with respect to age-related data and less to sex data because of its biological differences between the genders. Noting the misstatement/misreporting of age data regardless of its significance importance in demographics and epidemiological studies, this study aims at assessing the quality of 2012 Tanzania Population and Housing Census Results. Methods: Data for the analysis are downloaded from Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics. Age heaping and digit preference were measured using summary indices viz., Whipple’s index, Myers’ blended index, and Age-Sex Accuracy index. Results: The recorded Whipple’s index for both sexes was 154.43; male has the lowest index of about 152.65 while female has the highest index of about 156.07. For Myers’ blended index, the preferences were at digits ‘0’ and ‘5’ while avoidance were at digits ‘1’ and ‘3’ for both sexes. Finally, Age-sex index stood at 59.8 where sex ratio score was 5.82 and age ratio scores were 20.89 and 21.4 for males and female respectively. Conclusion: The evaluation of the 2012 PHC data using the demographic techniques has qualified the data inaccurate as the results of systematic heaping and digit preferences/avoidances. Thus, innovative methods in data collection along with measuring and minimizing errors using statistical techniques should be used to ensure accuracy of age data.

Keywords: age heaping, digit preference/avoidance, summary indices, Whipple’s index, Myer’s index, age-sex accuracy index

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