Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: subsidence

43 Urban Land Use Type Analysis Based on Land Subsidence Areas Using X-Band Satellite Image of Jakarta Metropolitan City, Indonesia

Authors: Ratih Fitria Putri, Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Hiroaki Kuze

Abstract:

Jakarta Metropolitan City is located on the northwest coast of West Java province with geographical location between 106º33’ 00”-107º00’00”E longitude and 5º48’30”-6º24’00”S latitude. Jakarta urban area has been suffered from land subsidence in several land use type as trading, industry and settlement area. Land subsidence hazard is one of the consequences of urban development in Jakarta. This hazard is caused by intensive human activities in groundwater extraction and land use mismanagement. Geologically, the Jakarta urban area is mostly dominated by alluvium fan sediment. The objectives of this research are to make an analysis of Jakarta urban land use type on land subsidence zone areas. The process of producing safer land use and settlements of the land subsidence areas are very important. Spatial distributions of land subsidence detection are necessary tool for land use management planning. For this purpose, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) method is used. The DInSAR is complementary to ground-based methods such as leveling and global positioning system (GPS) measurements, yielding information in a wide coverage area even when the area is inaccessible. The data were fine tuned by using X-Band image satellite data from 2010 to 2013 and land use mapping data. Our analysis of land use type that land subsidence movement occurred on the northern part Jakarta Metropolitan City varying from 7.5 to 17.5 cm/year as industry and settlement land use type areas.

Keywords: land use analysis, land subsidence mapping, urban area, X-band satellite image

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
42 Surface Deformation Studies in South of Johor Using the Integration of InSAR and Resistivity Methods

Authors: Sirajo Abubakar, Ismail Ahmad Abir, Muhammad Sabiu Bala, Muhammad Mustapha Adejo, Aravind Shanmugaveloo

Abstract:

Over the years, land subsidence has been a serious threat mostly to urban areas. Land subsidence is the sudden sinking or gradual downward settling of the ground’s surface with little or no horizontal motion. In most areas, land subsidence is a slow process that covers a large area; therefore, it is sometimes left unnoticed. South of Johor is the area of interest for this project because it is going through rapid urbanization. The objective of this research is to evaluate and identify potential deformations in the south of Johor using integrated remote sensing and 2D resistivity methods. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) which is a remote sensing technique has the potential to map coherent displacements at centimeter to millimeter resolutions. Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) stacking technique was applied to Sentinel-1 data to detect the earth deformation in the study area. A dipole-dipole configuration resistivity profiling was conducted in three areas to determine the subsurface features in that area. This subsurface features interpreted were then correlated with the remote sensing technique to predict the possible causes of subsidence and uplifts in the south of Johor. Based on the results obtained, West Johor Bahru (0.63mm/year) and Ulu Tiram (1.61mm/year) are going through uplift due to possible geological uplift. On the other end, East Johor Bahru (-0.26mm/year) and Senai (-1.16mm/year) undergo subsidence due to possible fracture and granitic boulders loading. Land subsidence must be taken seriously as it can cause serious damages to infrastructures and human life. Monitoring land subsidence and taking preventive actions must be done to prevent any disasters.

Keywords: interferometric synthetic aperture radar, persistent scatter, minimum spanning tree, resistivity, subsidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
41 Estimation of Relative Subsidence of Collapsible Soils Using Electromagnetic Measurements

Authors: Henok Hailemariam, Frank Wuttke

Abstract:

Collapsible soils are weak soils that appear to be stable in their natural state, normally dry condition, but rapidly deform under saturation (wetting), thus generating large and unexpected settlements which often yield disastrous consequences for structures unwittingly built on such deposits. In this study, a prediction model for the relative subsidence of stressed collapsible soils based on dielectric permittivity measurement is presented. Unlike most existing methods for soil subsidence prediction, this model does not require moisture content as an input parameter, thus providing the opportunity to obtain accurate estimation of the relative subsidence of collapsible soils using dielectric measurement only. The prediction model is developed based on an existing relative subsidence prediction model (which is dependent on soil moisture condition) and an advanced theoretical frequency and temperature-dependent electromagnetic mixing equation (which effectively removes the moisture content dependence of the original relative subsidence prediction model). For large scale sub-surface soil exploration purposes, the spatial sub-surface soil dielectric data over wide areas and high depths of weak (collapsible) soil deposits can be obtained using non-destructive high frequency electromagnetic (HF-EM) measurement techniques such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). For laboratory or small scale in-situ measurements, techniques such as an open-ended coaxial line with widely applicable time domain reflectometry (TDR) or vector network analysers (VNAs) are usually employed to obtain the soil dielectric data. By using soil dielectric data obtained from small or large scale non-destructive HF-EM investigations, the new model can effectively predict the relative subsidence of weak soils without the need to extract samples for moisture content measurement. Some of the resulting benefits are the preservation of the undisturbed nature of the soil as well as a reduction in the investigation costs and analysis time in the identification of weak (problematic) soils. The accuracy of prediction of the presented model is assessed by conducting relative subsidence tests on a collapsible soil at various initial soil conditions and a good match between the model prediction and experimental results is obtained.

