Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2667

Search results for: segregation resistance

2667 From 'Segregation' to 'Integration': The Dynamic Mechanism of Residential Segregation and the Responsive Sustainable Regeneration Methods in China

Authors: Yang Chen

Abstract:

The property-led regeneration has played an important role in the process of rapid urbanization during the past twenty years in China, but it is also been criticized unsustainable as it always focuses on the economic aspect and overlooks the social issues, especially it has exacerbated the residential segregation in the inner city. Based on author’s studying the area around Nanjing railway station, this paper demonstrates that residential segregation indeed exists in the inner city through synthetic analysis on patterns of residents’ living, consumption and welfare, and to some extent, the segregation distribution characteristics represent in a concentric ring model. According to author’s further investigation on the property right and age of the dwelling buildings, the housing-commercialization-led regeneration is defined as the mainspring of the segregation. To solve these problems, the system of sustainable community should be established in both policy and practice, above all, well-designed public facilities including green infrastructure will be appropriate to promote the residential integration and sustainable development in contemporary China.

Keywords: China, dynamic mechanism, residential segregation, sustainable regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2666 Elimination of Occupational Segregation By Sex: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Mutiat Temitayo James, Oladapo Olakunle James, Kabiru Oyetunde

Abstract:

This paper examines occupational segregation by sex and sought to justify a case for its elimination or not. In doing this, we found that occupations are categorised among men and women in all parts of the world and this, in turn, affects the labour force participation rate of men and women in different sectors and aspects of the labour market. Data from the previous study shows that women are the most discriminated against as regards occupational segregation as many high profile jobs are regarded as men’s job and women relegated to the background. This has brought about low productivity for women and inequity in the labour market which can hinder the productivity levels of participants. It was however recommended that occupational segregation should be eliminated totally so that men and women alike can choose occupations of their choice irrespective of what gender the society ascribe to such occupation.

Keywords: occupation, gender, gender equality, labour market, segregation, discrimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 770
2665 Effect of Rotation Rate on Chemical Segregation during Phase Change

Authors: Nouri Sabrina, Benzeghiba Mohamed, Ghezal Abderrahmane

Abstract:

Numerical parametric study is conducted to study the effects of ampoule rotation on the flows and the dopant segregation in vertical Bridgman (VB) crystal growth. Calculations were performed in unsteady state. The extended Darcy model, which includes the time derivative and Coriolis terms, has been employed in the momentum equation. It was found that the convection, and dopant segregation can be affected significantly by ampoule rotation, and the effect is similar to that by an axial magnetic field. Ampoule rotation decreases the intensity of convection and stretches the flow cell axially. When the convection is weak, the flow can be suppressed almost completely by moderate ampoule rotation and the dopant segregation becomes diffusion-controlled. For stronger convection, the elongated flow cell by ampoule rotation may bring dopant mixing into the bulk melt reducing axial segregation at the early stage of the growth. However, if the cellular flow cannot be suppressed completely, ampoule rotation may induce larger radial segregation due to poor mixing.

Keywords: numerical simulation, heat and mass transfer, vertical solidification, chemical segregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2664 Teachers' Preferences on the Issue of Segregation of Gifted Pupils in Czech Educational System

Authors: I. Kočvarová, E. Machů, N. Bártlová

Abstract:

The issue of inclusion - segregation in the current Czech educational system is highly actual due to changes in legislation. It applies primarily to pupils with special educational needs, but it should also apply to pupils with giftedness. The paper presents chosen results of an exploratory survey that was carried out on a convenience sample of 1101 Czech teachers working in lower secondary education (ISCED2). The rate of teachers´ agreement with segregation of gifted pupils in the education system was monitored during this investigation. A validated questionnaire of our own design was used for the purpose of this investigation. The results were compared across groups of teachers in terms of selected variables. Results show that 36,3 % of teachers incline to segregation (rather than inclusion) of gifted pupils. Teachers who are not educated in this field and have no experience in teaching gifted pupils tend to support their segregation more in comparison with other teachers. Teachers of specialized schools for gifted pupils paradoxically agree with segregation to a slightly lesser extent than teachers from traditional schools, but they also manifest the most hesitant attitude in this issue. Preferences for segregation of gifted pupils are not related to attitudes toward gifted pupils or teachers' self-evaluation in terms of care for the gifted. Investigation indicates that the issue of education of gifted children and their inclusion in the educational system needs more space within the further education of teachers.

