Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1965

Search results for: distance in graphs

1965 The K-Distance Neighborhood Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Soner Nandappa D., Ahmed Mohammed Naji

Abstract:

In a graph G = (V, E), the distance from a vertex v to a vertex u is the length of shortest v to u path. The eccentricity e(v) of v is the distance to a farthest vertex from v. The diameter diam(G) is the maximum eccentricity. The k-distance neighborhood of v, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is Nk(v) = {u ϵ V (G) : d(v, u) = k}. In this paper, we introduce a new distance degree based topological polynomial of a graph G is called a k- distance neighborhood polynomial, denoted Nk(G, x). It is a polynomial with the coefficient of the term k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is the sum of the cardinalities of Nk(v) for every v ϵ V (G). Some properties of k- distance neighborhood polynomials are obtained. Exact formulas of the k- distance neighborhood polynomial for some well-known graphs, Cartesian product and join of graphs are presented.

Keywords: vertex degrees, distance in graphs, graph operation, Nk-polynomials

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1964 Semirings of Graphs: An Approach Towards the Algebra of Graphs

Authors: Gete Umbrey, Saifur Rahman

Abstract:

Graphs are found to be most capable in computing, and its abstract structures have been applied in some specific computations and algorithms like in phase encoding controller, processor microcontroller, and synthesis of a CMOS switching network, etc. Being motivated by these works, we develop an independent approach to study semiring structures and various properties by defining the binary operations which in fact, seems analogous to an existing definition in some sense but with a different approach. This work emphasizes specifically on the construction of semigroup and semiring structures on the set of undirected graphs, and their properties are investigated therein. It is expected that the investigation done here may have some interesting applications in theoretical computer science, networking and decision making, and also on joining of two network systems.

Keywords: graphs, join and union of graphs, semiring, weighted graphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
1963 Extremal Laplacian Energy of Threshold Graphs

Authors: Seyed Ahmad Mojallal

Abstract:

Let G be a connected threshold graph of order n with m edges and trace T. In this talk we give a lower bound on Laplacian energy in terms of n, m, and T of G. From this we determine the threshold graphs with the first four minimal Laplacian energies. We also list the first 20 minimal Laplacian energies among threshold graphs. Let σ=σ(G) be the number of Laplacian eigenvalues greater than or equal to average degree of graph G. Using this concept, we obtain the threshold graphs with the largest and the second largest Laplacian energies.

Keywords: Laplacian eigenvalues, Laplacian energy, threshold graphs, extremal graphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1962 An Improved Method to Compute Sparse Graphs for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Y. Wang

Abstract:

The Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is NP-hard in combinatorial optimization. The research shows the algorithms for TSP on the sparse graphs have the shorter computation time than those for TSP according to the complete graphs. We present an improved iterative algorithm to compute the sparse graphs for TSP by frequency graphs computed with frequency quadrilaterals. The iterative algorithm is enhanced by adjusting two parameters of the algorithm. The computation time of the algorithm is O(CNmaxn2) where C is the iterations, Nmax is the maximum number of frequency quadrilaterals containing each edge and n is the scale of TSP. The experimental results showed the computed sparse graphs generally have less than 5n edges for most of these Euclidean instances. Moreover, the maximum degree and minimum degree of the vertices in the sparse graphs do not have much difference. Thus, the computation time of the methods to resolve the TSP on these sparse graphs will be greatly reduced.

Keywords: frequency quadrilateral, iterative algorithm, sparse graph, traveling salesman problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
1961 2D Structured Non-Cyclic Fuzzy Graphs

Authors: T. Pathinathan, M. Peter

Abstract:

Fuzzy graphs incorporate concepts from graph theory with fuzzy principles. In this paper, we make a study on the properties of fuzzy graphs which are non-cyclic and are of two-dimensional in structure. In particular, this paper presents 2D structure or the structure of double layer for a non-cyclic fuzzy graph whose underlying crisp graph is non-cyclic. In any graph structure, introducing 2D structure may lead to an inherent cycle. We propose relevant conditions for 2D structured non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. These conditions are extended even to fuzzy graphs of the 3D structure. General theoretical properties that are studied for any fuzzy graph are verified to 2D structured or double layered fuzzy graphs. Concepts like Order, Degree, Strong and Size for a fuzzy graph are studied for 2D structured or double layered non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. Using different types of fuzzy graphs, the proposed concepts relating to 2D structured fuzzy graphs are verified.