Keywords: collapsible soil, dielectric permittivity, moisture content, relative subsidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
40 Bowing of a Pipeline from Longitudinal Compressive Stress Induced by Ground Movement

Authors: Gennaro Marino

Abstract:

This paper concerns a case of a 10.75 inch diameter buried gas transmission line which was exposed to mine subsidence ground movements. The pipeline was buried about 4ft. below the surface with maximum operating pressure of 1440 psi. The mine subsidence movement was the result of long walling ore at a depth of approximately 1600 ft. As ore extraction progressed, the stress in the monitored pipeline worsened and was approaching unacceptable levels. The excessive pipe compression resulted when it was exposed to the compression zone of subsidence basin created by mining. The pipe stress reached a significant compressive level due to the extensive length of the pipe exposed to frictional ground-pipe slip resistance. The backfill ground movement slip resistance depends on normal stress around the pipe, the rate of slip, and the backfill characteristics. Normal stress depends on the burial depth of the backfill density and the lateral subsidence induced stress. The backfill in this site has a soil dry density of approximately 90 PCF. A suite of direct shear tests was conducted a residual friction angle of 36 was determined for the ambient backfill. These tests showed that the residual shearing resistance was reached within a fraction of an inch. The pipe was coated with fusion-bonded epoxy, so friction reduce factory of 0.6 can be considered. To relieve ground movement induced compressive stress, the line was uncovered. As more of the pipeline was exposed, the pipe abruptly bowed in the excavation. An analysis of this pipe formation which was performed is provided in this paper. Also discussed in this paper are ways to mitigate this pipe deformation or upheaval buckling from occurring. Keywords: Pipe Upheaval, Pipe Buckling, Ground subsidence, Buried Pipeline, Pipe Stress Mitigation.

Keywords: pipe upheaval, pipe buckling, ground subsidence, buried pipeline, pipe stress mitigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
39 Land Subsidence Monitoring in Semarang and Demak Coastal Area Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

Authors: Reyhan Azeriansyah, Yudo Prasetyo, Bambang Darmo Yuwono

Abstract:

Land subsidence is one of the problems that occur in the coastal areas of Java Island, one of which is the Semarang and Demak areas located in the northern region of Central Java. The impact of sea erosion, rising sea levels, soil structure vulnerable and economic development activities led to both these areas often occurs on land subsidence. To know how much land subsidence that occurred in the region needs to do the monitoring carried out by remote sensing methods such as PS-InSAR method. PS-InSAR is a remote sensing technique that is the development of the DInSAR method that can monitor the movement of the ground surface that allows users to perform regular measurements and monitoring of fixed objects on the surface of the earth. PS InSAR processing is done using Standford Method of Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS). Same as the recent analysis technique, Persistent Scatterer (PS) InSAR addresses both the decorrelation and atmospheric problems of conventional InSAR. StaMPS identify and extract the deformation signal even in the absence of bright scatterers. StaMPS is also applicable in areas undergoing non-steady deformation, with no prior knowledge of the variations in deformation rate. In addition, this method can also cover a large area so that the decline in the face of the land can cover all coastal areas of Semarang and Demak. From the PS-InSAR method can be known the impact on the existing area in Semarang and Demak region per year. The PS-InSAR results will also be compared with the GPS monitoring data to determine the difference in land decline that occurs between the two methods. By utilizing remote sensing methods such as PS-InSAR method, it is hoped that the PS-InSAR method can be utilized in monitoring the land subsidence and can assist other survey methods such as GPS surveys and the results can be used in policy determination in the affected coastal areas of Semarang and Demak.

Keywords: coastal area, Demak, land subsidence, PS-InSAR, Semarang, StaMPS

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38 Spatial Analysis in the Impact of Aquifer Capacity Reduction on Land Subsidence Rate in Semarang City between 2014-2017

Authors: Yudo Prasetyo, Hana Sugiastu Firdaus, Diyanah Diyanah

Abstract:

The phenomenon of the lack of clean water supply in several big cities in Indonesia is a major problem in the development of urban areas. Moreover, in the city of Semarang, the population density and growth of physical development is very high. Continuous and large amounts of underground water (aquifer) exposure can result in a drastically aquifer supply declining in year by year. Especially, the intensity of aquifer use in the fulfilment of household needs and industrial activities. This is worsening by the land subsidence phenomenon in some areas in the Semarang city. Therefore, special research is needed to know the spatial correlation of the impact of decreasing aquifer capacity on the land subsidence phenomenon. This is necessary to give approve that the occurrence of land subsidence can be caused by loss of balance of pressure on below the land surface. One method to observe the correlation pattern between the two phenomena is the application of remote sensing technology based on radar and optical satellites. Implementation of Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DINSAR) or Small Baseline Area Subset (SBAS) method in SENTINEL-1A satellite image acquisition in 2014-2017 period will give a proper pattern of land subsidence. These results will be spatially correlated with the aquifer-declining pattern in the same time period. Utilization of survey results to 8 monitoring wells with depth in above 100 m to observe the multi-temporal pattern of aquifer change capacity. In addition, the pattern of aquifer capacity will be validated with 2 underground water cavity maps from observation of ministries of energy and natural resources (ESDM) in Semarang city. Spatial correlation studies will be conducted on the pattern of land subsidence and aquifer capacity using overlapping and statistical methods. The results of this correlation will show how big the correlation of decrease in underground water capacity in influencing the distribution and intensity of land subsidence in Semarang city. In addition, the results of this study will also be analyzed based on geological aspects related to hydrogeological parameters, soil types, aquifer species and geological structures. The results of this study will be a correlation map of the aquifer capacity on the decrease in the face of the land in the city of Semarang within the period 2014-2017. So hopefully the results can help the authorities in spatial planning and the city of Semarang in the future.

Keywords: aquifer, differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DINSAR), land subsidence, small baseline area subset (SBAS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
37 Multichannel Analysis of the Surface Waves of Earth Materials in Some Parts of Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: R. B. Adegbola, K. F. Oyedele, L. Adeoti

Abstract:

We present a method that utilizes Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves, which was used to measure shear wave velocities with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some Local Government Area, Lagos, Nigeria. Multi channel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW) data were acquired using 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into two-dimensional (2-D) structure reflective of depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0–15m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrates the accuracy and consistency of MASW derived-shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/very low velocity are reflective of organic clay/peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failed, subsidence/weakening of structures within the study areas.

