Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 140

Search results for: bleeding

140 Exergy Analysis of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle Using Turbine Bleeding

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

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This work presents an exergetical performance analysis of regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using turbine bleeding based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of finite thermal energy. Effects of system parameters such as turbine bleeding pressure and turbine bleeding fraction are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as the exergy and the second-law efficiencies. Under the conditions of the critical fraction of turbine bleeding, the simulation results show that the exergy efficiency decreases monotonically with respect to the bleeding pressure, however, the second-law efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine bleeding pressure.

Keywords: organic Rankine cycle, ORC, regeneration, turbine bleeding, exergy, second-law efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
139 Development Of Trigger Tool To Identify Adverse Drug Events From Warfarin Administered To Patient Admitted In Medical Wards Of Chumphae Hospital

Authors: Puntarikorn Rungrattanakasin

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Objectives: To develop the trigger tool to warn about the risk of bleeding as an adverse event from warfarin drug usage during admission in Medical Wards of Chumphae Hospital. Methods: A retrospective study was performed by reviewing the medical records for the patients admitted between June 1st,2020- May 31st, 2021. ADEs were evaluated by Naranjo’s algorithm. The international normalized ratio (INR) and events of bleeding during admissions were collected. Statistical analyses, including Chi-square test and Reciever Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for optimal INR threshold, were used for the study. Results: Among the 139 admissions, the INR range was found to vary between 0.86-14.91, there was a total of 15 bleeding events, out of which 9 were mild, and 6 were severe. The occurrence of bleeding started whenever the INR was greater than 2.5 and reached the statistical significance (p <0.05), which was in concordance with the ROC curve and yielded 100 % sensitivity and 60% specificity in the detection of a bleeding event. In this regard, the INR greater than 2.5 was considered to be an optimal threshold to alert promptly for bleeding tendency. Conclusions: The INR value of greater than 2.5 (>2.5) would be an appropriate trigger tool to warn of the risk of bleeding for patients taking warfarin in Chumphae Hospital.

Keywords: trigger tool, warfarin, risk of bleeding, medical wards

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
138 In vivo Antiplatelet Activity Test of Wet Extract of Mimusops elengi L.'s Leaves on DDY Strain Mice as an Effort to Treat Atherosclerosis

Authors: Dewi Tristantini, Jason Jonathan

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Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one of the deathliest diseases which is caused by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a disease that plaque builds up inside the arteries. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, platelet, and other substances found in blood. The current treatment of atherosclerosis is to provide antiplatelet therapy treatment, but such treatments often cause gastrointestinal irritation, muscle pain and hormonal imbalance. Mimusops elengi L.’s leaves can be utilized as a natural and cheap antiplatelet’s source because it contains flavonoids such as quertecin. Antiplatelet aggregation effect of Mimusops elengi L.’s leaves’ wet extract was measured by bleeding time on DDY strain mice with the test substances were given orally during the period of 8 days. The bleeding time was measured on first day and 9th day. Empirically, the dose which is used for humans is 8.5 g of leaves in 600 ml of water. This dose is equivalent to 2.1 g of leaves in 350 ml of water for mice. The extract was divided into 3 doses for mice: 0.05 ml/day; 0.1 ml/day; 0.2 ml/day. After getting the percentage of the increase in bleeding time, data were analyzed by analysis of variance test (Anova), followed by individual comparison within the groups by LSD test. The test substances above respectively increased bleeding time 21%, 62%, and 128%. As the conclusion, the 0.02 ml/day dose of Mimusops elengi L.’s leaves’ wet extract could increase bleeding time better than clopidogrel as positive controls with 110% increase in bleeding time.

Keywords: antiplatelets, atheroschlerosis, bleeding time, Mimusops elengi

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
137 Contourlet Transform and Local Binary Pattern Based Feature Extraction for Bleeding Detection in Endoscopic Images

Authors: Mekha Mathew, Varun P Gopi

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Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) has become a great device in Gastrointestinal (GI) tract diagnosis, which can examine the entire GI tract, especially the small intestine without invasiveness and sedation. Bleeding in the digestive tract is a symptom of a disease rather than a disease itself. Hence the detection of bleeding is important in diagnosing many diseases. In this paper we proposes a novel method for distinguishing bleeding regions from normal regions based on Contourlet transform and Local Binary Pattern (LBP). Experiments show that this method provides a high accuracy rate of 96.38% in CIE XYZ colour space for k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) classifier.

Keywords: Wireless Capsule Endoscopy, local binary pattern, k-NN classifier, contourlet transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
136 Honey: A Remedy Rediscovered in the Treatment of Oral Diseases

Authors: Muhammad Mansoor Majeed, Imtiaz Ahmed

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For centuries, honey has been used for the management and cure of different diseases for the treatment of wound, ulcers, burns, cough, and sore throat, etc. It has also been proved to decrease inflammation, edema, and exudates in different body tissues. This study is performed to find out the effectiveness of honey in the treatment and prevention of gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and accumulation of plaque. Randomized control trial was performed on two subject groups. Honey provided to one subject group to apply on their gums and tooth and then gargle with water and drink. Frequency of the procedure is thrice a day for a month. Another group was given a placebo. Before and after, readings were taken according to Loe and Silness Plaque and Gingival Index. Initially, the mean plaque index, Gingival index and the percentage of sites which were bleeding in the honey group was 0.910, 0.800 and 58.71% respectively which has reduced to 0.313, 0.296 and 27.6% in 30 ± 3 days whereas the control group did not show signs of improvement. Visible changed has observed in the honey group from 0.910 to 0.313 in mean plaque index, 0.800 to 0.296 in Gingival Index, and the percentage of bleeding sited decreased from 58.71% to 27.6%. No significant changes observed in another group. We can conclude that honey reduces the formation/accumulation of plaque and decreases gingival bleeding as well as it has therapeutic effects.

