Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Gokpinar Damp

17 The Relations between Seismic Results and Groundwater near the Gokpinar Damp Area, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: Mahmud Gungor, Ali Aydin, Erdal Akyol, Suat Tasdelen


The understanding of geotechnical characteristics of near-surface material and the effects of the groundwater is very important problem in such as site studies. For showing the relations between seismic data and groundwater we selected about 25 km2 as the study area. It has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic data and groundwater depths of Gokpinar Damp area. Seismic waves velocity (Vp and Vs) are very important parameters showing the soil properties. The seismic records were used the method of the multichannel analysis of surface waves near area of Gokpinar Damp area. Sixty sites in this area have been investigated with survey lines about 60 m in length. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) method has been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 45 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Gokpinar Damp area, Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic data, Gokpinar Damp, urban planning, Denizli

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16 Electrical Effects during the Wetting-Drying Cycle of Porous Brickwork: Electrical Aspects of Rising Damp

Authors: Sandor Levai, Valentin Juhasz, Miklos Gasz


Rising damp is an extremely complex phenomenon that is of great practical interest to the field of building conservation due to the irreversible damages it can make to old and historic structures. The electrical effects occurring in damp masonry have been scarcely researched and are a largely unknown aspect of rising damp. Present paper describes the typical electrical patterns occurring in porous brickwork during a wetting and drying cycle. It has been found that in contrast with dry masonry, where electrical phenomena are virtually non-existent, damp masonry exhibits a wide array of electrical effects. Long-term real-time measurements performed in the lab on small-scale brick structures, using an array of embedded micro-sensors, revealed significant voltage, current, capacitance and resistance variations which can be linked to the movement of moisture inside porous materials. The same measurements performed on actual old buildings revealed a similar behaviour, the electrical effects being more significant in areas of the brickwork affected by rising damp. Understanding these electrical phenomena contributes to a better understanding of the driving mechanisms of rising damp, potentially opening new avenues of dealing with it in a less invasive manner.

Keywords: brick masonry, electrical phenomena in damp brickwork, porous building materials, rising damp, spontaneous electrical potential, wetting-drying cycle

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15 Primary Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to a Plane Boundary

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong


The primary resonance of a pipeline close to a plane boundary is investigated in this paper. Based on classic Van der Pol equation and added a nonlinear item, a new wake oscillator model is proposed to predict the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder close to a plane boundary. Then, with the multi-scale method, the approximate solution for the case of the primary resonance is obtained. Besides, to study the characteristic of the primary resonance, the effects of the mass ration, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio on the frequency-response curves of the pipeline are analysed. On the whole, the trend of the numerical results match up with that of the experimental data well and the mass ration, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio play an important role in the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder close to a plane boundary, especially, the smaller is the mass ratio, the larger impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the primary resonance.

Keywords: primary resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

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14 Biological Control of Sclerotium rolfsii, Damping-off Disease on Centella asiatica

Authors: K. Sunitra, T. Srisuda


Centella asiatica, asiatic pennywort is a medicinal herb plant used widely which held in herbal health care group. The problem of asiatic pennywort production is the outbreak of Sclerotium rolfsii causing a damp-off disease which caused plant stem turn yellowish, finally they begin to die and result in extremely damaging to growers. Therefore, the studies were caried out to control damping off with Trichoderma sp., Bacillus subtilis and fermented banana as compared to the control to suppress with bi-culture under the laboratory condition. It was found that Trichoderma harzianum showed the highest percentage of inbihition, 69.44%. The pot experiments in greenhouse condition showed that chemical had minimum of damping-off (31.54%) and highest yield (1.20 tons/rai) and following by Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis treatment. Due to the chemical usage leaving toxic residues on plants and affect the human bodies. Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis should be considered as alternatives which have percent of damp-off disease and yields as follows: 45.50 and 43.75%, and 1.12 and 1.09 tons/rai, respectively. These two products are known that they have no health risk for growers and consumers in the future.

Keywords: Centella asiatica, Sclerotium rolfsii, Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus subtilis

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13 Third Super-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong


The third super-harmonic resonance of a pipeline close to the seabed is investigated in this paper. To analyse the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the pipeline close to the seabed, the classic Van der Pol equation is extended with a nonlinear item. Then, on the base of the multi-scale method, the frequency-response curves of the pipeline with regard to the third super-harmonic resonance are studied with a series of parameters, such as the mass ratio, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio. On the whole, the numerical results show that the characters of third super-harmonic resonance are quite from that of primary resonance, though with the same trend that the larger is the mass ratio, the smaller impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the third super-harmonic resonance.