Keywords: seismograph, road failure, rigidity modulus, N-value, subsidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
36 Barclays Bank Zambia: Considerations for Raft Foundation Design on Dolomite Land

Authors: Yashved Serhun, Kim A. Timm

Abstract:

Barclays Bank has identified the need for a head office building in Lusaka, Zambia, and construction of a 7200 m2 three-storey reinforced concrete office building with a structural steel roof is currently underway. A unique characteristic of the development is that the building footprint is positioned on dolomitic land. Dolomite rock has the tendency to react with and breakdown in the presence of slightly acidic water, including rainwater. This leads to a potential for subsidence and sinkhole formation. Subsidence and the formation of sinkholes beneath a building can be detrimental during both the construction and operational phases. This paper outlines engineering principles which were considered during the structural design of the raft foundation for the Barclays head office building. In addition, this paper includes multidisciplinary considerations and the impact of these on the structural engineering design of the raft foundation. By ensuring that the design of raft foundations on dolomitic land incorporates the requirements of all disciplines and relevant design codes during the design process, the risk associated with subsidence and sinkhole formation can be effectively mitigated during the operational phase of the building.

Keywords: dolomite, dolomitic land, raft foundation, structural engineering design

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
35 Satellite Interferometric Investigations of Subsidence Events Associated with Groundwater Extraction in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Authors: B. Mendonça, D. Sandwell

Abstract:

The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) has suffered from serious water scarcity. Consequently, the most convenient solution has been building wells to extract groundwater from local aquifers. However, it requires constant vigilance to prevent over extraction and future events that can pose serious threat to the population, such as subsidence. Radar imaging techniques (InSAR) have allowed continuous investigation of such phenomena. The analysis of data in the present study consists of 23 SAR images dated from October 2007 to March 2011, obtained by the ALOS-1 spacecraft. Data processing was made with the software GMTSAR, by using the InSAR technique to create pairs of interferograms with ground displacement during different time spans. First results show a correlation between the location of 102 wells registered in 2009 and signals of ground displacement equal or lower than -90 millimeters (mm) in the region. The longest time span interferogram obtained dates from October 2007 to March 2010. As a result, from that interferogram, it was possible to detect the average velocity of displacement in millimeters per year (mm/y), and which areas strong signals have persisted in the MRSP. Four specific areas with signals of subsidence of 28 mm/y to 40 mm/y were chosen to investigate the phenomenon: Guarulhos (Sao Paulo International Airport), the Greater Sao Paulo, Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul. The coverage area of the signals was between 0.6 km and 1.65 km of length. All areas are located above a sedimentary type of aquifer. Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul showed signals varying from 28 mm/y to 32 mm/y. On the other hand, the places most likely to be suffering from stronger subsidence are the ones in the Greater Sao Paulo and Guarulhos, right beside the International Airport of Sao Paulo. The rate of displacement observed in both regions goes from 35 mm/y to 40 mm/y. Previous investigations of the water use at the International Airport highlight the risks of excessive water extraction that was being done through 9 deep wells. Therefore, it is affirmed that subsidence events are likely to occur and to cause serious damage in the area. This study could show a situation that has not been explored with proper importance in the city, given its social and economic consequences. Since the data were only available until 2011, the question that remains is if the situation still persists. It could be reaffirmed, however, a scenario of risk at the International Airport of Sao Paulo that needs further investigation.

Keywords: ground subsidence, Interferometric Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR), metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, water extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
34 Soil Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation and Consolidation Settlement at Around the Prospective Area of Sei Gong Dam Batam

Authors: Andri Hidayat, Zufialdi Zakaria, Raden Irvan Sophian

Abstract:

Batam city within next five years are expected to experience water crisis. Sei Gong dam which is located in the Sijantung village, Galang District, Batam City, Riau Islands Province is one of 13 dams that will be built to solve the problems of raw water crisis in the Batam city. The purpose of this study are to determine the condition of engineering geology around Sei Gong Dam area, knowing the value of the soil bearing capacity and recommended pile foundation, and knowing the characteristics of the soil consolidation as one of the factors that affect the incidence of soil subsidence. Based on calculations for shallow foundation in general - soil shear condition and local - soil condition indicates that the highest value in ultimate soil bearing capacity (qu) for each depth was in the square foundations at two meters depth. The zonations of shallow foundation of the research area are divided into five zones, they are bearing capacity zone <10 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 10-15 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 15-20 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 20-25 ton/m2, and bearing capacity zone >25 ton/m2. Based on the parameters of soil engineering analysis, Sei Gong Dam areas at the middle part has a higher value for land subsidence.

Keywords: ultimate bearing capacity, type of foundation, consolidation, land subsidence, Batam

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
33 Comparison of Different Techniques to Estimate Surface Soil Moisture

Authors: S. Farid F. Mojtahedi, Ali Khosravi, Behnaz Naeimian, S. Adel A. Hosseini

Abstract:

Land subsidence is a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the land surface from changes that take place underground. There are different causes of land subsidence; most notably, ground-water overdraft and severe weather conditions. Subsidence of the land surface due to ground water overdraft is caused by an increase in the intergranular pressure in unconsolidated aquifers, which results in a loss of buoyancy of solid particles in the zone dewatered by the falling water table and accordingly compaction of the aquifer. On the other hand, exploitation of underground water may result in significant changes in degree of saturation of soil layers above the water table, increasing the effective stress in these layers, and considerable soil settlements. This study focuses on estimation of soil moisture at surface using different methods. Specifically, different methods for the estimation of moisture content at the soil surface, as an important term to solve Richard’s equation and estimate soil moisture profile are presented, and their results are discussed through comparison with field measurements obtained from Yanco1 station in south-eastern Australia. Surface soil moisture is not easy to measure at the spatial scale of a catchment. Due to the heterogeneity of soil type, land use, and topography, surface soil moisture may change considerably in space and time.