Keywords: educational system, evaluation, gifted pupil, inclusion, segregation, teacher

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2663 Investigation of the Grain-Boundary Segregation Transition in the Binary Fe-C Alloy

Authors: Végh Ádám, Mekler Csaba, Dezső András, Szabó Dávid, Stomp Dávid, Kaptay György

Abstract:

Grain boundary segregation transition (GBST) has been calculated by a thermodynamic model in binary alloys. The method is used on cementite (Fe3C) segregation in base-centered cubic (ferrite) iron (Fe) in the Fe-C binary system. The GBST line is shown in the Fe3C lacking part of the phase diagram with high solvent (Fe) concentration. At a lower solute content (C) or at higher temperature the grain boundary is composed mostly of the solvent atoms (Fe). On higher concentration compared to the GBST line or at lower temperature a phase transformation occurs at the grain boundary, the latter mostly composed of the associates (Fe3C). These low-segregation and high-segregation states are first order interfacial phase transitions of the grain boundary and can be transformed into each other reversibly. These occur when the GBST line is crossed by changing the bulk composition or temperature.

Keywords: GBST, cementite, segregation, Fe-C alloy

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2662 Development of a Quick On-Site Pass/Fail Test for the Evaluation of Fresh Concrete Destined for Application as Exposed Concrete

Authors: Laura Kupers, Julie Piérard, Niki Cauberg

Abstract:

The use of exposed concrete (sometimes referred to as architectural concrete), keeps gaining popularity. Exposed concrete has the advantage to combine the structural properties of concrete with an aesthetic finish. However, for a successful aesthetic finish, much attention needs to be paid to the execution (formwork, release agent, curing, weather conditions…), the concrete composition (choice of the raw materials and mix proportions) as well as to its fresh properties. For the latter, a simple on-site pass/fail test could halt the casting of concrete not suitable for architectural concrete and thus avoid expensive repairs later. When architects opt for an exposed concrete, they usually want a smooth, uniform and nearly blemish-free surface. For this choice, a standard ‘construction’ concrete does not suffice. An aesthetic surface finishing requires the concrete to contain a minimum content of fines to minimize the risk of segregation and to allow complete filling of more complex shaped formworks. The concrete may neither be too viscous as this makes it more difficult to compact and it increases the risk of blow holes blemishing the surface. On the other hand, too much bleeding may cause color differences on the concrete surface. An easy pass/fail test, which can be performed on the site just before the casting, could avoid these problems. In case the fresh concrete fails the test, the concrete can be rejected. Only in case the fresh concrete passes the test, the concrete would be cast. The pass/fail tests are intended for a concrete with a consistency class S4. Five tests were selected as possible onsite pass/fail test. Two of these tests already exist: the K-slump test (ASTM C1362) and the Bauer Filter Press Test. The remaining three tests were developed by the BBRI in order to test the segregation resistance of fresh concrete on site: the ‘dynamic sieve stability test’, the ‘inverted cone test’ and an adapted ‘visual stability index’ (VSI) for the slump and flow test. These tests were inspired by existing tests for self-compacting concrete, for which the segregation resistance is of great importance. The suitability of the fresh concrete mixtures was also tested by means of a laboratory reference test (resistance to segregation) and by visual inspection (blow holes, structure…) of small test walls. More than fifteen concrete mixtures of different quality were tested. The results of the pass/fail tests were compared with the results of this laboratory reference test and the test walls. The preliminary laboratory results indicate that concrete mixtures ‘suitable’ for placing as exposed concrete (containing sufficient fines, a balanced grading curve etc.) can be distinguished from ‘inferior’ concrete mixtures. Additional laboratory tests, as well as tests on site, will be conducted to confirm these preliminary results and to set appropriate pass/fail values.

Keywords: exposed concrete, testing fresh concrete, segregation resistance, bleeding, consistency

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2661 Utilization of Waste Marble Dust as a Viscosity Modifying Agent in Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: Shams Ul Khaliq, Mushtaq Zeb, Fawad Bilal, Faizan Akbar, Syed Aamir Abbas

Abstract:

Self Compacting Concrete as the name implies--is the concrete requiring a very little or no vibration to fill the form homogeneously. Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is defined by two primary properties: Ability to flow or deform under its own weight (with or without obstructions) and the ability to remain homogeneous while doing so. Flow ability is achieved by utilizing high range water reducing admixtures and segregation resistance is ensured by introducing a chemical viscosity modifying admixture (VMA) or increasing the amount of fines in the concrete. The study explores the use waste marble dust (WMD) to increase the amount of fines and hence achieve self-compatibility in an economical way, suitable for Pakistani construction industry. The study focuses on comparison of fresh properties of SCC containing varying amounts of waste marble dust (WMD) with that containing commercially available viscosity modifying admixture. The comparison is done at different dosages of super plasticizer keeping cement, water, coarse aggregate, and fine aggregate contents constant.