Keywords: the third super-harmonic resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

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12 Improvement of Transient Voltage Response Using PSS-SVC Coordination Based on ANFIS-Algorithm in a Three-Bus Power System

Authors: I Made Ginarsa, Agung Budi Muljono, I Made Ari Nrartha


Transient voltage response appears in power system operation when an additional loading is forced to load bus of power systems. In this research, improvement of transient voltage response is done by using power system stabilizer-static var compensator (PSS-SVC) based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)-algorithm. The main function of the PSS is to add damping component to damp rotor oscillation through automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and excitation system. Learning process of the ANFIS is done by using off-line method where data learning that is used to train the ANFIS model are obtained by simulating the PSS-SVC conventional. The ANFIS model uses 7 Gaussian membership functions at two inputs and 49 rules at an output. Then, the ANFIS-PSS and ANFIS-SVC models are applied to power systems. Simulation result shows that the response of transient voltage is improved with settling time at the time of 4.25 s.

Keywords: improvement, transient voltage, PSS-SVC, ANFIS, settling time

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11 PVMODREL© Development Based on Reliability Evaluation of a PV Module Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

Authors: Abderafi Charki, David Bigaud


The aim of this oral speach is to present the PVMODREL© (PhotoVoltaic MODule RELiability) new software developed in the University of Angers. This new tool permits us to evaluate the lifetime and reliability of a PV module whatever its geographical location and environmental conditions. The electrical power output of a PV module decreases with time mainly as a result of the effects of corrosion, encapsulation discoloration, and solder bond failure. The failure of a PV module is defined as the point where the electrical power degradation reaches a given threshold value. Accelerated life tests (ALTs) are commonly used to assess the reliability of a PV module. However, ALTs provide limited data on the failure of a module and these tests are expensive to carry out. One possible solution is to conduct accelerated degradation tests. The Wiener process in conjunction with the accelerated failure time model makes it possible to carry out numerous simulations and thus to determine the failure time distribution based on the aforementioned threshold value. By this means, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated. An example using the damp heat test is shown to demonstrate the usefulness PVMODREL.

Keywords: lifetime, reliability, PV Module, accelerated life testing, accelerated degradation testing

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10 The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan, K. V. Grigoryan


The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.

Keywords: Armenia, Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine, soil, heavy metal pollution degree

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9 Assessment Power and Oscillation Damping Using the POD Controller and Proposed FOD Controller

Authors: Tohid Rahimi, Yahya Naderi, Babak Yousefi, Seyed Hossein Hoseini


Today’s modern interconnected power system is highly complex in nature. In this, one of the most important requirements during the operation of the electric power system is the reliability and security. Power and frequency oscillation damping mechanism improve the reliability. Because of power system stabilizer (PSS) low speed response against of major fault such as three phase short circuit, FACTs devise that can control the network condition in very fast time, are becoming popular. However, FACTs capability can be seen in a major fault present when nonlinear models of FACTs devise and power system equipment are applied. To realize this aim, the model of multi-machine power system with FACTs controller is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using Sim Power System (SPS) blockiest. Among the FACTs device, Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) due to high speed changes its reactance characteristic inductive to capacitive, is effective power flow controller. Tuning process of controller parameter can be performed using different method. However, Genetic Algorithm (GA) ability tends to use it in controller parameter tuning process. In this paper, firstly POD controller is used to power oscillation damping. But in this station, frequency oscillation dos not has proper damping situation. Therefore, FOD controller that is tuned using GA is using that cause to damp out frequency oscillation properly and power oscillation damping has suitable situation.

Keywords: power oscillation damping (POD), frequency oscillation damping (FOD), Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), Genetic Algorithm (GA)

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8 The Effects of Topically-Applied Skin Moisturizer on Striae Gravidarum in East Indian Women