Keywords: honey, gingivitis, Pakistan, bleeding gums

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
135 An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Modelling of Bleeding

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Fereydoon Moghadas Nejad, Mohammad Saed

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The bleeding prediction of the asphalt is one of the most complex subjects in the pavement engineering. In this paper, an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is used for modeling the effect of important parameters on bleeding is trained and tested with the experimental results. bleeding index based on the asphalt film thickness differential as target parameter,asphalt content, temperature depth of two centemeter, heavy traffic, dust to effective binder, Marshall strength, passing 3/4 sieves, passing 3/8 sieves,passing 3/16 sieves, passing NO8, passing NO50, passing NO100, passing NO200 as input parameters. Then, we randomly divided empirical data into train and test sections in order to accomplish modeling. We instructed ANFIS network by 72 percent of empirical data. 28 percent of primary data which had been considered for testing the approprativity of the modeling were entered into ANFIS model. Results were compared by two statistical criterions (R2, RMSE) with empirical ones. Considering the results, it is obvious that our proposed modeling by ANFIS is efficient and valid and it can also be promoted to more general states.

Keywords: bleeding, asphalt film thickness differential, Anfis Modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
134 Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Adherence and Bleeding Events in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bahagavathula, Abdulla Shehab Sheab, Asim Hassen

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Objectives: Non-adherence and discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy lead to increased ischemic stroke risk and contributes to suboptimal outcomes of the anticoagulant treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to investigate the adherence to NOACs and adverse events in patients with AF. Methods: Original research articles conducted on patients with AF and using any NOACs (dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban) reporting adherence for at least 35 days were included. Scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH keywords to obtaining literature researched between 2008 to till June, 2016. Study characteristics, patient’s sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence levels and bleeding events reported were recorded. Results: The overall sample size of the six studies is 1,640,157, with CHADS2 scores < 2 in 551 patients, CHADS2-VASc ≥ 2 in 62,232 AF patients. Three-forth [75.6% (95%CI= 66.5-84.8), p < 0.001] are adherent to NOACs. However, a higher rate [72.7% (62.5-82.9), p < 0.001] of adherence was observed with Dabigatran than Apixaban [59.9% (3.2-123.1), p=0.063] and Rivaroxaban [59.3% (38.7-80.0), p<0.001]. Sub-group analysis revealed that nearly 57% of the AF patients on NOACs have CHADS2 scores < 2 and 20% of these patients were non-adherent to NOACs. Overall bleeding events rate associated with NOACs non-adherent AF patients was found to be 7.5% (0.2-14.8), p=0.045. However, nearly 11.2% of AF patients experienced bleeding events were non-adherent to NOAC medications. A higher proportion of bleeding events were noticed with Dabigatran (14.7%). Conclusions: Adherence rates, while uniformly suboptimal, nevertheless varied considerably, lowest at 59.3% for rivaroxaban and 59.9% for apixaban, followed by dabigatran (75.6%). Overall bleeding events associated with NOACs rates were 7.5%. However, lower adherence to NOACs was associated with worse outcomes among patients with greater stroke risk.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, bleeding events, meta-analysis, novel oral anticoagulants

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
133 Role of Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) to Assess the Need of Platelet Transfusion in Dengue

Authors: Kalyan Koganti

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Background: In India, platelet transfusions are given to large no. of patients suffering from dengue due to the fear of bleeding especially when the platelet counts are low. Though many patients do not bleed when the platelet count falls to less than 20,000, certain patients bleed even if the platelet counts are more than 20,000 without any comorbid condition (like gastrointestinal ulcer) in the past. This fear has led to huge amounts of unnecessary platelet transfusions which cause significant economic burden to low and middle-income countries like India and also sometimes these transfusions end with transfusion-related adverse reactions. Objective: To identify the role of Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) in comparison with thrombocytoenia as an indicator to assess the real need of platelet transfusions. Method: A prospective study was conducted at a hospital in South India which included 176 admitted cases of dengue confirmed by immunochromatography. APTT was performed in all these patients along with platelet count. Cut off values of > 60 seconds for APTT and < 20,000 for platelet count were considered to assess the bleeding manifestations. Results: Among the total 176 patients, 56 patients had bleeding manifestations like malena, hematuria, bleeding gums etc. APTT > 60 seconds had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 90% respectively in identifying bleeding manifestations where as platelet count of < 20,000 had a sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 73% respectively. Conclusion: Elevated APTT levels can be considered as an indicator to assess the need of platelet transfusion in dengue. As there is a significant variation among patients who bleed with respect to platelet count, APTT can be considered to avoid unnecessary transfusions.

Keywords: activated partial thromboplastin time, dengue, platelet transfusion, thrombocytopenia

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
132 Self-Compacting White Concrete Mix Design Using the Particle Matrix Model

Authors: Samindi Samarakoon, Ørjan Sletbakk Vie, Remi Kleiven Fjelldal

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White concrete facade elements are widely used in construction industry. It is challenging to achieve the desired workability in casting of white concrete elements. Particle Matrix model was used for proportioning the self-compacting white concrete (SCWC) to control segregation and bleeding and to improve workability. The paper presents how to reach the target slump flow while controlling bleeding and segregation in SCWC. The amount of aggregates, binders and mixing water, as well as type and dosage of superplasticizer (SP) to be used are the major factors influencing the properties of SCWC. Slump flow and compressive strength tests were carried out to examine the performance of SCWC, and the results indicate that the particle matrix model could produce successfully SCWC controlling segregation and bleeding.

Keywords: white concrete, particle matrix model, mix design, construction industry

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131 Direct Cost of Anesthesia in Traumatic Patients with Massive Bleeding: A Prospective Micro-Costing Study

Authors: Asamaporn Puetpaiboon, Sunisa Chatmongkolchart, Nalinee Kovitwanawong, Osaree Akaraborworn

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Traumatic patients with massive bleeding require intensive resuscitation. The actual cost of anesthesia per case has never been clarified, so our study aimed to quantify the direct cost, and cost-to-charge ratio of anesthetic care in traumatic patients with intraoperative massive bleeding. This study was a prospective, observational, cost analysis study, conducted in Prince of Songkla University hospital, Thailand, with traumatic patients, of any mechanisms being recruited. Massive bleeding was defined as estimated blood loss of at least one blood volume in 24 hours, or a half of blood volume in 3 hours. The cost components were identified by the micro-costing method, and valued by the bottom-up approach. The direct cost was divided into 4 categories: the labor cost, the capital cost, the material cost and the cost of drugs. From September 2017 to August 2018, 10 patients with multiple injuries were included. Seven patients had motorcycle accidents, two patients fell from a height and another one was in a minibus accident. Two patients died on the operating table, and another two died within 48 hours. The median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8. The median intraoperative blood loss was 3,500 ml. The median direct cost, per case, was 250 United States Dollars (2017 exchange rate), and the cost-to-charge ratio was 0.53. In summary, the direct cost was nearly half of the hospital charge, for these traumatic patients with massive bleeding. However, our study did not analyze the indirect cost.