Keywords: artificial neural network, empirical method, remote sensing, surface soil moisture, unsaturated soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
32 Using Micropiles to Improve the Anzali's Saturated Loose Silty Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

Today, with the daily advancement of geotechnical engineering on soil improvement and modification of the physical properties and shear strength of soil, it is now possible to construct structures with high-volume and high service load on loose sandy soils. One of such methods is using micropiles, which are mostly used to control asymmetrical subsidence, increase bearing capacity, and prevent soil liquefaction. This study examined the improvement of Anzali's saturated loose silty sand using 192 micropiles with a length of 8 meters and diameter of 75 mm. Bandar-e Anzali is one of Iran's coastal populated cities which are located in a high-seismicity region. The effects of the insertion of micropiles on prevention of liquefaction and improvement of subsidence were examined through comparison of the results of Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Plate Load Test (PLT) before and after implementation of the micropiles. The results show that the SPT values and the ultimate bearing capacity of silty sand increased after the implementation of the micropiles. Therefore, the installation of micropiles increases the strength of silty sand improving the resistance of soil against liquefaction.

Keywords: soil improvement, silty sand, micropiles, SPT, PLT, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
31 Revision of Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis: Methotrexate and Radiographic Lucency in RA Patients

Authors: Mike T. Wei, Douglas N. Mintz, Lisa A. Mandl, Arielle W. Fein, Jayme C. Burket, Yuo-Yu Lee, Wei-Ti Huang, Vivian P. Bykerk, Mark P. Figgie, Edward F. Di Carlo, Bruce N. Cronstein, Susan M. Goodman

Abstract:

Background/Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have excellent total hip arthroplasty (THA) survival, and methotrexate (MTX), an anti-inflammatory disease modifying drug which may affect bone reabsorption, may play a role. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnosis leading to revision THA (rTHA) in RA patients and to assess the association of radiographic lucency with MTX use. Methods: All patients with validated diagnosis of RA in the institution’s THA registry undergoing rTHA from May 2007 - February 2011 were eligible. Diagnosis leading to rTHA and medication use was determined by chart review. Osteolysis was evaluated on available radiographs by measuring maximum lucency in each Gruen zone. Differences within RA patients with/without MTX in osteolysis, demographics, and medications were assessed with chi-squared, Fisher's exact tests or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. The error rate for multiple comparisons of lucency in the different Gruen zones was corrected via false discovery rate methods. A secondary analysis was performed to determine differences in diagnoses leading to revision between RA and matched OA controls (2:1 match by sex age +/- 5 years). OA exclusion criteria included presence of rheumatic diseases, use of MTX, and lack of records. Results: 51 RA rTHA were identified and compared with 103 OA. Mean age for RA was 57.7 v 59.4 years for OA (p = 0.240). 82.4% RA were female v 83.5% OA (p = 0.859). RA had lower BMI than OA (25.5 v 28.2; p = 0.166). There was no difference in diagnosis leading to rTHA, including infection (RA 3.9 v OA 6.8%; p = 0.719) or dislocation (RA 23.5 v OA 23.3%; p = 0.975). There was no significant difference in the length of time the implant was in before revision: RA 11.0 v OA 8.8 years (p = 0.060). Among RA with/without MTX, there was no difference in use of biologics (30.0 v 43.3%, p = 0.283), steroids (47.6 v 50.0%, p = 0.867) or bisphosphonates (23.8 v 33.3%, p = 0.543). There was no difference in rTHA diagnosis with/without MTX, including loosening (52.4 v 56.7%, p = 0.762). There was no significant difference in lucencies with MTX use in any Gruen zone. Patients with MTX had femoral stem subsidence of 3.7mm v no subsidence without MTX (p = 0.006). Conclusion: There was no difference in the diagnosis leading to rTHR in RA and OA, although RA trended longer prior to rTHA. In this small retrospective study, there were no significant differences associated with MTX exposure or radiographic lucency among RA patients. The significance of subsidence is not clear. Further study of arthroplasty survival in RA patients is warranted.

Keywords: hip arthroplasty, methotrexate, revision arthroplasty, rheumatoid arthritis

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
30 Investigation of Yard Seam Workings for the Proposed Newcastle Light Rail Project

Authors: David L. Knott, Robert Kingsland, Alistair Hitchon

Abstract:

The proposed Newcastle Light Rail is a key part of the revitalisation of Newcastle, NSW and will provide a frequent and reliable travel option throughout the city centre, running from Newcastle Interchange at Wickham to Pacific Park in Newcastle East, a total of 2.7 kilometers in length. Approximately one-third of the route, along Hunter and Scott Streets, is subject to potential shallow underground mine workings. The extent of mining and seams mined is unclear. Convicts mined the Yard Seam and overlying Dudley (Dirty) Seam in Newcastle sometime between 1800 and 1830. The Australian Agricultural Company mined the Yard Seam from about 1831 to the 1860s in the alignment area. The Yard Seam was about 3 feet (0.9m) thick, and therefore, known as the Yard Seam. Mine maps do not exist for the workings in the area of interest and it was unclear if both or just one seam was mined. Information from 1830s geological mapping and other data showing shaft locations were used along Scott Street and information from the 1908 Royal Commission was used along Hunter Street to develop an investigation program. In addition, mining was encountered for several sites to the south of the alignment at depths of about 7 m to 25 m. Based on the anticipated depths of mining, it was considered prudent to assess the potential for sinkhole development on the proposed alignment and realigned underground utilities and to obtain approval for the work from Subsidence Advisory NSW (SA NSW). The assessment consisted of a desktop study, followed by a subsurface investigation. Four boreholes were drilled along Scott Street and three boreholes were drilled along Hunter Street using HQ coring techniques in the rock. The placement of boreholes was complicated by the presence of utilities in the roadway and traffic constraints. All the boreholes encountered the Yard Seam, with conditions varying from unmined coal to an open void, indicating the presence of mining. The geotechnical information obtained from the boreholes was expanded by using various downhole techniques including; borehole camera, borehole sonar, and downhole geophysical logging. The camera provided views of the rock and helped to explain zones of no recovery. In addition, timber props within the void were observed. Borehole sonar was performed in the void and provided an indication of room size as well as the presence of timber props within the room. Downhole geophysical logging was performed in the boreholes to measure density, natural gamma, and borehole deviation. The data helped confirm that all the mining was in the Yard Seam and that the overlying Dudley Seam had been eroded in the past over much of the alignment. In summary, the assessment allowed the potential for sinkhole subsidence to be assessed and a mitigation approach developed to allow conditional approval by SA NSW. It also confirmed the presence of mining in the Yard Seam, the depth to the seam and mining conditions, and indicated that subsidence did not appear to have occurred in the past.