Keywords: self compacting concrete, waste marble dust (WMD), flow ability, segregation resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2660 Application of Relative Regional Total Energy in Rotary Drums with Axial Segregation Characteristics

Authors: Qiuhua Miao, Peng Huang, Yifei Ding

Abstract:

Particles with different properties tend to be unevenly distributed along an axial direction of the rotating drum, which is usually ignored. Therefore, it is important to study the relationship between axial segregation characteristics and particle crushing efficiency in longer drums. In this paper, a relative area total energy (RRTE) index is proposed, which aims to evaluate the overall crushing energy distribution characteristics. Based on numerical simulation verification, the proposed RRTE index can reflect the overall grinding effect more comprehensively, clearly representing crushing energy distribution in different drum areas. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to the relation between axial segregation and crushing energy in drums. Compared with the radial section, the collision loss energy of the axial section can better reflect the overall crushing effect in long drums. The axial segregation characteristics directly affect the total energy distribution between medium and abrasive, reducing overall crushing efficiency. Therefore, the axial segregation characteristics should be avoided as much as possible in the crushing of the long rotary drum.

Keywords: relative regional total energy, crushing energy, axial segregation characteristics, rotary drum

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2659 Horizontal Gender Inequality and Segregation at Workplace in China: Understanding How Implicit and Unconscious Gender Stereotypes Produce and Reinforce Workplace Gender Inequality in China through Interview-Based Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Yiyan Wu

Abstract:

In the past several decades, the market transition in China has brought in not only more opportunities for women in the labor market but also more attention to gender inequality in workplace. Although some pieces of literature have mentioned gender inequality and segregation at workplace in China, the paper looks into the variations of gender inequality and segregation: working women have little feeling about 'hierarchical inequalities', which define the status and position of women at the workplace. However, at the same time, they unconsciously reinforced 'horizontal inequalities', which creates gender segregation across occupations and job titles. Using qualitative interviews with women employers and employees of various occupations and job titles in Eastern and Southern China, this paper finds evidence that working women's understandings of the division of labor based on the characteristics and expectations of women and men are not as a result of rationality and efficiency, but instead, are the products of gendered stereotypes and traditions. However, holding positive views of gender equality at workplace, working women are not aware of the existence and influence of such gendered stereotypes and traditions. By distinguishing the concepts of 'horizontal inequality' and 'hierarchical inequality' with a cultural sociological approach, this paper contributes to the understanding of gender inequality and segregation in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, this paper explains the logic behind the paradox in which gender inequality and segregation at workplace persist while women are feeling equal.

Keywords: gender equality, segregation, hierarchical inequality, horizontal inequality, China

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2658 Numerical Simulation of the Rotating Vertical Bridgman Growth

Authors: Nouri Sabrina

Abstract:

Numerical parametric study is conducted to study the effects of ampoule rotation on the flows and the dopant segregation in Vertical Bridgman (VB) crystal growth. Calculations were performed in unsteady state. The extended darcy model, whıch includes the time derivative and coriolis terms, has been employed in the momentum equation. It is found that the convection, and dopant segregation can be affected significantly by ampoule rotation, and the effect is similar to that by an axial magnetıc field. Ampoule rotation decreases the intensity of convection and stretches the flow cell axıally. When the convectıon is weak, the flow can be suppressed almost completely by moderate ampoule rotation and the dopant segregation becomes diffusion-controlled. For stronger convection, the elongated flow cell by ampoule rotation may bring dopant mixing into the bulk melt reducing axial segregation at the early stage of the growth. However, if the cellular flow cannot be suppressed completely, ampoule rotation may induce larger radial segregation due to poor mixing.

Keywords: rotating vertical solidification, Finite Volume Method, heat and mass transfer, porous medium, phase change

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2657 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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2656 Effect of Segregation Pattern of Mn, Si, and C on through Thickness Microstructure and Properties of Hot Rolled Steel

Authors: Waleed M. Al-Othman, Hamid Bayati, Abdullah Al-Shahrani, Haitham Al-Jabr

Abstract:

Pearlite bands commonly form parallel to the surface of the hot rolled steel and have significant influence on the properties of the steel. This study investigated the correlation between segregation pattern of Mn, Si, C and formation of the pearlite bands in hot rolled Gr 60 steel plate. Microstructural study indicated formation of a distinguished thick band at centerline of the plate with number of parallel bands through thickness of the steel plate. The thickness, frequency, and continuity of the bands are reduced from mid-thickness toward external surface of the steel plate. Analysis showed a noticeable increase of C, Si and Mn levels within the bands. Such alloying segregation takes place during metal solidification. EDS analysis verified presence of particles rich in Ti, Nb, Mn, C, N, within the bands. Texture analysis by Electron Backscatter Detector (EBSD) indicated the grains size/misorientation can noticeably change within the bands. Effect of banding on through-thickness properties of the steel was examined by carrying out microhardness, toughness and tensile tests. Results suggest the Mn and C contents are changed in sinusoidal pattern through thickness of the hot rolled plate and pearlite bands are formed at the peaks of this sinusoidal segregation pattern. Changes in grain size/misorientation, formation of highly alloyed particles, and pearlite within these bands, facilitate crack formation along boundaries of these bands.

Keywords: pearlite band, alloying segregation, hot rolling, Ti, Nb, N, C

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2655 Segregation of Domestic Solid Waste: An Evidence of Households’ Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior, and Challenges from Manipal, India

Authors: Vidya Pratap, Seena Biju, A. Keshavdev

Abstract:

The ever-increasing quantity and variety of domestic solid waste pose a major challenge to both households as well as to municipal authorities. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (Clean India), the local municipal administration distributed 2 buckets to each household in a residential colony in Manipal (an educational town in southern India). Households were instructed to segregate their waste into wet and dry waste and keep these buckets at their gate for daily collection. This paper captures the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 145 households along with the challenges they face in segregating their wastes. Survey representatives self-administered a questionnaire based on 107 variables that gathered demographic details, attitude and behavior constructs, knowledge about waste segregation and method of disposal for organic, recyclable and hazardous wastes. The study used descriptive tools to explore the data. While 95% of the respondents preferred good segregation practices, only 86% of them exhibited such behavior. 88% of the families observed had members who were either graduates or post-graduates whereas only 37% of the families had women who were working. In both attitude and behavior, 63% of the households did not have working women. Also, among those who practiced segregation, 7% were observed to not practice segregation in spite of the lady member being at home (The authors of this study in no way intend to name women as responsible for waste segregation at home; this thought is based on the fact that while in conversation with households, all respondents opined that women lead this activity). The findings of the study are intended to add value to the existing perceptions of the municipality regarding citizen behavior towards policy implementation/improvement. India as a country faces roadblocks at many levels of policy implementation. The findings of this study are meant to contribute/clarify about the Clean India drive.

Keywords: attitude, behavior, knowledge, segregation of domestic waste

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2654 Identification and Validation of Co-Dominant Markers for Selection of the CO-4 Anthracnose Disease Resistance Gene in Common Bean Cultivar G2333

Authors: Annet Namusoke, Annet Namayanja, Peter Wasswa, Shakirah Nampijja

Abstract:

Common bean cultivar G2333 which offers broad resistance for anthracnose has been widely used as a source of resistance in breeding for anthracnose resistance. The cultivar is pyramided with three genes namely CO-4, CO-5 and CO-7 and of these three genes, the CO-4 gene has been found to offer the broadest resistance. The main aim of this work was to identify and validate easily assayable PCR based co-dominant molecular markers for selection of the CO-4 gene in segregating populations derived from crosses of G2333 with RWR 1946 and RWR 2075, two commercial Andean cultivars highly susceptible to anthracnose. Marker sequences for the study were obtained by blasting the sequence of the COK-4 gene in the Phaseolus gene database. Primer sequence pairs that were not provided from the Phaseolus gene database were designed by the use of Primer3 software. PCR conditions were optimized and the PCR products were run on 6% HPAGE gel. Results of the polymorphism test indicated that out of 18 identified markers, only two markers namely BM588 and BM211 behaved co-dominantly. Phenotypic evaluation for reaction to anthracnose disease was done by inoculating 21days old seedlings of three parents, F1 and F2 populations with race 7 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in the humid chamber. DNA testing of the BM588 marker onto the F2 segregating population of the crosses RWR 1946 x G 2333 and RWR 2075 x G2333 further revealed that the marker BM588 co-segregated with disease resistance with co-dominance of two alleles of 200bp and 400bp, fitting the expected segregation ratio of 1:2:1. The BM588 marker was significantly associated with disease resistance and gave promising results for marker assisted selection of the CO-4 gene in the breeding lines. Activities to validate the BM211 marker are also underway.