Keywords: cost, cost-to-charge ratio, micro-costing, trauma

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130 A Study on the Effect of Different Climate Conditions on Time of Balance of Bleeding and Evaporation in Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete Pavements

Authors: Hasan Ziari, Hassan Fazaeli, Seyed Javad Vaziri Kang Olyaei, Asma Sadat Dabiri

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The presence of cracks in concrete pavements is a place for the ingression of corrosive substances, acids, oils, and water into the pavement and reduces its long-term durability and level of service. One of the causes of early cracks in concrete pavements is the plastic shrinkage. This shrinkage occurs due to the formation of negative capillary pressures after the equilibrium of the bleeding and evaporation rates at the pavement surface. These cracks form if the tensile stresses caused by the restrained shrinkage exceed the tensile strength of the concrete. Different climate conditions change the rate of evaporation and thus change the balance time of the bleeding and evaporation, which changes the severity of cracking in concrete. The present study examined the relationship between the balance time of bleeding and evaporation and the area of cracking in the concrete slabs using the standard method ASTM C1579 in 27 different environmental conditions by using continuous video recording and digital image analyzing. The results showed that as the evaporation rate increased and the balance time decreased, the crack severity significantly increased so that by reducing the balance time from the maximum value to its minimum value, the cracking area increased more than four times. It was also observed that the cracking area- balance time curve could be interpreted in three sections. An examination of these three parts showed that the combination of climate conditions has a significant effect on increasing or decreasing these two variables. The criticality of a single factor cannot cause the critical conditions of plastic cracking. By combining two mild environmental factors with a severe climate factor (in terms of surface evaporation rate), a considerable reduction in balance time and a sharp increase in cracking severity can be prevented. The results of this study showed that balance time could be an essential factor in controlling and predicting plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete pavements. It is necessary to control this factor in the case of constructing concrete pavements in different climate conditions.

Keywords: bleeding and cracking severity, concrete pavements, climate conditions, plastic shrinkage

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
129 Prevalence of Periodontal Diseases in Children with Herpetic Stomatitis in City Tashkent

Authors: Akhad Ibrokhimov

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Update of preventive medicine has exacerbated the problem of cause-and-effect relationship between the presence of herpetic stomatitis (HS) and periodontal disease. Comprehensive survey of children with herpetic stomatitis, according to WHO equirements, on the territory of Tashkent years was conducted. Objective: To analyze the prevalence and intensity of periodontal tissue diseases in children with herpetic stomatitis. Materials and methods. Dental disease in Tashkent was studied in 156 children with herpetic stomatitis, as a control, the incidence of dental studied in 153 children of comparable age and sex never without a history of herpetic stomatitis. Results and discussion. The study revealed that 42,86 ± 13,23% of children with Herpetic stomatitis in the age group 6 years, 1 month - 10 years suffered from periodontal disease, the incidence of periodontal disease in the control group was 14,29 ± 9,35% (R≥0 05) corresponding to the frequency of detection of sextants with bleeding and tartar was equal to 35,71 ± 12,80% vs. 7,14 ± 6,88% (R≥0,05) and 14,29 ± 9,35% against 7 14 ± 6,88% (R≥0,05). Status of periodontal tissues was assessed in age groups 6 years, 1 month - 10 years and 10 years, 1 month - 15 years. The intensity of periodontal lesions observed at the level of 1,79 ± 0,06 vs. 0,66 ± 0,03 (P ≤ 0,05) affected sextant, including sextants with bleeding 1,62 ± 0,07 vs. 0.65 ± 0 , 03 (P ≤ 0,05) and sextants tartar - 0,17 ± 0,008 vs. 0,10 ± 0,008 (P ≤ 0,05). At age 10 years, 1 month - 15 years, a higher prevalence of signs of periodontal lesion was identified in patients with table of contents in 80,00 ± 12,65% of cases versus 30,00 ± 14,49% (P ≤ 0,05), and prevailed bleeding gums 70,00 ± 14,49% against 20,00 ± 11,83% (p ≤ 0.05), tartar was diagnosed respectively in 30,00 ± 14,49% against 10,00 ± 9,48% (R≥0,05) surveyed.

Keywords: vestibular surface, abnormal abrasion, composites, prosthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
128 The Effect of Reverse Trendelenburg Position on the Back Pain after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

Authors: Pramote Thangkratok

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The aims of this experimental study were to investigate the effect of Reverse Trendelenburg Position on the Back Pain after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. In addition, to compare bleeding and hematoma occurrences at the Access site between experimental and control groups. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in 70 patients who underwent Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions via the femoral artery and received post procedural care at the intermediate cardiac care unit, Bangkok Heart Hospital. From December 2015 to February 2016. The control group (35 patients) was to get standard care after the intervention, whereas the experimental group (35 patients) was Reverse Trendelenburg Position 30-45 degrees. The groups were not significantly different in terms of demographic characteristics, Age, Gender, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate. While not significantly different from each other, the intensity of back pain control group had a significantly higher pain score than experimental group. Vascular complications in terms of bleeding and hematoma were not significantly different between the control and experimental groups. The findings show that Reverse Trendelenburg Position after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions would reduce or prevent the back pain without increasing the chance of bleeding and hematoma.