Keywords: downhole investigation techniques, drilling, mine subsidence, yard seam

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29 Quantification of Factors Contributing to Wave-In-Deck on Fixed Jacket Platforms

Authors: C. Y. Ng, A. M. Johan, A. E. Kajuputra

Abstract:

Wave-in-deck phenomenon for fixed jacket platforms at shallow water condition has been reported as a notable risk to the workability and reliability of the platform. Reduction in reservoir pressure, due to the extraction of hydrocarbon for an extended period of time, has caused the occurrence of seabed subsidence. Platform experiencing subsidence promotes reduction of air gaps, which eventually allows the waves to attack the bottom decks. The impact of the wave-in-deck generates additional loads to the structure and therefore increases the values of the moment arms. Higher moment arms trigger instability in terms of overturning, eventually decreases the reserve strength ratio (RSR) values of the structure. The mechanics of wave-in-decks, however, is still not well understood and have not been fully incorporated into the design codes and standards. Hence, it is necessary to revisit the current design codes and standards for platform design optimization. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of RSR due to wave-in-deck on four-legged jacket platforms in Malaysia. Base shear values with regards to calibration and modifications of wave characteristics were obtained using SESAM GeniE. Correspondingly, pushover analysis is conducted using USFOS to retrieve the RSR. The effects of the contributing factors i.e. the wave height, wave period and water depth with regards to the RSR and base shear values were analyzed and discussed. This research proposal is important in optimizing the design life of the existing and aging offshore structures. Outcomes of this research are expected to provide a proper evaluation of the wave-in-deck mechanics and in return contribute to the current mitigation strategies in managing the issue.

Keywords: wave-in-deck loads, wave effects, water depth, fixed jacket platforms

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28 Dynamic Compaction Assessment for Improving Pasdaran Highway

Authors: Alireza Motamadnia, Roohollah Zohdi Oliayi, Hümeyra Bolakar, Ahmet Tortum

Abstract:

Dynamic compression as a method of soil improvement in recent decades has been considered by engineers and experts. Three methods mainly, deep dynamic compaction, soil density, dynamic and rapid change have been proposed and implemented to improve subgrade conditions of highway road. Northern highway route in Tabriz (Pasdaran), Iran that was placed on the manual soil was the main concern. Engineering properties of soil have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Among the three methods rapid dynamic compaction for highway has been suggested to improve the soil subgrade conditions.

Keywords: manual soil, subsidence, improvement, dynamic compression

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27 'Pink' Waxapple Response to Salinity: Growth and Nutrient Uptake

Authors: Shang-Han Tsai, Yong-Hong Lin, Chung-Ruey Yen

Abstract:

Wax apple is an important tropical fruit in Taiwan. The famous producing area is located on the coast in Pingtung county. Land subsidence and climate change will tend to soil alkalization more seriously. This study was to evaluate the effects of NaCl in wax apple seedlings. NaCl salinity reduced wax apple shoot growth, it may due to reducing relative water content in leaf and new shoot. Leaf Cl and Na concentration were increased but K, Ca, and Mg content had no significant difference after irrigated with NaCl for six weeks. In roots, Na and Cl content increase significantly with 90 mM NaCl treatment, but K, Ca, and Mg content was reduced. 30-90 mM Nacl treatment do not affect K/Na, Ca/Na, and Mg/Na ratio, but decrease significantly in 90 mM treatment in roots. The leaf and root electrolyte leakage were significantly affected by 90 mM NaCl treatment. Suggesting 90 mM was optimum concentration for sieve out other tolerance wax apple verities.

Keywords: growth, NaCl stress, nutrient, wax apple

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26 Wetting Induced Collapse Behavior of Loosely Compacted Kaolin Soil: A Microstructural Study

Authors: Dhanesh Sing Das, Bharat Tadikonda Venkata

Abstract:

Collapsible soils undergo significant volume reduction upon wetting under the pre-existing mechanically applied normal stress (inundation pressure). These soils exhibit a very high strength in air-dried conditions and can carry up to a considerable magnitude of normal stress without undergoing significant volume change. The soil strength is, however, lost upon saturation and results in a sudden collapse of the soil structure under the existing mechanical stress condition. The intrusion of water into the dry deposits of such soil causes ground subsidence leading to damages in the overlying buildings/structures. A study on the wetting-induced volume change behavior of collapsible soils is essential in dealing with the ground subsidence problems in various geotechnical engineering practices. The collapse of loosely compacted Kaolin soil upon wetting under various inundation pressures has been reported in recent studies. The collapse in the Kaolin soil is attributed to the alteration in the soil particle-particle association (fabric) resulting due to the changes in the various inter-particle (microscale) forces induced by the water saturation. The inundation pressure plays a significant role in the fabric evolution during the wetting process, thus controls the collapse potential of the compacted soil. A microstructural study is useful to understand the collapse mechanisms at various pore-fabric levels under different inundation pressure. Kaolin soil compacted to a dry density of 1.25 g/cc was used in this work to study the wetting-induced volume change behavior under different inundation pressures in the range of 10-1600 kPa. The compacted specimen of Kaolin soil exhibited a consistent collapse under all the studied inundation pressure. The collapse potential was observed to be increasing with an increase in the inundation pressure up to a maximum value of 13.85% under 800 kPa and then decreased to 11.7% under 1600 kPa. Microstructural analysis was carried out based on the fabric images and the pore size distributions (PSDs) obtained from FESEM analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. The PSDs and the soil fabric images of ‘as-compacted’ specimen and post-collapse specimen under 400 kPa were analyzed to understand the changes in the soil fabric and pores due to wetting. The pore size density curve for the post-collapse specimen was found to be on the finer side with respect to the ‘as-compacted’ specimen, indicating the reduction of the larger pores during the collapse. The inter-aggregate pores in the range of 0.1-0.5μm were identified as the major contributing pore size classes to the macroscopic volume change. Wetting under an inundation pressure results in the reduction of these pore sizes and lead to an increase in the finer pore sizes. The magnitude of inundation pressure influences the amount of reduction of these pores during the wetting process. The collapse potential was directly related to the degree of reduction in the pore volume contributed by these pore sizes.