Keywords: double layered fuzzy graph, double layered non–cyclic fuzzy graph, order, degree and size

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1960 Computing Maximum Uniquely Restricted Matchings in Restricted Interval Graphs

Authors: Swapnil Gupta, C. Pandu Rangan

Abstract:

A uniquely restricted matching is defined to be a matching M whose matched vertices induces a sub-graph which has only one perfect matching. In this paper, we make progress on the open question of the status of this problem on interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals on a line). We give an algorithm to compute maximum cardinality uniquely restricted matchings on certain sub-classes of interval graphs. We consider two sub-classes of interval graphs, the former contained in the latter, and give O(|E|^2) time algorithms for both of them. It is to be noted that both sub-classes are incomparable to proper interval graphs (graphs obtained as the intersection graph of intervals in which no interval completely contains another interval), on which the problem can be solved in polynomial time.

Keywords: uniquely restricted matching, interval graph, matching, induced matching, witness counting

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1959 Building 1-Well-Covered Graphs by Corona, Join, and Rooted Product of Graphs

Authors: Vadim E. Levit, Eugen Mandrescu

Abstract:

A graph is well-covered if all its maximal independent sets are of the same size. A well-covered graph is 1-well-covered if deletion of every vertex of the graph leaves it well-covered. It is known that a graph without isolated vertices is 1-well-covered if and only if every two disjoint independent sets are included in two disjoint maximum independent sets. Well-covered graphs are related to combinatorial commutative algebra (e.g., every Cohen-Macaulay graph is well-covered, while each Gorenstein graph without isolated vertices is 1-well-covered). Our intent is to construct several infinite families of 1-well-covered graphs using the following known graph operations: corona, join, and rooted product of graphs. Adopting some known techniques used to advantage for well-covered graphs, one can prove that: if the graph G has no isolated vertices, then the corona of G and H is 1-well-covered if and only if H is a complete graph of order two at least; the join of the graphs G and H is 1-well-covered if and only if G and H have the same independence number and both are 1-well-covered; if H satisfies the property that every three pairwise disjoint independent sets are included in three pairwise disjoint maximum independent sets, then the rooted product of G and H is 1-well-covered, for every graph G. These findings show not only how to generate some more families of 1-well-covered graphs, but also that, to this aim, sometimes, one may use graphs that are not necessarily 1-well-covered.

Keywords: maximum independent set, corona, concatenation, join, well-covered graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1958 Reductions of Control Flow Graphs

Authors: Robert Gold

Abstract:

Control flow graphs are a well-known representation of the sequential control flow structure of programs with a multitude of applications. Not only single functions but also sets of functions or complete programs can be modelled by control flow graphs. In this case the size of the graphs can grow considerably and thus makes it difficult for software engineers to analyse the control flow. Graph reductions are helpful in this situation. In this paper we define reductions to subsets of nodes. Since executions of programs are represented by paths through the control flow graphs, paths should be preserved. Furthermore, the composition of reductions makes a stepwise analysis approach possible.

Keywords: control flow graph, graph reduction, software engineering, software applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
1957 Nullity of t-Tupple Graphs

Authors: Khidir R. Sharaf, Didar A. Ali

Abstract:

The nullity η (G) of a graph is the occurrence of zero as an eigenvalue in its spectra. A zero-sum weighting of a graph G is real valued function, say f from vertices of G to the set of real numbers, provided that for each vertex of G the summation of the weights f (w) over all neighborhood w of v is zero for each v in G.A high zero-sum weighting of G is one that uses maximum number of non-zero independent variables. If G is graph with an end vertex, and if H is an induced sub-graph of G obtained by deleting this vertex together with the vertex adjacent to it, then, η(G)= η(H). In this paper, a high zero-sum weighting technique and the end vertex procedure are applied to evaluate the nullity of t-tupple and generalized t-tupple graphs are derived and determined for some special types of graphs. Also, we introduce and prove some important results about the t-tupple coalescence, Cartesian and Kronecker products of nut graphs.