Keywords: reverse trendelenburg position, back pain, cardiovascular angiography, cardiovascular interventions

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
127 Antiplatelets and Anticoagulants in Rural Emergency General Surgery

Authors: Jeong-Moh John Yahng, Angelika Na

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Introduction: Increasing numbers of general surgical patients are being prescribed antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications (APAC) for various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions. Surgical patients who are on APAC present a management challenge as bleeding risk needs to be balanced with thromboembolic risk. Although guidelines exist in regards to APAC management in elective surgery, there is a lack of guidelines in the emergency surgery setting. In this study we aim to characterise APAC usage in emergency general surgical patients admitted to a rural hospital. We also assess the impact of APAC usage on clinical management of these patients. Methods: Prospective study of emergency general surgical admissions at Northeast Health Wangaratta (Victoria) from 2 July to 25 Oct 2014. Questionnaire collected demographics data, admission diagnosis, APAC usage, anaesthesia techniques, operation types, transfusion requirement and morbidity / mortality data. Results: During the 4 month study, 118 patients were classified into two groups: non-APAC (n=96, 81%) and APAC (n=22, 19%). Patients in the APAC group were older compared to the non-APAC patients (mean age 72 vs 42 years old). Amongst patients younger than 60 years old, only 1% of them were on APAC. In contrast, 49% of patients older than 60 years old were on APAC (p<0.001). Patients who were admitted with a bleeding problem were more likely to be on APAC (p<0.05). 19% of emergency general surgery patients were on APAC. The majority (91%) of them were on antiplatelet medication, with two patients being on dual antiplatelet agents (aspirin + clopidogrel or ticagrelor). 15% of emergency general surgical patients requiring operations were on APAC. 11% of all laparotomies and 33% of gastroscopy for haematemesis/melaena patients were on APAC. Both of the patients operated for bleeding following surgery at another hospital were in the APAC group. In regards to impact on clinical management, 59% of APAC patients had their medications interrupted or ceased, on average by 3.5 days (range 1-13 days). 2 out of 75 operations were delayed due to APAC usage. There was no difference in the use of central venous or arterial line for increased monitoring (p=0.14) or in the use of warming blanket (Bair Hugger™) (p=0.94). Overall, transfusion rate was higher amongst APAC patients (14% vs 3%) (p 0.04). The recorded morbidity (n=2) and mortality (n=1) in this study were all in the APAC group. Discussion: Nineteen percent of emergency general surgical admissions and fifteen percent of operated patients were on APAC. The prevalence of APAC usage was higher in those aged sixty and above. General surgical patients who were admitted with a bleeding problem were more likely to be on APAC. Two patients who were operated for bleeding following surgery at another hospital were in the APAC group. Note that there was no patient in the non-APAC group who was admitted for post-operative bleeding. We observed two cases in which operation was delayed due to APAC usage. Transfusion, morbidity and mortality rate were higher in the APAC group. Conclusion: In this study, nineteen percent of emergency general surgical admissions were on APAC. The use of APAC is more prevalent in the older age group, particularly those aged sixty and above. Higher proportion of APAC compared to non-APAC patients were admitted and operated for bleeding problems. There is an urgent need for clinical guidelines regarding APAC management in emergency general surgical patients.

Keywords: antiplatelet, anticoagulants, emergency general surgery, rural general surgery, morbidity, mortality

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
126 Drag Reduction of Base Bleed at Various Flight Conditions

Authors: Man Chul Jeong, Hyoung Jin Lee, Sang Yoon Lee, Ji Hyun Park, Min Wook Chang, In-Seuck Jeung

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This study focus on the drag reduction effect of the base bleed at supersonic flow. Base bleed is the method which bleeds the gas on the tail of the flight vehicle and reduces the base drag, which occupies over 50% of the total drag in any flight speed. Thus base bleed can reduce the total drag significantly, and enhance the total flight range. Drag reduction ratio of the base bleed is strongly related to the mass flow rate of the bleeding gas. Thus selecting appropriate mass flow rate is important. However, since the flight vehicle has various flight speed, same mass flow rate of the base bleed can have different drag reduction effect during the flight. Thus, this study investigates the effect of the drag reduction depending on the flight speed by numerical analysis using STAR-CCM+. The analysis model is 155mm diameter projectile with boat-tailed shape base. Angle of the boat-tail is chosen previously for minimum drag coefficient. Numerical analysis is conducted for Mach 2 and Mach 3, with various mass flow rate, or the injection parameter I, of the bleeding gas and the temperature of the bleeding gas, is fixed to 300K. The results showed that I=0.025 has the minimum drag at Mach 2, and I=0.014 has the minimum drag at Mach 3. Thus as the Mach number is higher, the lower mass flow rate of the base bleed has more effect on drag reduction.

Keywords: base bleed, supersonic, drag reduction, recirculation

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125 In vivo Determination of Anticoagulant Property of the Tentacle Extract of Aurelia aurita (Moon Jellyfish) Using Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Bea Carmel H. Casiding, Charmaine A. Guy, Funny Jovis P. Malasan, Katrina Chelsea B. Manlutac, Danielle Ann N. Novilla, Marianne R. Oliveros, Magnolia C. Sibulo

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Moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, has become a popular research organism for diverse studies. Recent studies have verified the prevention of blood clotting properties of the moon jellyfish tentacle extract through in vitro methods. The purpose of this study was to validate the blood clotting ability of A. aurita tentacle extract using in vivo method of experimentation. The tentacles of A. aurita jellyfish were excised and filtered then centrifuged at 3000xg for 10 minutes. The crude nematocyst extract was suspended in 1:6 ratios with phosphate buffer solution and sonicated for three periods of 20 seconds each at 50 Hz. Protein concentration of the extract was determined using Bradford Assay. Bovine serum albumin was the standard solution used with the following concentrations: 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, 140.0, 175.0, 210.0, 245.0, and 280.0 µg/mL. The absorbance was read at 595 nm. Toxicity testing from OECD guidelines was adapted. The extract suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solution was arbitrarily set into three doses (0.1mg/kg, 0.3mg/kg, 0.5mg/kg) and were administered daily for five days to the experimental groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats (one dose per group). Before and after the administration period, bleeding time and clotting time tests were performed. The One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the difference of before and after bleeding time and clotting time from the three treatment groups, time, positive and negative control groups. The average protein concentration of the sonicated crude tentacle extract was 206.5 µg/mL. The highest dose administered (0.5mg/kg) produced significant increase in the time for both bleeding and clotting tests. However, the preceding lower dose (0.3mg/kg) only was significantly effective for clotting time test. The protein contained in the tentacle extract with a concentration of 206.5 mcg/mL and dose of 0.3 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of A. aurita elicited anticoagulating activity.