Keywords: collapse behavior, inundation pressure, kaolin, microstructure

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25 Development of Risk Management System for Urban Railroad Underground Structures and Surrounding Ground

Authors: Y. K. Park, B. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, S. J. Lee

Abstract:

To assess the risk of the underground structures and surrounding ground, we collect basic data by the engineering method of measurement, exploration and surveys and, derive the risk through proper analysis and each assessment for urban railroad underground structures and surrounding ground including station inflow. Basic data are obtained by the fiber-optic sensors, MEMS sensors, water quantity/quality sensors, tunnel scanner, ground penetrating radar, light weight deflectometer, and are evaluated if they are more than the proper value or not. Based on these data, we analyze the risk level of urban railroad underground structures and surrounding ground. And we develop the risk management system to manage efficiently these data and to support a convenient interface environment at input/output of data.

Keywords: urban railroad, underground structures, ground subsidence, station inflow, risk

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24 Influence of Ligature Tightening on Bone Fracture Risk in Interspinous Process Surgery

Authors: Dae Kyung Choi, Won Man Park, Kyungsoo Kim, Yoon Hyuk Kim

Abstract:

The interspinous process devices have been recently used due to its advantages such as minimal invasiveness and less subsidence of the implant to the osteoporotic bone. In this paper, we have analyzed the influences of ligature tightening of several interspinous process devices using finite element analysis. Four types of interspinous process implants were inserted to the L3-4 spinal motion segment based on their surgical protocols. Inferior plane of L4 vertebra was fixed and 7.5 Nm of extension moment were applied on superior plane of L3 vertebra with 400N of compressive load along follower load direction and pretension of the ligature. The stability of the spinal unit was high enough than that of intact model. The higher value of pretension in the ligature led the decrease of dynamic stabilization effect in cases of the WallisTM, DiamTM, Viking, and Spear®. The results of present study could be used to evaluate surgical option and validate the biomechanical characteristics of the spinal implants.

Keywords: interspinous process device, bone fracture risk, lumbar spine, finite element analysis

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23 Surveying Coastal Society Perception on Giant Sea Wall Jakarta Development Planning

Authors: Ammar Asfari, Faizah Finur Fithriah, Shighia Ajeng Savitri

Abstract:

Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia held an important role for the country, that is being the city where central government is located. But its topographic character which categorized as lowland area is causing an ultimate trouble. With average height of 7 meters above the sea level, flood keeps occurring in this city. On the other hand, water exploitation that caused land subsidence and sea-levels increasing by global warming make it even worse. Giant Sea Wall Development is a project created by Jakarta’s government to overcome flood, which is inspired by Saemangeum Dam in South Korea. For further planning, Giant Sea Wall is planned to be water reservoir for Jakarta’s inhabitants. This research’s aim is to fully understand the knowledge and opinion of people living in North Jakarta (Jakarta’s Coastal Area) on Giant Sea Wall development planning using qualitative method analysis with descriptive approach. The result of this research will be one of the determining factors in Giant Sea Wall Jakarta development planning continuance.

Keywords: descriptive approach, Giant Sea Wall Jakarta, qualitative method analysis, society perception

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22 A Plan of Smart Management for Groundwater Resources

Authors: Jennifer Chen, Pei Y. Hsu, Yu W. Chen

Abstract:

Groundwater resources play a vital role in regional water supply because over 1/3 of total demand is satisfied by groundwater resources. Because over-pumpage might cause environmental impact such as land subsidence, a sustainable management of groundwater resource is required. In this study, a blueprint of smart management for groundwater resource is proposed and planned. The framework of the smart management can be divided into two major parts, hardware and software parts. First, an internet of groundwater (IoG) which is inspired by the internet of thing (IoT) is proposed to observe the migration of groundwater usage and the associated response, groundwater levels. Second, algorithms based on data mining and signal analysis are proposed to achieve the goal of providing highly efficient management of groundwater. The entire blueprint is a 4-year plan and this year is the first year. We have finished the installation of 50 flow meters and 17 observation wells. An underground hydrological model is proposed to determine the associated drawdown caused by the measured pumpages. Besides, an alternative to the flow meter is also proposed to decrease the installation cost of IoG. An accelerometer and 3G remote transmission are proposed to detect the on and off of groundwater pumpage.

Keywords: groundwater management, internet of groundwater, underground hydrological model, alternative of flow meter

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21 Sustainable Use of Fresh Groundwater Lens of Pleistocene Aquifer in Nam Dinh, Vietnam

Authors: Tran Thanh Le, Pham Trong Duc

Abstract:

The fresh groundwater lens of the Pleistocene aquifer in Nam Dinh was formed since 12,900 years ago. Currently, the Pleistocene aquifer has been continuously exploited on average of 154,163m3/day, distributed mainly in the districts of Nghia Hung, Hai Hau, a part of Truc Ninh, Y Yen, Nam Truc and Giao Thuy. The groundwater level is still on a declining trend, saltwater intrusion in this freshwater lens can occur if the growth rate in exploitation is maintained. This study focused on groundwater sustainable use by means of 4 groups of criteria including: Groundwater quality and pollution; Aquifers’ productivity and capacity; Environment impacts due to exploitation (groundwater level decline, land subsidence due to water exploitation); Social and economic impacts. Using a combination of methods including field surveys, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, isotope and numerical models to determine safe groundwater exploitation thresholds for the whole study area has been determined to be 544,314m3/day and the actual exploitation amount is currently about 30% compared to the safe exploitation threshold. However, it should also be noted that the current groundwater exploitation threshold and level of its exploitation compared to the safe exploitation threshold of each locality are not the same. From this result, the groundwater exploitation threshold map of the study area was established to serve the management, licensing and orientation of groundwater exploitation.