Keywords: codominant, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, MAS, Phaseolus vulgaris

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2653 Self-Compacting White Concrete Mix Design Using the Particle Matrix Model

Authors: Samindi Samarakoon, Ørjan Sletbakk Vie, Remi Kleiven Fjelldal

Abstract:

White concrete facade elements are widely used in construction industry. It is challenging to achieve the desired workability in casting of white concrete elements. Particle Matrix model was used for proportioning the self-compacting white concrete (SCWC) to control segregation and bleeding and to improve workability. The paper presents how to reach the target slump flow while controlling bleeding and segregation in SCWC. The amount of aggregates, binders and mixing water, as well as type and dosage of superplasticizer (SP) to be used are the major factors influencing the properties of SCWC. Slump flow and compressive strength tests were carried out to examine the performance of SCWC, and the results indicate that the particle matrix model could produce successfully SCWC controlling segregation and bleeding.

Keywords: white concrete, particle matrix model, mix design, construction industry

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2652 Study on the Layout of 15-Minute Community-Life Circle in the State of “Community Segregation” Based on Poi: Shengwei Community and Other Two Communities in Chongqing

Authors: Siyuan Cai

Abstract:

This paper takes community segregation during major infectious diseases as the background, based on the physiological needs and safety needs of citizens during home segregation, and based on the selection of convenient facilities and medical facilities as the main research objects. Based on the POI data of public facilities in Chongqing, the spatial distribution characteristics of the convenience and medical facilities in the 15-minute living circle centered on three neighborhoods in Shapingba, namely Shengwei Community, Anju Commmunity and Fengtian Garden Community, were explored by means of GIS spatial analysis. The results show that the spatial distribution of convenience and medical facilities in this area has significant clustering characteristics, with a point-like distribution pattern of "dense in the west and sparse in the east", and a grouped and multi-polar spatial structure. The spatial structure is multi-polar and has an obvious tendency to the intersections and residential areas with dense pedestrian flow. This study provides a preliminary exploration of the distribution of medical and convenience facilities within the 15-minute living circle of a segregated community, which makes up for the lack of spatial research in this area.

Keywords: ArcGIS, community segregation, convenient facilities; distribution pattern, medical facilities, POI, 15-minute community life circle

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2651 Four-Week Plyometric and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Sprint Performance in Wheelchair Racing Athletes

Authors: K. Thawichai, R. Pornthep

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a four week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training or resistance training alone on muscle strength and sprint performance in wheelchair racing athletes. The participants were sixteen healthy male wheelchair racing athletes of the Thai national team. All participants were randomly assignments into two groups in the plyometric and resistance training group (n = 8) performed plyometric exercises followed by resistance training, whereas the resistance training group (n = 8) performed static stretching and the same resistance training program. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on 1-RM bench press for muscle strength and 100-m cycling sprint performance. The results of this study show that the plyometric and resistance training group made significantly greater improvements in overall muscle strength and sprint performance than the resistance training group following training. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the addition of a four week plyometric and resistance training program more beneficial than resistance training alone on muscle strength and sprint performance in wheelchair racing athletes.

Keywords: plyometric, resistance training, strength, sprint, wheelchair athletes

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2650 Detection of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout

Authors: M. Raissy, M. Shahrani

Abstract:

The present study was done to evaluate the presence of tetracycline resistance genes in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from cultured rainbow trout, West Iran. The isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion method. Of the 49 strains tested, 19 were resistant to tetracycline (38.7%), 32 to enrofloxacin (65.3%), 21 to erythromycin (42.8%), 20 to chloramphenicol and trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40.8%). The strains were then characterized for their genotypic resistance profiles. The results revealed that all 49 isolates contained at least one of the tetracycline resistance genes. Tet (A) was found in 89.4% of tetracycline resistant isolates and the frequency of other gene were as follow: tet (E) 42.1%, tet (B) 47.3%, tet (D) 15.7%, tet (L) 26.3%, tet (K) 52.6%, tet (G) 36.8%, tet (34) 21%, tet (S) 63.1%, tet (C) 57.8%, tet (M) 73.6%, tet (O) 42.1%. The results revealed high levels of antibiotic resistance in L. garvieae strains which is a potential danger for trout culture as well as for public health.