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty


Background: Striae result from rapid expansion of the underlying tissue, e.g. during puberty, pregnancy or rapid weight gain. Prior data indicate that the incidence of stretch marks in Indian women is 77%.The hormonal and genetic factors are associated with their appearance. Recently that has been found skin extensibility, elasticity and rupture were strongly influenced by the water content of dermis and epidermis cells. Objective: The objectives were to assess the effects of topical treatments applied during pregnancy on the later development of stretch marks. Materials and methods: An open, prospective, randomized study was done on 120 pregnant women in whom skin elasticity and hydration as well as striae presence or apparition were measured at baseline and periodically until delivery. Patients were randomly assigned to application in wet skin cream, or in dry skin conditions. Results: The average basal hydration was 42 ±13 IU and the final was 46 ± 6 IU (P = 0.0325; 95% CI: -7.66 to -0.34), which difference was statistically significant. By measuring the moisture in the control region (forearm) a basal reading of 40 ± 9 IU and end of study of 38 ± 6; (p = 0.1547; 95% CI: -0.77 to 4.77) and this difference was considered to be not statistically significant. It was observed that at the end of the study, 55% women without ridges; mild ridges 5%; 36% moderate, and 4%, severe ridges. The proportion of women without grooves was 54% when the cream was applied studied wet skin and 45% when the cream was applied on dry skin. Conclusion: It was shown that cream under study increased hydration and elasticity of abdominal skin consequently in all subjects. This effect is more significant (54%) when the cream is applied to damp skin.

Keywords: striae gravidarum, skin moisturizer, skin hydration, skin elasticity

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7 Optimal Design of Multi-Machine Power System Stabilizers Using Interactive Honey Bee Mating Optimization

Authors: Hossein Ghadimi, Alireza Alizadeh, Oveis Abedinia, Noradin Ghadimi


This paper presents an enhanced Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO) to solve the optimal design of multi machine power system stabilizer (PSSs) parameters, which is called the Interactive Honey Bee Mating Optimization (IHBMO). Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) are now routinely used in the industry to damp out power system oscillations. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and IHBMO algorithm is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. The proposed method is applied to multi-machine power system (MPS). The method suggested in this paper can be used for designing robust power system stabilizers for guaranteeing the required closed loop performance over a prespecified range of operating and system conditions. The simplicity in design and implementation of the proposed stabilizers makes them better suited for practical applications in real plants. The non-linear simulation results are presented under wide range of operating conditions in comparison with the PSO and CPSS base tuned stabilizer one through FD and ITAE performance indices. The results evaluation shows that the proposed control strategy achieves good robust performance for a wide range of system parameters and load changes in the presence of system nonlinearities and is superior to the other controllers.

Keywords: power system stabilizer, IHBMO, multimachine, nonlinearities

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6 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo


Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, wind damping, wind tunnel test, building ventilation

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5 Phytolith Analysis of Intrabasaltic Palaeosols (Bole Beds) from the Deccan Volcanic Province of Western India: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Sayyed Mohammed Rafi


Phytolith studies were carried out for the intrabasaltic bole beds occurring in the western part of the Deccan Volcanic Province. This preliminary study indicates the presence of multiform phytoliths both in red and green boles. Red bole indicates well preserved elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plants while bulky Bulliform phytoliths mainly from Pleioblastus/ Andropogonea/reeds plants. Degeneration of few phytoliths from red bole indicates either leaching/etching or some other activity that is responsible for such post-preservation conditions. Phytoliths from the green bole, however, seem to be well preserved as compared to those from the red bole. The phytoliths from green bole are mainly of Festucoid types (especially small square and rectangular types) indicating the presence of Chrysobalanaceae type of vegetation followed by elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plant types. The Multiform Trichomes seems to be derived from Panicoid/Andropogonoid/Burseraceae/Fabaceae while Bulliforms from Pleioblastus/Andropogonea/reeds. Presences of silicified woody elements from both red and green boles indicate the presence of dicotyledonous plants which could have been in the form of small shrubs. The degenerated phytoliths in red bole suggest leaching/etching or higher intensity of weathering suggesting the existence of well-drained conditions during its formation that enhanced the leaching activity while the presence of well-preserved phytoliths in green bole point towards the existence of damp and desiccated conditions during its formation. The prevalence of dry condition during red bole formation could suggest their formation under higher temperature as compared to green bole. Based on the phytolith analysis it is too early to comment on the palaeoclimates which could have prevailed during the bole bed formations. However a detailed micromorphological, as well as phytolith analysis of more samples, can throw light on the palaeoenvironmental conditions as well as the biological activity during their formation.