Keywords: graph theory, graph spectra, nullity of graphs, statistic

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1956 On the Zeros of the Degree Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: S. R. Nayaka, Putta Swamy

Abstract:

Graph polynomial is one of the algebraic representations of the Graph. The degree polynomial is one of the simple algebraic representations of graphs. The degree polynomial of a graph G of order n is the polynomial Deg(G, x) with the coefficients deg(G,i) where deg(G,i) denotes the number of vertices of degree i in G. In this article, we investigate the behavior of the roots of some families of Graphs in the complex field. We investigate for the graphs having only integral roots. Further, we characterize the graphs having single roots or having real roots and behavior of the polynomial at the particular value is also obtained.

Keywords: degree polynomial, regular graph, minimum and maximum degree, graph operations

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
1955 Jordan Curves in the Digital Plane with Respect to the Connectednesses given by Certain Adjacency Graphs

Authors: Josef Slapal

Abstract:

Digital images are approximations of real ones and, therefore, to be able to study them, we need the digital plane Z2 to be equipped with a convenient structure that behaves analogously to the Euclidean topology on the real plane. In particular, it is required that such a structure allows for a digital analogue of the Jordan curve theorem. We introduce certain adjacency graphs on the digital plane and prove digital Jordan curves for them thus showing that the graphs provide convenient structures on Z2 for the study and processing of digital images. Further convenient structures including the wellknown Khalimsky and Marcus-Wyse adjacency graphs may be obtained as quotients of the graphs introduced. Since digital Jordan curves represent borders of objects in digital images, the adjacency graphs discussed may be used as background structures on the digital plane for solving the problems of digital image processing that are closely related to borders like border detection, contour filling, pattern recognition, thinning, etc.

Keywords: digital plane, adjacency graph, Jordan curve, quotient adjacency

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1954 On Chvátal’s Conjecture for the Hamiltonicity of 1-Tough Graphs and Their Complements

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Yuan-Kang Shih, Hsun Su

Abstract:

In this paper, we show that the conjecture of Chv tal, which states that any 1-tough graph is either a Hamiltonian graph or its complement contains a specific graph denoted by F, does not hold in general. More precisely, it is true only for graphs with six or seven vertices, and is false for graphs with eight or more vertices. A theorem is derived as a correction for the conjecture.

Keywords: complement, degree sum, hamiltonian, tough

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
1953 Improvement a Lower Bound of Energy for Some Family of Graphs, Related to Determinant of Adjacency Matrix

Authors: Saieed Akbari, Yousef Bagheri, Amir Hossein Ghodrati, Sima Saadat Akhtar

Abstract:

Let G be a simple graph with the vertex set V (G) and with the adjacency matrix A (G). The energy E (G) of G is defined to be the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of A (G). Also let n and m be number of edges and vertices of the graph respectively. A regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of neighbours. Given a graph G, its line graph L(G) is a graph such that each vertex of L(G) represents an edge of G; and two vertices of L(G) are adjacent if and only if their corresponding edges share a common endpoint in G. In this paper we show that for every regular graphs and also for every line graphs such that (G) 3 we have, E(G) 2nm + n 1. Also at the other part of the paper we prove that 2 (G) E(G) for an arbitrary graph G.

Keywords: eigenvalues, energy, line graphs, matching number

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
1952 Upper Bounds on the Paired Domination Number of Cubic Graphs

Authors: Bin Sheng, Changhong Lu

Abstract:

Let G be a simple undirected graph with no isolated vertex. A paired dominating set of G is a dominating set which induces a subgraph that has a perfect matching. The paired domination number of G, denoted by γₚᵣ(G), is the size of its smallest paired dominating set. Goddard and Henning conjectured that γₚᵣ(G) ≤ 4n/7 holds for every graph G with δ(G) ≥ 3, except the Petersen Graph. In this paper, we prove this conjecture for cubic graphs.