Keywords: Lactococcus garvieae, tetracycline resistance genes, rainbow trout, antimicrobial resistance

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2649 Inter-Filling of CaO and MgO Mixed Layer in Surface Behavior of Al-Mg Alloys Containing Al2Ca

Authors: Seong-Ho Ha, Young-Ok Yoon, Shae K. Kim

Abstract:

Oxide layer of normal Al-Mg alloy can be characterized by upper MgO and lower MgAl2O4 spinel. The formation of the MgO outmost layer occurs by the surface segregation of Mg in the initial oxidation. After then, the oxidation is proceeded with the formation of MgA12O4 spinel beneath the MgO. Growth of the oxide layer is accelerated by constant formation of MgA12O4 spinel. On the other hand, the oxidation resistance of Al-Mg alloys can be significantly improved simply by Mg+Al2Ca master alloy use as the Mg alloying element and such an improvement is attributed to the CaO/MgO mixed layer. Al-Mg alloy containing Al2Ca shows CaO as the upper layer and MgO as the lower one without MgA12O4 spinel. Such a dense oxide film acts as a protective layer. However, the CaO/MgO scale has the outmost MgO, partly, after a long time exposure to a harsh oxidation condition. The aim of this study is to investigate the inter-filling behaviour of CaO and MgO mixed layer in oxidation resistance mechanism of Al-Mg alloys containing Al2Ca. The process of outmost MgO layer formation will be clarified.

Keywords: Al-Mg alloy, Al2Ca, oxidation, MgO

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2648 Total Thermal Resistance of Graphene-Oxide-Substrate Stack: Role of Interfacial Thermal Resistance in Heat Flow of 2D Material Based Devices

Authors: Roisul H. Galib, Prabhakar R. Bandaru

Abstract:

In 2D material based device, an interface between 2D materials and substrates often limits the heat flow through the device. In this paper, we quantify the total thermal resistance of a graphene-based device by series resistance model and show that the thermal resistance at the interface of graphene and substrate contributes to more than 50% of the total resistance. Weak Van der Waals interactions at the interface and dissimilar phonon vibrational modes create this thermal resistance, allowing less heat to flow across the interface. We compare our results with commonly used materials and interfaces, demonstrating the role of the interface as a potential application for heat guide or block in a 2D material-based device.

Keywords: 2D material, graphene, thermal conductivity, thermal conductance, thermal resistance

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2647 Trash Dash: An Educational Android Game Application for Proper Waste Segregation

Authors: Marylene S. Eder, Dorothy M. Jao, Paolo Marc Nicolas S. Laspiñas, Pukilan A. Malim, Sarah Jean D. Raterta

Abstract:

Trash Dash is an android game application developed to serve as an alternative tool to practice proper waste segregation for children ages 3 years old and above. The researchers designed the application using Unity 3D and developed the text file that served as the database of the game application. An observation of a pre-school teacher shows that children know how to throw their garbage but they do not know yet how to segregate wastes. After launching the mobile application to K-2 pupils 4 – 5 years of age, the researchers have noticed that children within this age are active and motivated to learn the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Based on the result of usability test conducted, it was concluded that the game is easy to use and children will most likely use this application frequently. Furthermore, the children may need assistance from their parents and teachers when playing the game. An actual testing of the application has been conducted to different devices as well as functionality test by Thwack Application and it can be concluded that the mobile application can be launched and installed on a device with a minimum API requirement of Gingerbread (2.3.1).

Keywords: waste segregation, android application, biodegradable, non-biodegradable

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2646 Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline and Ultra-Fine Grained Materials

Authors: Haiming Wen

Abstract:

Grain growth is an important and consequential phenomenon that generally occurs in the presence of thermal and/or stress/strain fields. Thermally activated grain growth has been extensively studied and similarly, there are numerous experimental and theoretical studies published describing stress-induced grain growth in single-phase materials. However, studies on grain growth during the simultaneous presence of an elevated temperature and an external stress are very limited, and moreover, grain growth phenomena in materials containing second-phase particles and solute segregation at GBs have received limited attention. This lecture reports on a study of grain growth in the presence of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) during high-temperature deformation of an ultra-fine grained (UFG) Al alloy synthesized via consolidation of mechanically milled powders. The mechanisms underlying the grain growth were identified as GB migration and grain rotation, which were accompanied by dynamic recovery and geometric dynamic recrystallization, while discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was not operative. A theoretical framework that incorporates the influence of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at GBs on grain growth in presence of both elevated temperature and external stress is formulated and discussed. The effect of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at GBs on GB migration and grain rotation was quantified using the proposed theoretical framework, indicating that both second-phase particles and solutes/impurities segregated GBs reduce the velocities of GB migration and grain rotation as compared to those in commercially pure Al. Our results suggest that grain growth predicted by the proposed theoretical framework is in agreement with experimental results. Hence, the developed theoretical framework can be applied to quantify grain growth in simultaneous presence of external stress, elevated temperature, GB segregation and second-phase particles, or in presence of one or more of the aforementioned factors.