Keywords: Deccan volcanic province, intrabasaltic bole beds, palaeoclimate, phytoliths

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4 Experimental and Theoratical Methods to Increase Core Damping for Sandwitch Cantilever Beam

Authors: Iyd Eqqab Maree, Moouyad Ibrahim Abbood


The purpose behind this study is to predict damping effect for steel cantilever beam by using two methods of passive viscoelastic constrained layer damping. First method is Matlab Program, this method depend on the Ross, Kerwin and Unger (RKU) model for passive viscoelastic damping. Second method is experimental lab (frequency domain method), in this method used the half-power bandwidth method and can be used to determine the system loss factors for damped steel cantilever beam. The RKU method has been applied to a cantilever beam because beam is a major part of a structure and this prediction may further leads to utilize for different kinds of structural application according to design requirements in many industries. In this method of damping a simple cantilever beam is treated by making sandwich structure to make the beam damp, and this is usually done by using viscoelastic material as a core to ensure the damping effect. The use of viscoelastic layers constrained between elastic layers is known to be effective for damping of flexural vibrations of structures over a wide range of frequencies. The energy dissipated in these arrangements is due to shear deformation in the viscoelastic layers, which occurs due to flexural vibration of the structures. The theory of dynamic stability of elastic systems deals with the study of vibrations induced by pulsating loads that are parametric with respect to certain forms of deformation. There is a very good agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical findings. The main ideas of this thesis are to find the transition region for damped steel cantilever beam (4mm and 8mm thickness) from experimental lab and theoretical prediction (Matlab R2011a). Experimentally and theoretically proved that the transition region for two specimens occurs at modal frequency between mode 1 and mode 2, which give the best damping, maximum loss factor and maximum damping ratio, thus this type of viscoelastic material core (3M468) is very appropriate to use in automotive industry and in any mechanical application has modal frequency eventuate between mode 1 and mode 2.

Keywords: 3M-468 material core, loss factor and frequency, domain method, bioinformatics, biomedicine, MATLAB

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3 Lamb Fleece Quality as an Indicator of Endoparasitism

Authors: Maria Christine Rizzon Cintra, Tâmara Duarte Borges, Cristina Santos Sotomaior


Lamb’s fleece quality can be influenced by many factors, including welfare, stress, nutritional imbalance and presence of ectoparasites. The association of fleece quality and endoparasitism, until now, was not well solved. The present study was undertaken to evaluate if a fleece visual score could predict lamb parasitosis with the focus on gastrointestinal parasites. Fleece quality was scored based on a combination of cleanliness and wool cover, using a three-point scale (1-3). Score 1: fleece shows no sign of dirt or contamination, and had sufficient fleece for the breed and time of year with whole body coverage; Score 2: fleece was little damp or wet, with coat contaminated by small patches of mud or dung and some areas of fleece loose, but no shed or bald patches of no more than 10cm in diameter; Score 3: fleece filthy, very wet with coated in mud or dug, and loose fleece with shed areas of pulls with bald patches greater than 10cm, some areas may be trailing. All fleece quality scores (FQS) were assessed with lamb restrained to ensure close inspection and were done along lamb back and considered just one side of the body. To confirm the gastrointestinal parasites and animal’s anemia, faecal egg counts (FEC) and hematocrit were done for each animal. Lambs were also weighed. All these measurements were done every 15-days, beginning at 60-days until 150-days of life, using 48 animals crossed Texel x Ile de France. For statistics analysis, it was used Stratigraphic Program (4.1. version), and all significant differences between FQS, weight gain, age, hematocrit, and FEC were assessed using analysis of variance following by Duncan test, and the correlation was done by Pearson test at P<0.05. Results showed that animals scored as ‘3’ in FQS had a lower hematocrit and a higher FEC (p<0.05) than animals scored as ‘1’ (hematocrit: 26, 24, 23 and FEC 2107, 2962, 4626 respectively for 1, 2 and 3 FQS). There were correlations between FQS and FEC (r = 0.16), FQS and hematocrit (r = -0.33) an FQS and weight gain (r = -0.20) indicating that worst FQS animals (score 3) had greater gastrointestinal parasites’ infection, were more anemic and had lower weight gain than animals scored as ‘1’ or ‘2’ for FQS. Concerning the lamb´s age, animals that received score ‘3’ in FQS, maintained gastrointestinal parasites’ infection over the time (P<0.05). It was concluded that FQS could be an important indicator to be included in the selective treatment for control verminosis in lambs.