Keywords: paired dominating set, upper bound, cubic graphs, weight function

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1951 Problem Solving in Chilean Higher Education: Figurations Prior in Interpretations of Cartesian Graphs

Authors: Verónica Díaz

Abstract:

A Cartesian graph, as a mathematical object, becomes a tool for configuration of change. Its best comprehension is done through everyday life problem-solving associated with its representation. Despite this, the current educational framework favors general graphs, without consideration of their argumentation. Students are required to find the mathematical function without associating it to the development of graphical language. This research describes the use made by students of configurations made prior to Cartesian graphs with regards to an everyday life problem related to a time and distance variation phenomenon. The theoretical framework describes the function conditions of study and their modeling. This is a qualitative, descriptive study involving six undergraduate case studies that were carried out during the first term in 2016 at University of Los Lagos. The research problem concerned the graphic modeling of a real person’s movement phenomenon, and two levels of analysis were identified. The first level aims to identify local and global graph interpretations; a second level describes the iconicity and referentiality degree of an image. According to the results, students were able to draw no figures before the Cartesian graph, highlighting the need for students to represent the context and the movement of which causes the phenomenon change. From this, they managed Cartesian graphs representing changes in position, therefore, achieved an overall view of the graph. However, the local view only indicates specific events in the problem situation, using graphic and verbal expressions to represent movement. This view does not enable us to identify what happens on the graph when the movement characteristics change based on possible paths in the person’s walking speed.

Keywords: cartesian graphs, higher education, movement modeling, problem solving

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
1950 Mechanism to Optimize Landing Distance in Order to Minimize Tyre Wear during Braking

Authors: H. V. H. De Soysa, N. D. Hiripitiya, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage

Abstract:

This research was based on developing a mechanism in order to optimize the landing distance. Short distance braking and long distance braking may cause several issues for the aircraft including tyre wearing. The worst case occurs with short distance landing. The issues related to short distance landing were identified after conducting interviews with pilots, aeronautical engineers and technicians. A model was constructed in order to optimize the landing distance. The device started to function at the point where the main wheels of the aircraft touchdown the runway. It was found that implementing this device to the aircraft benefits to optimize the landing distance. This could lead to rectifying several issues occurred due to improper braking distances.

Keywords: aircraft, mechanism, optimize landing distance, runway

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1949 Graph Similarity: Algebraic Model and Its Application to Nonuniform Signal Processing

Authors: Nileshkumar Vishnav, Aditya Tatu

Abstract:

A recent approach of representing graph signals and graph filters as polynomials is useful for graph signal processing. In this approach, the adjacency matrix plays pivotal role; instead of the more common approach involving graph-Laplacian. In this work, we follow the adjacency matrix based approach and corresponding algebraic signal model. We further expand the theory and introduce the concept of similarity of two graphs. The similarity of graphs is useful in that key properties (such as filter-response, algebra related to graph) get transferred from one graph to another. We demonstrate potential applications of the relation between two similar graphs, such as nonuniform filter design, DTMF detection and signal reconstruction.

Keywords: graph signal processing, algebraic signal processing, graph similarity, isospectral graphs, nonuniform signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
1948 Weighted-Distance Sliding Windows and Cooccurrence Graphs for Supporting Entity-Relationship Discovery in Unstructured Text

Authors: Paolo Fantozzi, Luigi Laura, Umberto Nanni

Abstract:

The problem of Entity relation discovery in structured data, a well covered topic in literature, consists in searching within unstructured sources (typically, text) in order to find connections among entities. These can be a whole dictionary, or a specific collection of named items. In many cases machine learning and/or text mining techniques are used for this goal. These approaches might be unfeasible in computationally challenging problems, such as processing massive data streams. A faster approach consists in collecting the cooccurrences of any two words (entities) in order to create a graph of relations - a cooccurrence graph. Indeed each cooccurrence highlights some grade of semantic correlation between the words because it is more common to have related words close each other than having them in the opposite sides of the text. Some authors have used sliding windows for such problem: they count all the occurrences within a sliding windows running over the whole text. In this paper we generalise such technique, coming up to a Weighted-Distance Sliding Window, where each occurrence of two named items within the window is accounted with a weight depending on the distance between items: a closer distance implies a stronger evidence of a relationship. We develop an experiment in order to support this intuition, by applying this technique to a data set consisting in the text of the Bible, split into verses.