Keywords: criteria, groundwater, fresh groundwater lens, pleistocene, Nam Dinh

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20 Exploring the Physical Environment and Building Features in Earthquake Disaster Areas

Authors: Chang Hsueh-Sheng, Chen Tzu-Ling

Abstract:

Earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster and intensive earthquakes have caused serious impacts on social-economic system, environmental and social resilience. Conventional ways to mitigate earthquake disaster are to enhance building codes and advance structural engineering measures. However, earthquake-induced ground damage such as liquefaction, land subsidence, landslide happen on places nearby earthquake prone or poor soil condition areas. Therefore, this study uses spatial statistical analysis to explore the spatial pattern of damaged buildings. Afterwards, principle components analysis (PCA) is applied to categorize the similar features in different kinds of clustered patterns. The results show that serious landslide prone area, close to fault, vegetated ground surface and mudslide prone area are common in those highly damaged buildings. In addition, the oldest building might not be directly referred to the most vulnerable one. In fact, it seems that buildings built between 1974 and 1989 become more fragile during the earthquake. The incorporation of both spatial statistical analyses and PCA can provide more accurate information to subsidize retrofit programs to enhance earthquake resistance in particular areas.

Keywords: earthquake disaster, spatial statistic analysis, principle components analysis (pca), clustered patterns

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19 Hydrogeological Study of Shallow and Deep Aquifers in Balaju-Boratar Area, Kathmandu, Central Nepal

Authors: Hitendra Raj Joshi, Bipin Lamichhane

Abstract:

Groundwater is the main source of water for the industries of Balaju Industrial District (BID) and the denizens of Balaju-Boratar area. The quantity of groundwater is in a fatal condition in the area than earlier days. Water levels in shallow wells have highly lowered and deep wells are not providing an adequate amount of water as before because of higher extraction rate than the recharge rate. The main recharge zone of the shallow aquifer lies at the foot of Nagarjuna mountain, where recent colluvial debris are accumulated. Urbanization in the area is the main reason for decreasing water table. Recharge source for the deep aquifer in the region is aquiclude leakage. Sand layer above the Kalimati clay is the shallow aquifer zone, which is limited only in Balaju and eastern part of the Boratar, while the layer below the Kalimati clay spreading around Gongabu, Machhapohari, and Balaju area is considered as a potential area of deep aquifer. Over extraction of groundwater without considering water balance in the aquifers may dry out the source and can initiate the land subsidence problem. Hence, all the responsible of the industries in BID area and the denizens of Balaju-Boratar area should be encouraged to practice artificial groundwater recharge.

Keywords: aquiclude leakage, Kalimati clay, groundwater recharge

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18 A Simple Computational Method for the Gravitational and Seismic Soil-Structure-Interaction between New and Existent Buildings Sites

Authors: Nicolae Daniel Stoica, Ion Mierlus Mazilu

Abstract:

This work is one of numerical research and aims to address the issue of the design of new buildings in a 3D location of existing buildings. In today's continuous development and congestion of urban centers is a big question about the influence of the new buildings on an already existent vicinity site. Thus, in this study, we tried to focus on how existent buildings may be affected by any newly constructed buildings and in how far this influence is really decreased. The problem of modeling the influence of interaction between buildings is not simple in any area in the world, and neither in Romania. Unfortunately, most often the designers not done calculations that can determine how close to reality these 3D influences nor the simplified method and the more superior methods. In the most literature making a "shield" (the pilots or molded walls) is absolutely sufficient to stop the influence between the buildings, and so often the soil under the structure is ignored in the calculation models. The main causes for which the soil is neglected in the analysis are related to the complexity modeling of interaction between soil and structure. In this paper, based on a new simple but efficient methodology we tried to determine for a lot of study cases the influence, in terms of assessing the interaction land structure on the behavior of structures that influence a new building on an existing one. The study covers additional subsidence that may occur during the execution of new works and after its completion. It also highlighted the efforts diagrams and deflections in the soil for both the original case and the final stage. This is necessary to see to what extent the expected impact of the new building on existing areas.

Keywords: soil, structure, interaction, piles, earthquakes

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17 Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impacts of Natural Hazards along the Mediterranean Coastal Zone of Egypt

Authors: Islam Abou El-Magd, Elham Ali, Ali Amasha

Abstract:

Earthquakes strike without warning and cause widespread damage to social and economic infrastructures and creating life losses. These can neither be predicted nor prevented in terms of their magnitude, place, and time of occurrence. It is a global phenomenon that creates nearly 18% of life losses and nearly 35% of economic damage. The coastal zone of Egypt is considered low to medium risk, however, there is a record of high magnitude earthquakes that created Tsunami in the past. The northern coastal zone of Egypt is under the force of tension shear zones of African and European plates that have considerable earthquakes with variable degrees. This research studied the earthquakes in the last 65 years in the Mediterranean Basin in relation to the geotectonic shear zones. 85% of these earthquakes are in the marine that might create Tsunami. Aegean and Anatolia shear zones are the highest contributors of the earthquakes with nearly 37% and 36% respectively. However the least one is the Arabia zone with 1%, and Africa is about 26%. The research proposed three scenarios for the socioeconomic hazards, earthquakes with Tsunami that will destroy one fifth of the economic infrastructures with unpredictable life losses. The estimated cost of recovery of such losses is nearly 400B USD. The second scenario is earthquake without Tsunami that will impact the major urban and infrastructures. The last scenario is tidal gauges events that threaten the low-lying areas particularly the eastern side which has major land subsidence.