Keywords: nanocrystalline materials, ultra-fine grained materials, grain growth, grain boundary migration, grain rotation

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2645 A Qualitative Exploration of the Strategic Management of Employee Resistance to Organisational Change

Authors: Muneeb Banday, Anukriti Dixit

Abstract:

Change in organizations is viewed as a conversion process of the organizational functioning. One of the crucial elements of this conversion process is the employee resistance to organizational change. The existing literature on change resistance has generally treated resistance as a barrier or an opportunity for successful implementation of change. However, there is little empirical research exploring how resistance to change is managed. This may be partially due to difficulty in getting information on resistance to change. The top management does not divulge such information to avoid negative evaluation whereas employees face huge risk in sharing information related to resistance. The focus of the study is to understand how the organization under study dealt with the employee resistance to change. The conversion process is a story of how the organization went from one stage to another. We used narrative approach to change. Data was collected data through company visits and interviews. The interviews were transcribed, coded, and themes were identified. We focused on the strands that left huge scope for alternative interpretations than the dominant narrative of change prevalent in the organization. The study reveals that the top management strategically uses the legitimacy of leadership, roles of key employees, and rationality of change to manage resistance.

Keywords: employee resistance, legitimacy of leadership, narrative analysis, organisational change

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2644 Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents in Relation to Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight

Authors: E. Vlachopapadopoulou, E. Dikaiakou, E. Anagnostou, I. Panagiotopoulos, E. Kaloumenou, M. Kafetzi, A. Fotinou, S. Michalacos

Abstract:

Aim: To investigate the relation and impact of Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Fat Weight (BFW) on insulin resistance (MATSUDA INDEX < 2.5) in children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 95 overweight and obese children (47 boys and 48 girls) with mean age 10.7 ± 2.2 years were analyzed. ROC analysis was used to investigate the predictive ability of BMI, WC and BFW for insulin resistance and find the optimal cut-offs. The overall performance of the ROC analysis was quantified by computing area under the curve (AUC). Results: ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal-cut off of WC for the prediction of insulin resistance was 97 cm with sensitivity equal to 75% and specificity equal to 73.1%. AUC was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63-0.92, p=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of obesity for the discrimination of participants with insulin resistance from those without insulin resistance were equal to 58.3% and 75%, respectively (AUC=0.67). BFW had a borderline predictive ability for insulin resistance (AUC=0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.74, p=0.101). The predictive ability of WC was equivalent with the correspondence predictive ability of BMI (p=0.891). Obese subjects had 4.2 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 1.71-10.30, p < 0.001), while subjects with WC more than 97 had 8.1 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 2.14-30.86, p=0.002). Conclusion: BMI and WC are important clinical factors that have significant clinical relation with insulin resistance in children and adolescents. The cut off of 97 cm for WC can identify children with greater likelihood for insulin resistance.

Keywords: body fat weight, body mass index, insulin resistance, obese children, waist circumference

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2643 The Effect of Resistance and Progressive Training on Hsp 70 and Glucose

Authors: F. Nameni, H. Poursadra

Abstract:

The present study investigated resistance and progressive training alters the expression of chaperone proteins. These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury, and provide protection. Nineteen training female in 2 groups taking part in the intervention volunteered to give blood samples. Levels of chaperone proteins were measured in response to resistance and progressive training. Hsp 70 levels were increased immediately after 2 h progressive training but decreased after resistance training. The data showed that human skeletal muscle responds to the stress of a single period of progressive training by up-regulating and resistance training by down-regulating expression of HSP70. Physical exercise can elevate core temperature and muscle temperatures and the expression pattern of HSP70 due to training status may be attributed to adaptive mechanisms.

Keywords: resistance training, heat shock proteins, leukocytes, Hsp 70

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2642 The Resistance Reader Program Based on Image Processing

Authors: Janpen Srijan, Nahathai Tanmang, Thanit Purathanang, Anun Dowchern, Saksit Summart, Seangduan Kampimpa

Abstract:

This paper presents the resistance reader program based on image processing by using MATLAB. The proposed program is divided into six parts; the first part is the web camera; the second part is a watt selection before shooting the resistor; the third part is a part of finding the position of the color on the mid-point of resistor; the fourth part is a part of identifying color code of the resistor; the fifth part is a part of taking the number of values for each color for resistance calculation and the last part is a part of displaying result of resistance value. The experimental result of the resistance reader program based on image processing was able to display the resistance value of resistor. The accuracy of proposed program is 85 percent for 1 watt resistor. It has 15 percent of reading error because a problem with the color code of some resistor was too bright.