Keywords: cooccurrence graph, entity relation graph, unstructured text, weighted distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
1947 Hosoya Polynomials of Zero-Divisor Graphs

Authors: Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf, Esraa M. Kadhim

Abstract:

The Hosoya polynomial of a graph G is a graphical invariant polynomial that its first derivative at x= 1 is equal to the Wiener index and second derivative at x=1 is equal to the Hyper-Wiener index. In this paper we study the Hosoya polynomial of zero-divisor graphs.

Keywords: Hosoya polynomial, wiener index, Hyper-Wiener index, zero-divisor graphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
1946 Distance Protection Performance Analysis

Authors: Abdelsalam Omar

Abstract:

This paper presents simulation-based case study that indicate the need for accurate dynamic modeling of distance protection relay. In many cases, a static analysis based on current and voltage phasors may be sufficient to assess the performance of distance protection. There are several circumstances under which such a simplified study does not provide the depth of analysis necessary to obtain accurate results, however. This letter present study of the influences of magnetizing inrush and power swing on the performance of distance protection relay. One type of numerical distance protection relay has been investigated: 7SA511. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate the relay response when dynamic model of distance relay is utilized.

Keywords: distance protection, magnitizing inrush, power swing, dynamic model of protection relays, simulatio

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
1945 The Τraits Τhat Facilitate Successful Student Performance in Distance Education: The Case of the Distance Education Unit at European University Cyprus

Authors: Dimitrios Vlachopoulos, George Tsokkas

Abstract:

Although it is not intended to identify distance education students as a homogeneous group, recent research has demonstrated that there are some demographic and personality common traits among most of them that provide the basis for the description of a typical distance learning student. The purpose of this paper is to describe these common traits and to facilitate their learning journey within a distance education program. The described research is an initiative of the Distance Education Unit at the European University Cyprus (Laureate International Universities) in the context of its action for the improvement of the students’ performance.

Keywords: distance education students, successful student performance, European University Cyprus, common traits

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1944 A Simulation for Behaviors of Preys to Avoid Pursuit of Predator

Authors: Jae Moon Lee

Abstract:

Generally the predator will continuously aim to attack the prey, while the prey will maintain a safe distance from the predator in order to avoid it . If the predator has enough energy to chase a certain amount of distance, it will begin to attack the prey. The prey needs to approach the predator for various reasons such as getting food. However, it will also try to keep a safe distance because of the threat of predators. The safe distance is dependent on the amount of the energy of predator, and the behaviors of prey is changed according to the size of the safe distance. This paper is to simulate the behaviors of preys to avoid the pursuit of predator based on the safe distance. The simulations will be executed experimentally under single predator and multiple preys. The results of the simulations show that the amount of energy of predator gives a great influence on the behavior of the prey.

Keywords: predator, prey, energy, safe distance, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1943 The Analysis of Split Graphs in Social Networks Based on the k-Cardinality Assignment Problem

Authors: Ivan Belik

Abstract:

In terms of social networks split graphs correspond to the variety of interpersonal and intergroup relations. In this paper we analyse the interaction between the cliques (socially strong and trusty groups) and the independent sets (fragmented and non-connected groups of people) as the basic components of any split graph. Based on the Semi-Lagrangean relaxation for the k-cardinality assignment problem we show the way of how to minimize the socially risky interactions between the cliques and the independent sets within the social network.

Keywords: cliques, independent sets, k-cardinality assignment, social networks, split graphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1942 Distances over Incomplete Diabetes and Breast Cancer Data Based on Bhattacharyya Distance

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Mahmoud Kaiyal

Abstract:

Missing values in real-world datasets are a common problem. Many algorithms were developed to deal with this problem, most of them replace the missing values with a fixed value that was computed based on the observed values. In our work, we used a distance function based on Bhattacharyya distance to measure the distance between objects with missing values. Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions. The proposed distance distinguishes between known and unknown values. Where the distance between two known values is the Mahalanobis distance. When, on the other hand, one of them is missing the distance is computed based on the distribution of the known values, for the coordinate that contains the missing value. This method was integrated with Wikaya, a digital health company developing a platform that helps to improve prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In order for Wikaya’s recommendation system to work distance between users need to be measured. Since there are missing values in the collected data, there is a need to develop a distance function distances between incomplete users profiles. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed distance function in reflecting the actual similarity between different objects, when some of them contain missing values, we integrated it within the framework of k nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier, since its computation is based only on the similarity between objects. To validate this, we ran the algorithm over diabetes and breast cancer datasets, standard benchmark datasets from the UCI repository. Our experiments show that kNN classifier using our proposed distance function outperforms the kNN using other existing methods.