Keywords: anticoagulant, bleeding time test, clotting time test, moon jellyfish

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124 Thulium Laser Vaporisation and Enucleation of Prostate in Patients on Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents

Authors: Abdul Fatah, Naveenchandra Acharya, Vamshi Krishna, T. Shivaprasad, Ramesh Ramayya

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Background: Significant number of patients with bladder outlet obstruction due to BPH are on anti-platelets and anticoagulants. Prostate surgery in this group of patients either in the form of TURP or Open prostatectomy is associated with increased risk of bleeding complications requiring transfusions, packing of the prostatic fossa or ligation or embolization of internal iliac arteries. Withholding of antiplatelets and anticoagulants may be associated with cardiac and other complications. Efficacy of Thulium Laser in the above group of patients was evaluated in terms of peri-operative, postoperative and delayed bleeding complications as well as cardiac events in peri-operative and immediate postoperative period. Methods: 217 patients with a mean age of 68.8 years were enrolled between March 2009 and March 2013 (36 months), and treated for BPH with ThuLEP. Every patient was evaluated at base line according to: Digital Rectal Examination (DRE), prostate volume, Post-Voided volume (PVR), International Prostate Symptoms Score (I-PSS), PSA values, urine analysis and urine culture, uroflowmetry. The post operative complications in the form of drop in hemoglobin level, transfusion rates, post –operative cardiac events within a period of 30 days, delayed hematuria and events like deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were noted. Results: Our data showed a better post-operative outcome in terms of, postoperative bleeding requiring intervention 7 (3.2%), transfusion rate 4 (1.8%) and cardiac events within a period of 30 days 4(1.8%), delayed hematuria within 6 months 2(0.9 %) compared other series of prostatectomies. Conclusion: The thulium LASER prostatectomy is a safe and effective option for patients with cardiac comorbidties and those patients who are on antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. The complication rate is less as compared to larger series reported with open and transurethral prostatectomies.

Keywords: thulium laser, prostatectomy, antiplatelet agents, bleeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
123 Endometrial Ablation and Resection Versus Hysterectomy for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Complications

Authors: Iliana Georganta, Clare Deehan, Marysia Thomson, Miriam McDonald, Kerrie McNulty, Anna Strachan, Elizabeth Anderson, Alyaa Mostafa

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Context: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hysterectomy versus endometrial ablation and resection in the management of heavy menstrual bleeding. Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy, satisfaction rates and adverse events of hysterectomy compared to more minimally invasive techniques in the treatment of HMB. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was performed for all RCTs and quasi-RCTs comparing hysterectomy with either endometrial ablation endometrial resection of both. The search had no language restrictions and was last updated in June 2020 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov and Clinical trials. EU. In addition, a manual search of the abstract databases of the European Haemophilia Conference on women's health was performed and further studies were identified from references of acquired papers. The primary outcomes were patient-reported and objective reduction in heavy menstrual bleeding up to 2 years and after 2 years. Secondary outcomes included satisfaction rates, pain, adverse events short and long term, quality of life and sexual function, further surgery, duration of surgery and hospital stay and time to return to work and normal activities. Data were analysed using RevMan software. Evidence synthesis: 12 studies and a total of 2028 women were included (hysterectomy: n = 977 women vs endometrial ablation or resection: n = 1051 women). Hysterectomy was compared with endometrial ablation only in five studies (Lin, Dickersin, Sesti, Jain, Cooper) and endometrial resection only in five studies (Gannon, Schulpher, O’Connor, Crosignani, Zupi) and a mixture of the Ablation and Resection in two studies (Elmantwe, Pinion). Of the 1² studies, 10 reported women’s perception of bleeding symptoms as improved. Meta-analysis showed that women in the hysterectomy group were more likely to show improvement in bleeding symptoms when compared with endometrial ablation or resection up to 2-year follow-up (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.79, I² = 95%). Objective outcomes of improvement in bleeding also favored hysterectomy. Patient satisfaction was higher after hysterectomy within the 2 years follow-up (RR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.86 to 0.94, I²:58%), however, there was no significant difference between the two groups at more than 2 years follow up. Sepsis (RR: 0.03, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.56; 1 study), wound infection (RR: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.28, I²: 0%, 3 studies) and Urinary tract infection (UTI) (RR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.42, I²: 0%, 4 studies) all favoured hysteroscopic techniques. Fluid overload (RR: 7.80, 95% CI: 2.16 to 28.16, I² :0%, 4 studies) and perforation (RR: 5.42, 95% CI: 1.25 to 23.45, I²: 0%, 4 studies) however favoured hysterectomy in the short term. Conclusions: This meta-analysis has demonstrated that endometrial ablation and endometrial resection are both viable options when compared with hysterectomy for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Hysteroscopic procedures had better outcomes in the short term with fewer adverse events including wound infection, UTI and sepsis. The hysterectomy performed better when measuring more long-term impacts such as recurrence of symptoms, overall satisfaction at two years and the need for further treatment or surgery.

Keywords: menorrhagia, hysterectomy, ablation, resection

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122 Origin Variability of Superior Vesical Artery

Authors: Waseem Al-Talalwah

Abstract:

The superior vesical artery usually arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It may arise from the umbilical artery as three or four branches to supply the upper and middle parts of bladder. Current study focuses on the different origins of the superior vesical artery to provide a sufficient data for surgeons to disease iatrogenic fault. The superior vesical artery arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 24.5% whereas it arises indirectly as from umbilical artery in 83.7%. Further, it may arise from any branch of the anterior division as from the utrine and obturator arteries in 6.1% and in 6.3% respectively. It also shares the origin of the internal pudendal and inferior glutyeal artery as it arises from the gluteopudendal trunk in 4.1%. The superior vesical artery arises as a single, double, triple and quadruple in 69.4%, 20.4%, 8.2% and 2% respectively. In case of cystectomy for bladder cancer, surgeons have to be aware of the origin variability of superior vesical artery to prevent post-surgical complication such as intra-pelvic bleeding. Also, the as intra-pelvic bleeding has to be expected in case of hysterectomy therefore a great caution of the vesical branches arising from uterine artery has to be considered. In case of aneurysm resection of inferior gluteal artery arising from the gluteopudendal trunk, the surgeons have to be careful of the vascular supply of urinary bladder coming from above and below this common trunk as from superior and inferior vesical arteries respectively. Therefore, present study increases the awareness of clinical significance of superior vesical artery origin for surgeons to minimise the iatroginc errors.