Keywords: resistance reader program, image processing, resistor, MATLAB

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2641 Resistance Analysis for a Trimaran

Authors: C. M. De Marco Muscat-Fenech, A. M. Grech La Rosa

Abstract:

Importance has been given to resistance analysis for various types of vessels; however explicit guidelines applied to multihull vessels have not been clearly defined. The purpose of this investigation is to highlight the importance of the vessel’s layout in terms of three axes positioning, the transverse (separation), the longitudinal (stagger) and the vertical (draught) with respect to resistance analysis. A vessel has the potential to experience less resistance, at a particular range of speeds, for a vast selection of hull positioning. Many potential layouts create opportunities of various design for both the commercial and leisure market.

Keywords: multihull, reistance, trimaran, vessels

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2640 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance

Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab

Abstract:

In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.

Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thickness

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2639 Neoliberal Settler City: Socio-Spatial Segregation, Livelihood of Artists/Craftsmen in Delhi

Authors: Sophy Joseph

Abstract:

The study uses the concept of ‘Settler city’ to understand the nature of peripheralization that a neoliberal city initiates. The settler city designs powerless communities without inherent rights, title and sovereignty. Kathputli Colony, home to generations of artists/craftsmen, who have kept heritage of arts/crafts alive, has undergone eviction of its population from urban space. The proposed study, ‘Neoliberal Settler City: Socio-spatial segregation and livelihood of artists/craftsmen in Delhi’ would problematize the settler city as a colonial technology. The colonial regime has ‘erased’ the ‘unwanted’ as primitive and swept them to peripheries in the city. This study would also highlight how structural change in political economy has undermined their crafts/arts by depriving them from practicing/performing it with dignity in urban space. The interconnections between citizenship and In-Situ Private Public Partnership in Kathputli rehabilitation has become part of academic exercise. However, a comprehensive study connecting inherent characteristics of neoliberal settler city, trajectory of political economy of unorganized workers - artists/craftsmen and legal containment and exclusion leading to dispossession and marginalization of communities from the city site, is relevant to contextualize the trauma of spatial segregation. This study would deal with political, cultural, social and economic dominant behavior of the structure in the state formation, accumulation of property and design of urban space, fueled by segregation of marginalized/unorganized communities and disowning the ‘footloose proletariat’, the migrant workforce. The methodology of study involves qualitative research amongst communities and the field work-oral testimonies and personal accounts- becomes the primary material to theorize the realities. The secondary materials in the forms of archival materials about historical evolution of Delhi as a planned city from various archives, would be used. As the study also adopt ‘narrative approach’ in qualitative study, the life experiences of craftsmen/artists as performers and emotional trauma of losing their livelihood and space forms an important record to understand the instability and insecurity that marginalization and development attributes on urban poor. The study attempts to prove that though there was a change in political tradition from colonialism to constitutional democracy, new state still follows the policy of segregation and dispossession of the communities. It is this dispossession from the space, deprivation of livelihood and non-consultative process in rehabilitation that reflects the neoliberal approach of the state and also critical findings in the study. This study would entail critical spatial lens analyzing ethnographic and sociological data, representational practices and development debates to understand ‘urban otherization’ against craftsmen/artists. This seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the resistance of communities against primitivity attached with them and to decolonize the city. This would help to contextualize the demand for declaring Kathputli Colony as ‘heritage artists village’. The conceptualization and contextualization would help to argue for right to city of the communities, collective rights to property, services and self-determination. The aspirations of the communities also help to draw normative orientation towards decolonization. It is important to study this site as part of the framework, ‘inclusive cities’ because cities are rarely noted as important sites of ‘community struggles’.

Keywords: neoliberal settler city, socio-spatial segregation, the livelihood of artists/craftsmen, dispossession of indigenous communities, urban planning and cultural uprooting

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2638 An Approach for Thermal Resistance Prediction of Plain Socks in Wet State

Authors: Tariq Mansoor, Lubos Hes, Vladimir Bajzik

Abstract:

Socks comfort has great significance in our daily life. This significance even increased when we have undergone a work of low or high activity. It causes the sweating of our body with different rates. In this study, plain socks with differential fibre composition were wetted to saturated level. Then after successive intervals of conditioning, these socks are characterized by thermal resistance in dry and wet states. Theoretical thermal resistance is predicted by using combined filling coefficients and thermal conductivity of wet polymers instead of dry polymer (fibre) in different models. By this modification, different mathematical models could predict thermal resistance at different moisture levels. Furthermore, predicted thermal resistance by different models has reasonable correlation range between (0.84 -0.98) with experimental results in both dry (lab conditions moisture) and wet states. "This work is supported by Technical University of Liberec under SGC-2019. Project number is 21314".

Keywords: thermal resistance, mathematical model, plain socks, moisture loss rate

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