Keywords: missing values, incomplete data, distance, incomplete diabetes data

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
1941 Decision Trees Constructing Based on K-Means Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Loai Abdallah, Malik Yousef

Abstract:

A domain space for the data should reflect the actual similarity between objects. Since objects belonging to the same cluster usually share some common traits even though their geometric distance might be relatively large. In general, the Euclidean distance of data points that represented by large number of features is not capturing the actual relation between those points. In this study, we propose a new method to construct a different space that is based on clustering to form a new distance metric. The new distance space is based on ensemble clustering (EC). The EC distance space is defined by tracking the membership of the points over multiple runs of clustering algorithm metric. Over this distance, we train the decision trees classifier (DT-EC). The results obtained by applying DT-EC on 10 datasets confirm our hypotheses that embedding the EC space as a distance metric would improve the performance.

Keywords: ensemble clustering, decision trees, classification, K nearest neighbors

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
1940 The Effect of Irradiation Distance on Microhardness of Hybrid Resin Composite Polymerization Using Light-Emitting Diodes

Authors: Deli Mona, Rafika Husni

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of lighting distance on surface hardness of light composite resin. We held laboratory experimental research with post-test only group design. The samples used are 30 disc-like hybrid composite resins with the diameter is 6 mm and the thickness is 2 mm, lighted by an LED for 20 seconds. They were divided into 3 groups, and every group was consisted by 10 samples, which were 0 mm, 2 mm, and 5 mm lighting distance group. Every samples group was treated with hardness test, Vicker Hardness Test, then analyzed with one-way ANOVA test to evaluate the effect of lighting distance differences on surface hardness of light composite resin. Statistic test result shown hardness mean change of composite renin between 0 mm and 2 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), between 0 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), and 2 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.05 significance (p<0.05). According to the result of this research, we concluded that the further lighting distance, the more surface hardness decline of hybrid composite resin.

Keywords: composite resin hybrid, tip distance, microhardness, light curing LED

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1939 The Net as a Living Experience of Distance Motherhood within Italian Culture

Authors: C. Papapicco

Abstract:

Motherhood is an existential human relationship that lasts for the whole life and is always interwoven with subjectivity and culture. As a result of the brain drain, the motherhood becomes motherhood at distance. Starting from the hypothesis that re-signification of the mother at distance practices is culturally relevant; the research aims to understand the experience of mother at a distance in order to extrapolate the strategies of management of the empty nest. Specifically, the research aims to evaluate the experience of a brain drain’s mother, who created a blog that intends to take care of other parents at a distance. Actually, the blog is the only artifact symbol of the Italian culture of motherhood at distance. In the research, a Netnographic Analysis of the blog mammedicervelliinfuga.com is offered with the aim of understanding if the online world becomes an opportunity to manage the role of mother at a distance. A narrative interview with the blog creator was conducted and then the texts were analyzed by means of a Diatextual Analysis approach. It emerged that the migration projects of talented children take on different meanings and representations for parents. Thus, it is shown that the blog becomes a new form of understanding and practicing motherhood at a distance.

Keywords: brain drain, diatextual analysis, distance motherhood blog, online and offline narrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1938 Analytical Solution for Stellar Distance Based on Photon Dominated Cosmic Expansion Model

Authors: Xiaoyun Li, Suoang Longzhou

Abstract:

This paper derives the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift based on the photon-dominated universe expansion model. Firstly, it calculates stellar separation speed and the farthest distance of observable stars via simulation. Then the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift is derived. It shows that when the redshift is large, the stellar distance (and its separation speed) is not proportional to its redshift due to the relativity effect. It also reveals the relationship between stellar age and its redshift. The correctness of the analytical solution is verified by the latest astronomic observations of Ia supernovas in 2020.