Keywords: natural hazards, earthquakes, tusnami, Nile delta, Egypt

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16 Deposit Characteristics of Jakarta, Indonesia: A Stratigraphy Study of Jakarta Subsurface

Authors: Girlly Marchlina Listyono, Abdurrokhim Abdurrokhim, Emi Sukiyah, Pulung Arya Pranantya

Abstract:

Jakarta Area is composed by deposit which has various lithology characteristics. Based on its lithology types, colors, textures, mineral dan organic content from 22 wells scattered on Jakarta, lithofacies analysis and intra-wells data correlation can be done. From the analysis, it can be interpretated that Jakarta deposit deposited in marine, transition and terrestrial depositional environments. Terrestrial deposit characterized by domination of relatively coarse clastics and content of remaining roots, woods, plants, high content of quartz, lithic fragment, calcareous and oxidated appearace. The thickness of terrestrial deposit is thickening to south. Transitional deposit characterized by fine to medium clastics with dark color, high content of organic matter, various thickness in any ways. Marine deposit characterized by finer clastics, contain remain of shells, fosil, coral, limestone fragments, glauconites, calcareous. Marine deposit relatively thickening to north. Those lateral variety caused by tectonic, subsidence and stratigraphic condition. Deposition of Jakarta deposit from the data research was started on marine depositional environment which surrounded by the event of cycle of regression and transgression then ended with regression which ongoing until form shore line in north Jakarta nowadays.

Keywords: deposit, Indonesia, Jakarta, sediment, stratigraphy

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15 Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low-lying areas: Coastal Evolution and Impact of Future Sea Level Rise Scenarios in Mirabello Gulf - NE Crete

Authors: Maria Kazantzaki, Evangelos Tsakalos, Eleni Filippaki, Yannis Bassiakos

Abstract:

Mediterranean areas are characterized by intense seismic and volcanic activity as well as eustatic changes, the result of which is the creation of particularly vulnerable coastal zones. The most vulnerable are low-lying coastal areas, the geomorphological evolution of which are highly affected by natural processes and anthropogenic interventions. Therefore, assessing changes that take place along coastal zones is of great importance in order to enable the development of integrated coastal management plans. A characteristic case is the gulf of Mirabello in N.E Crete, where intense coastal erosion, in combination with the tectonic subsidence of the area, threatens a large part of the coastal zone, resulting in direct socio-economic impacts. The present study assesses the temporal geomorphological changes that have taken place in the coastal zone of Mirabello gulf to provide a clear frame of the coastal zone evolution over time and performs a vulnerability assessment based on the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methodology by Thieler and Hammar-Klose, considering geological features, coastal slope, relative sea-level change, shoreline erosion/accretion rates and mean significant wave height as well as mean tide range in the area. In light of this, an impact assessment, based on three different sea level rise scenarios, is also performed and presented.

Keywords: coastal vulnerability index, coastal erosion, GIS, sea level rise

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14 Sandstone Petrology of the Kolhan Basin, Eastern India: Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of a Half-Graben

Authors: Rohini Das, Subhasish Das, Smruti Rekha Sahoo, Shagupta Yesmin

Abstract:

The Paleoproterozoic Kolhan Group (Purana) ensemble constitutes the youngest lithostratigraphic 'outlier' in the Singhbhum Archaean craton. The Kolhan unconformably overlies both the Singhbhum granite and the Iron Ore Group (IOG). Representing a typical sandstone-shale ( +/- carbonates) sequence, the Kolhan is characterized by the development of thin and discontinuous patches of basal conglomerates draped by sandstone beds. The IOG-fault limits the western 'distal' margin of the Kolhan basin showing evidence of passive subsidence subsequent to the initial rifting stage. The basin evolved as a half-graben under the influence of an extensional stress regime. The assumption of a tectonic setting for the NE-SW trending Kolhan basin possibly relates to the basin opening to the E-W extensional stress system that prevailed during the development of the Newer Dolerite dyke. The Paleoproterozoic age of the Kolhan basin is based on the consideration of the conformable stress pattern responsible both for the basin opening and the development of the conjugate fracture system along which the Newer Dolerite dykes intruded the Singhbhum Archaean craton. The Kolhan sandstones show progressive change towards greater textural and mineralogical maturity in its upbuilding. The trend of variations in different mineralogical and textural attributes, however, exhibits inflections at different lithological levels. Petrological studies collectively indicate that the sandstones were dominantly derived from a weathered granitic crust under a humid climatic condition. Provenance-derived variations in sandstone compositions are therefore a key in unraveling regional tectonic histories. The basin axis controlled the progradation direction which was likely driven by climatically induced sediment influx, a eustatic fall, or both. In the case of the incongruent shift, increased sediment supply permitted the rivers to cross the basinal deep. Temporal association of the Kolhan with tectonic structures in the belt indicates that syn-tectonic thrust uplift, not isostatic uplift or climate, caused the influx of quartz. The sedimentation pattern in the Kolhan reflects a change from braided fluvial-ephemeral pattern to a fan-delta-lacustrine type. The channel geometries and the climate exerted a major control on the processes of sediment transfer. Repeated fault controlled uplift of the source followed by subsidence and forced regression, generated multiple sediment cyclicity that led to the fluvial-fan delta sedimentation pattern. Intermittent uplift of the faulted blocks exposed fresh bedrock to mechanical weathering that generated a large amount of detritus and resulted to forced regressions, repeatedly disrupting the cycles which may reflect a stratigraphic response of connected rift basins at the early stage of extension. The marked variations in the thickness of the fan delta succession and the stacking pattern in different measured profiles reflect the overriding tectonic controls on fan delta evolution. The accumulated fault displacement created higher accommodation and thicker delta sequences. Intermittent uplift of fault blocks exposed fresh bedrock to mechanical weathering, generated a large amount of detritus, and resulted in forced closure of the land-locked basin, repeatedly disrupting the fining upward pattern. The control of source rock lithology or climate was of secondary importance to tectonic effects. Such a retrograding fan delta could be a stratigraphic response of connected rift basins at the early stage of extension.

Keywords: Kolhan basin, petrology, sandstone, tectonics

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