Keywords: superior vesical artery, anterior division, internal iliac, internal pudendal, inferior glutyeal, intra-pelvic bleeding, hysterectomy, cystectomy

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121 Reliability of Clinical Coding in Accurately Estimating the Actual Prevalence of Adverse Drug Event Admissions

Authors: Nisa Mohan

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Adverse drug event (ADE) related hospital admissions are common among older people. The first step in prevention is accurately estimating the prevalence of ADE admissions. Clinical coding is an efficient method to estimate the prevalence of ADE admissions. The objective of the study is to estimate the rate of under-coding of ADE admissions in older people in New Zealand and to explore how clinical coders decide whether or not to code an admission as an ADE. There has not been any research in New Zealand to explore these areas. This study is done using a mixed-methods approach. Two common and serious ADEs in older people, namely bleeding and hypoglycaemia were selected for the study. In study 1, eight hundred medical records of people aged 65 years and above who are admitted to hospital due to bleeding and hypoglycemia during the years 2015 – 2016 were selected for quantitative retrospective medical records review. This selection was made to estimate the proportion of ADE-related bleeding and hypoglycemia admissions that are not coded as ADEs. These files were reviewed and recorded as to whether the admission was caused by an ADE. The hospital discharge data were reviewed to check whether all the ADE admissions identified in the records review were coded as ADEs, and the proportion of under-coding of ADE admissions was estimated. In study 2, thirteen clinical coders were selected to conduct qualitative semi-structured interviews using a general inductive approach. Participants were selected purposively based on their experience in clinical coding. Interview questions were designed in a way to investigate the reasons for the under-coding of ADE admissions. The records review study showed that 35% (Cl 28% - 44%) of the ADE-related bleeding admissions and 22% of the ADE-related hypoglycemia admissions were not coded as ADEs. Although the quality of clinical coding is high across New Zealand, a substantial proportion of ADE admissions were under-coded. This shows that clinical coding might under-estimate the actual prevalence of ADE related hospital admissions in New Zealand. The interviews with the clinical coders added that lack of time for searching for information to confirm an ADE admission, inadequate communication with clinicians, along with coders’ belief that an ADE is a small thing might be the potential reasons for the under-coding of the ADE admissions. This study urges the coding policymakers, auditors, and trainers to engage with the unconscious cognitive biases and short-cuts of the clinical coders. These results highlight that further work is needed on interventions to improve the clinical coding of ADE admissions, such as providing education to coders about the importance of ADEs, education to clinicians about the importance of clear and confirmed medical records entries, availing pharmacist service to improve the detection and clear documentation of ADE admissions and including a mandatory field in the discharge summary about external causes of diseases.

Keywords: adverse drug events, bleeding, clinical coders, clinical coding, hypoglycemia

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120 The Effect of Fish and Krill Oil on Warfarin Control

Authors: Rebecca Pryce, Nijole Bernaitis, Andrew K. Davey, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie

Abstract:

Background: Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant widely used in the prevention of strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Regular monitoring of Internationalised Normalised Ratio (INR) is required to ensure therapeutic benefit with time in therapeutic range (TTR) used to measure warfarin control. A number of factors influence TTR including diet, concurrent illness, and drug interactions. Extensive literature exists regarding the effect of conventional medicines on warfarin control, but documented interactions relating to complementary medicines are limited. It has been postulated that fish oil and krill oil supplementation may affect warfarin due to their association with bleeding events. However, to date little is known as to whether fish and krill oil significantly alter the incidence of bleeding with warfarin or impact on warfarin control. Aim:To assess the influence of fish oil and krill oil supplementation on warfarin control in AF and DVT patients by determining the influence of these supplements on TTR and bleeding events. Methods:A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted utilising patient information from a large private pathology practice in Queensland. AF and DVT patients receiving warfarin management by the pathology practice were identified and their TTR calculated using the Rosendaal method. Concurrent medications were analysed and patients taking no other interacting medicines were identified and divided according to users of fish oil and krill oil supplements and those taking no supplements. Study variables included TTR and the incidence of bleeding with exclusion criteria being less than 30 days of treatment with warfarin. Subject characteristics were reported as the mean and standard deviation for continuous data and number and percentages for nominal or categorical data. Data was analysed using GraphPad InStat Version 3 with a p value of <0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Results:Of the 2081 patients assessed for inclusion into this study, a total of 573 warfarin users met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 416 (72.6%) patients were AF patients and 157 (27.4%) DVT patients and overall there were 316 (55.1%) male and 257 (44.9%) female patients. 145 patients were included in the fish oil/krill oil group (supplement) and 428 were included in the control group. The mean TTR of supplement users was 86.9% and for the control group 84.7% with no significant difference between these groups. Control patients experienced 1.6 times the number of minor bleeds per person compared to supplement patients and 1.2 times the number of major bleeds per person. However, this was not statistically significant nor was the comparison between thrombotic events. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between supplement and control patients in terms of mean TTR, the number of bleeds and thrombotic events. Fish oil and krill oil supplements when used concurrently with warfarin do not significantly affect warfarin control as measured by TTR and bleeding incidence.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, deep vein thormbosis, fish oil, krill oil, warfarin

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119 Effect of Tapioca Starch on Fresh Properties Concrete

Authors: C. Samita, W. Chalermchai

Abstract:

This project is aimed to be a preliminary study of using Tapioca Starch as a viscosity modifying agent (VMA) in concrete work. Tapioca starch effects on the viscosity of concrete, which could be investigated from the workability of corresponding mortar. Cement only mortars with water to cement ratio (w/c) 0.25 to 0.48, superplasticizer dosage of 1% to 2.5%, starch concentration of 0%, 0.25% and 0.5%, was tested for workability. Mortar mixes that have equivalent workability (flow diameter of 250 mm, and funnel flow time of 5 seconds) for each starch concentration were identified and checked for concrete properties. Concrete were tested for initial workability, workability loss, bleeding, setting times, and compressive strength. The results showed that all concrete mixes provide same initial workability, however the mix with higher starch concentration provides slower loss. Bleeding occurs when concrete has w/c more than 0.45. For setting times, mixing with higher starch concentration provide longer setting times (around 4 hours in this experiment). Compressive strength of starch concretes which always have higher w/c, are lower than that of cement only concrete as in this experiment initial workability were controlled to be same.