Keywords: fleece, gastrointestinal parasites, sheep, welfare

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2 Characterization of Volatiles Botrytis cinerea in Blueberry Using Solid Phase Micro Extraction, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Ahmed Auda, Manjree Agarwala, Giles Hardya, Yonglin Rena


Botrytis cinerea is a major pest for many plants. It can attack a wide range of plant parts. It can attack buds, flowers, and leaves, stems, and fruit. However, B. cinerea can be mixed with other diseases that cause the same damage. There are many species of botrytis and more than one different strains of each. Botrytis might infect the foliage of nursery stock stored through winter in damp conditions. There are no known resistant plants. Botrytis must have nutrients or food source before it infests the plant. Nutrients leaking from wounded plant parts or dying tissue like old flower petals give the required nutrients. From this food, the fungus becomes more attackers and invades healthy tissue. Dark to light brown rot forms in the ill tissue. High humidity conditions support the growth of this fungus. However, we suppose that selection pressure can act on the morphological and neurophysiologic filter properties of the receiver and on both the biochemical and the physiological regulation of the signal. Communication is implied when signal and receiver evolves toward more and more specific matching, culminating. In other hand, receivers respond to portions of a body odor bouquet which is released to the environment not as an (intentional) signal but as an unavoidable consequence of metabolic activity or tissue damage. Each year Botrytis species can cause considerable economic losses to plant crops. Even with the application of strict quarantine and control measures, these fungi can still find their way into crops and cause the imposition of onerous restrictions on exports. Blueberry fruit mould caused by a fungal infection usually results in major losses during post-harvest storage. Therefore, the management of infection in early stages of disease development is necessary to minimize losses. The overall purpose of this study will develop sensitive, cheap, quick and robust diagnostic techniques for the detection of B. cinerea in blueberry. The specific aim was designed to investigate the performance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the detection and discrimination of blueberry fruits infected by fungal pathogens with an emphasis on Botrytis in the early storage stage of post-harvest.

Keywords: botrytis cinerea, blueberry, GC/MS, VOCs

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1 Using True Life Situations in a Systems Theory Perspective as Sources of Creativity: A Case Study of how to use Everyday Happenings to produce Creative Outcomes in Novel and Screenplay Writing

Authors: Rune Bjerke


Psychologists incline to see creativity as a mental and psychological process. However, creativity is as well results of cultural and social interactions. Therefore, creativity is not a product of individuals in isolation, but of social systems. Creative people get ideas from the influence of others and the immediate cultural environment – a space of knowledge, situations, and practices. Therefore, in this study we apply the systems theory in practice to activate creativity processes in the production of our novel and screenplay writing. We, as storytellers actively seek to get into situations in our everyday lives, our systems, to generate ideas. Within our personal systems, we have the potential to induce situations to realise ideas to our texts, which may be accepted by our gate-keepers and can become socially validated. This is our method of writing – get into situations, get ideas to texts, and test them with family and friends in our social systems. Example of novel text as an outcome of our method is as follows: “Is it a matter of obviousness or had I read it somewhere, that the one who increases his knowledge increases his pain? And also, the other way around, with increased pain, knowledge increases, I thought. Perhaps such a chain of effects explains why the rebel August Strindberg wrote seven plays in ten months after the divorce with Siri von Essen. Shortly after, he tried painting. Neither the seven theatre plays were shown, nor the paintings were exhibited. I was standing in front of Munch's painting Women in Three Stages with chaotic mental images of myself crumpled in a church and a laughing x-girlfriend watching my suffering. My stomach was turning at unpredictable intervals and the subsequent vomiting almost suffocated me. Love grief at the worst. Was it this pain Strindberg felt? Despite the failure of his first plays, the pain must have triggered a form of creative energy that turned pain into ideas. Suffering, thoughts, feelings, words, text, and then, the reader experience. Maybe this negative force can be transformed into something positive, I asked myself. The question eased my pain. At that moment, I forgot the damp, humid air in the Munch Museum. Is it the similar type of Strindberg-pain that could explain the recurring, depressive themes in Munch's paintings? Illness, death, love and jealousy. As a beginning art student at the master's level, I had decided to find the answer. Was it the same with Munch's pain, as with Strindberg - a woman behind? There had to be women in the case of Munch - therefore, the painting “Women in Three Stages”? Who are they, what personality types are they – the women in red, black and white dresses from left to the right?” We, the writers, are using persons, situations and elements in our systems, in a systems theory perspective, to prompt creative ideas. A conceptual model is provided to advance creativity theory.

Keywords: creativity theory, systems theory, novel writing, screenplay writing, sources of creativity in social systems

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