Keywords: redshift, cosmic expansion model, analytical solution, stellar distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1937 Assessing Distance Education Practices: Teachers Experience and Perceptions

Authors: Mohammed Amraouy, Mostafa Bellafkih, Abdellah Bennane, Aziza Benomar

Abstract:

Distance education has become popular due to their ability to provide learning from almost anywhere and anytime. COVID-19 forced educational institutions to urgently introduce distance education to ensure pedagogical continuity, so all stakeholders were invited to adapt to this new paradigm. In order to identify strengths and weaknesses, the research focuses on the need to create an effective mechanism for evaluating distance education. The aims of this research were to explore and evaluate the use of digital media in general and official platforms in particular in distance education practices. To this end, we have developed and validated a questionnaire before administering it to a sample of 431 teachers in Morocco. Teachers reported lower knowledge and skills in the didactic use of ICT in the distance education process. In addition, although age and educative experience of the teachers continue to modulate the level of instrumental skills. Therefore, resources (digital resources and infrastructure) and the teachers’ ICT training present serious limitations, which require a training more focused on the distance educational paradigm and educational environments that allow teachers to create educational activities able to promote and facilitate the distance learning process.

Keywords: distance education, e-learning, teachers’ perceptions, assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1936 Phytoremediation; Pb, Cr and Cd Accumulation in Fruits and Leaves of Vitis Vinifera L. From Air Pollutions and Intraction between Their Uptake Based on the Distance from the Main Road

Authors: Fatemeh Mohsennezhad

Abstract:

Air pollution is one of major problems for environment. Providing healthy food and protecting water sources from pollution has been one of the concerns of human societies and decision-making centers so that protecting food from pollution, detecting sources of pollution and measuring them become important. Nutritive and political significance of grape in this area, extensive use of leaf and fruit of this plant and development of urban areas around grape gardens and construction of Tabriz – Miandoab road, which is the most important link between East and West Azarbaijan, led us to examine the impact of this road construction and urban environment pollutants such as lead chromium and cadmium on the quality of this valuable crop. First, the samples were taken from different adjacent places and medium distances from the road, each place being located exactly by Google earth and GPS. Digestion was done through burning dry material and hydrochloric acid and their ashes were analyzed by atomic absorption to determine (Pb, Cr, Cd) accumulations. In this experiments effects of 2 following factors were examined as a variable: Garden distance from the main road with levels 1: For 50 meters, 2: For 120-200 meters, 3: For above 800 meters, and plant organ with levels 1: For fruit, 2: For leaves. At the end, the results were processed by SPSS software. 3.54 ppm, the most lead quantity, was at sample No. 54 in fruits with 800 meters distance from the road and 1.00 ppm was the least lead quantity at sample No. 50 in fruits with 1000 meters from the road. In leaves, the most lead quantity was 19.16 ppm at sample No. 15 with 50 meters distance from the road and the least quantity was 1.41 ppm at sample No. 31 with 50 meters from the road. Pb uptake is significantly different at 50 meters and 200 meters distance. It means that Pb uptake near the main road is the highest. But this result is not true for others elements. Distance has not a meaningful effect on Cr uptake. The result of analysis of variation in distance and plant organ for Cd showed that between fruit and leaf, Cd uptake is significantly different. But distance and interaction between distance and plant organ is not meaningful. There is neither meaningful interaction between these elements uptakes in fruits nor in leaves. If leaves and fruits, assumed all together, showed a very meaningful integration between heavy metal accumulations. It means that each of these elements causes uptake others without considering special organs. In the tested area, it became clear that, from the accumulation of heavy metals perspective, there is no meaningful difference in existing distance between road and garden. There is a meaningful difference among heavy metals accumulation. In other words, increase ratio of one metal to another was different from the resulted differences shown in corresponding graphs. Interaction among elements and distance between garden and road was not meaningful.

Keywords: Vitis vinifera L., phytoremediation, heavy metals accumulation, lead, chromium, cadmium

Procedia PDF Downloads 285