Keywords: viscosity modifying agent(VMA), self-leveling concrete, self-compacting concrete(SCC), low-binder SCC

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118 Successful Excision of Lower Lip Mucocele Using 2780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG Laser

Authors: Lubna M. Al-Otaibi

Abstract:

Mucocele is a common benign neoplasm of the oral cavity and the most common after fibroma. The lesion develops as a result of retention or extravasation of mucous material from minor salivary glands. Extravasation type of mucocele results from trauma and mostly occurs in the lower lip of young patients. The various treatment options available for the treatment of mucocele are associated with a relatively high incidence of recurrence making surgical intervention necessary for a permanent cure. The conventional surgical procedure, however, arouses apprehension in the patient and is associated with bleeding and postoperative pain. Recently, treatment of mucocele with lasers has become a viable treatment option. Various types of lasers are being used and are preferable over the conventional surgical procedure as they provide good hemostasis, reduced postoperative swelling and pain, reduced bacterial population, lesser need for suturing, faster healing and low recurrence rates. Er,Cr:YSGG is a solid-state laser with great affinity to water molecule. Its hydrokinetic cutting action allows it to work effectively on hydrated tissues without any thermal damage. However, up to date, only a few studies have reported its use in the removal of lip mucocele, especially in children. In this case, a 6 year old female patient with history of trauma to the lower lip presented with a soft, sessile, whitish-bluish 4 mm papule. The lesion was present for approximately four months and was fluctuant in size. The child developed a habit of biting the lesion causing injury, bleeding and discomfort. Surgical excision under local anaesthesia was performed using 2780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG Laser (WaterLase iPlus, Irvine, CA) with a Gold handpiece and MZ6 tip (3.5w, 50 Hz, 20% H2O, 20% Air, S mode). The tip was first applied in contact mode with focused beam using the Circumferential Incision Technique (CIT) to excise the tissue followed by the removal of the underlying causative minor salivary gland. Bleeding was stopped using Laser Dry Bandage setting (0.5w, 50 Hz, 1% H2O, 20% Air, S mode) and no suturing was needed. Safety goggles were worn and high-speed suction was used for smoke evacuation. Mucocele excision using 2780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG laser was rapid, easy to perform with excellent precision and allowed for histopathological examination of the excised tissue. The patient was comfortable and there were minimum bleeding and no sutures, postoperative pain, scarring or recurrence. Laser assisted mucocele excision appears to have efficient and reliable benefits in young patients and should be considered as an alternative to conventional surgical and non-surgical techniques.

Keywords: Erbium, excision, laser, lip, mucocele

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117 Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Haemophilia: A Patient with High Titre of Inhibitor Using Recombinant Factor VIIa

Authors: Mohammad J. Mortazavi, Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri

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Hemophilia A is simply described as deficiency of factor VIII(FVIII) and patients with this disorder have bleeding complications in different organs. By using the recombinant factor VIII in these patients, elective orthopedic surgeries have been done approximately in 40 last years. About 10-30 % of these patients have bleeding complications in their surgeries even by using recombinant factor VIII because of their inhibitor against FVIII molecule. Preoperative haemostatic management in these patients is challenging. We treated a 28-year-old male patient with hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitor which had been detected when he was14 years old (with the titer 54 Bethesda unit(BU)) scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We use 90 µg/kg rFVIIa just before the surgery and every 2 hours during surgery. The patient did not have any significant hemorrhage during the surgery and after that. For the 2 days after surgery, the rFVIIa repeated every 2 hours as the same as preoperative dosage(90 µg/kg) and for another 2 days of postoperative admission it continued every 4 hours. After 4th day, the rFVIIa continued every 6 hours with the same dosage until the sixth day from the surgery, and finally the patient were discharged about two weeks after surgery. Seven days after the discharge, he came back for the follow up visit. On the follow up examination, the site of the surgery had neither infection hemarthroses signs.

Keywords: hemophilia, factor VIII inhibitor, total knee replacement, rFVIIa

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116 Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Lupus Nephritis

Authors: Lorena GóMez Escorcia, Gustavo Aroca MartíNez, Jose Luiz Villarreal, Elkin Navarro Quiroz

Abstract:

Lupus nephritis (LN) is a high-cost disease, occurring in about half of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Renal biopsy constitutes the only protocol that, to date, allows a correct diagnosis of the level of renal involvement in these patients. However, this procedure can have various adverse effects such as kidney bleeding, muscle bleeding, infection, pain, among others. Therefore, the development of new diagnostic alternatives is required. The neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been emerging as a novel biomarker of acute kidney injury. The aim of this study was to assess urinary NGAL levels as a marker for disease activity in patients with lupus nephritis. For this work included 50 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, 50 with active lupus nephritis (LN), and 50 without autoimmune and renal disease as controls. TNGAL in urine samples was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results revealed that patients with kidney damage had an elevated urinary NGAL as compared to patients with lupus without kidney damage and controls (p <0.005), and the mean of uNGAL was (28.72 ± 4.53), (19.51 ± 4.72), (8.91 ± 3.37) respectively. Measurement of urinary NGAL levels showed a very good diagnostic performance for discriminating patients with Lupus nephritis from SLE without renal damage and of control individuals.

Keywords: lupus nephritis, biomarker, NGAL, urine samples

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115 Evaluation of Natural Gums: Gum Tragacanth, Xanthan Gum, Guar Gum and Gum Acacia as Potential Hemostatic Agents

Authors: Himanshu Kushwah, Nidhi Sandal, Meenakshi K. Chauhan, Gaurav Mittal

Abstract:

Excessive bleeding is the primary factor of avoidable death in both civilian trauma centers as well as the military battlefield. Hundreds of Indian troops die every year due to blood loss caused by combat-related injuries. These deaths are avoidable and can be prevented to a large extent by making available a suitable hemostatic dressing in an emergency medical kit. In this study, natural gums were evaluated as potential hemostatic agents in combination with calcium gluconate. The study compares the hemostatic activity of Gum Tragacanth (GT), Guar Gum (GG), Xanthan Gum (XG) and Gum Acacia (GA) by carrying out different in-vitro and in-vivo studies. In-vitro studies were performed using the Lee-White method and Eustrek method, which includes the visual and microscopic analysis of blood clotting. MTT assay was also performed using human lymphocytes to check the cytotoxicity of the gums. The in-vivo studies were performed in Sprague Dawley rats using tail bleeding assay to evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of the gums and compared with a commercially available hemostatic sponge, Surgispon. Erythrocyte agglutination test was also performed to check the interaction between blood cells and the natural gums. Other parameters like blood loss, adherence strength of the developed hemostatic dressing material incorporating these gums, re-bleeding, and survival of the animals were also studied. The data obtained from the MTT assay showed that Guar gum, Gum Tragacanth, and Gum Acacia were not significantly cytotoxic, but substantial cytotoxicity was observed in Xanthan gum samples at high concentrations. Also, Xanthan gum took the least time with its minimum concentration to achieve hemostasis, (approximately 50 seconds at 3mg concentration). Gum Tragacanth also showed efficient hemostasis at a concentration of 35mg at the same time, but the other two gums tested were not able to clot the blood in significantly less time. A sponge dressing made of Tragacanth gum was found to be more efficient in achieving hemostasis and showed better practical applicability among all the gums studied and also when compared to the commercially available product, Surgispon, thus making it a potentially better alternative.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, hemostasis, natural gums, sponge

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114 New Thromboprophylaxis Regime for Knee Arthroplasties

Authors: H. Noureddine, P. Rao, R. Guru, A. Chandratreya

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The nice guidance for elective total knee replacements states that patients should be given mechanical thrombo-prophylaxis, and if no contraindications chemical thromboprophylaxis in the form of Dabigatran etexilate, Rivaroxiban, UFH, LMWH, or Fondaparinux sodium (CG92, 1.5.14, January 2010). In Practice administering oral agents has been the dominant practice as it reduces the nursing needs, and shortens hospital stay and is generally received better by patients. However, there are well documented associated bleeding risks, and their effects are difficult to reverse in case of major bleeding. Our experience with oral factor 10 inhibitors used for thromboprophylaxis was marked with several patients developing complications necessitating return to the theatre for wound washouts. This has led us to try a different protocol for thromboprophylaxis that we applied on our patients undergoing total and unicondylar knee replacements. We applied mechanical thromboprophylaxis in the form of intermittent pneumatic pressure devices, and chemical thromboprophylaxis in the form of a dose of prophylactic LMWH pre-op, then 150 mg of Aspirin to start 24 hours after the surgery and to continue for 6 weeks, alongside GI cover with PPIs or antihistamines. We also administered local anaesthetics intra-operatively in line with the ERAS protocol thus encouraging early mobilization. We have identified a cohort of 133 patients who underwent one of the aforementioned procedures in the same trust, and by the same surgeon, where this protocol was applied and examined their medical notes retrospectively with a mean follow-up period of 14 months, to identify the rate and percentage of patients who had thrombo-embolic events in the post-operative period.

Keywords: aspirin, heparin, knee arthroplasty, thromboprophylaxis

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113 Platelet Indices among the Cases of Vivax Malaria

Authors: Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Mubashra Ahmad, Ramlah Mehmood, Nazia Mahboob, Waqar Nasir

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Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and study changes in MPV and PDW among cases of vivax malaria. Design: Descriptive analytic study. Place and duration of study: Department of pediatrics, Fazle Omar Hospital, from January to December 2012. Methodology: All patients from birth to 16 years age, who presented in Fazle- Omar hospital, Rabwah from January to December 2012 were included in this study. Hundred patients with other febrile illnesses were taken as control. Full blood counts were checked by Madonic CA 620 analyzer. Name, age, sex, weight, platelet counts. MPV, PDW, any evidence of bleeding, outcome of cases included in this study and taken as control were recorded on data sheets. Results: One hundred and forty-two patients were included in this study. There was no incidence of death or active bleeding. Median platelet count was 109000/mm3. Thrombocytopenia was present in 108 (76.1%) patients. Severe thrombocytopenia was present in 10(7%) patients. Minimum count was 27000/mm3 and maximum was 341000/mm3. Platelet counts of control group was significantly more as compared with study group.(p<.001) Median MPV was 8.70. Minimum value was 6.40 and maximum was 11.90. MPV of study group was significantly more than control group.(p<.001) Median PDW was 11.30. Minimum value was 8.5 and maximum was 16.70. There was no difference between PDW of study and control groups (p=0.246). Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia is a common complication among pediatric cases of vivax malaria. MPV of cases of vivax malaria is higher than control group.

Keywords: malaria vivax, platelet, mean platelet volume, thrombocytopenia

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112 Propranalol is Not Effective in Preventing the Progression to Severe Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Cirrhotic Patients who Had Undergone Variceal Eradication: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Jeffey George, Varghese Thomas

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Background and Objectives: PHG is an important source of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. Aim: To assess the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy(PHG) in patients with cirrhosis who were treated with maximum tolerated dose of propranalol, after variceal eradication to grade II or below. Methods: Cirrhotic patients(child A and B) presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with endoscopic findings of mild or no PHG were followed up over 6 months after variceal eradication to assess the progression to severe PHG. Included patients were randomised to either maximum tolerated doses of propranalol (group A) or to no treatment (group B). Primary end point of the study were the development of gastrointestinal bleed, evidence of hepatic decompensation and death. Progression to severe PHG were compared between the two groups. Results: 56 patients (49 males) were enrolled (group A = 28, group B = 28). 8 patients were excluded from final analysis (gi bleed=5, encephalopathy=2,HCC=1 including 4 deaths).3 patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 developed intolerance to propranalol. Mean dose of propranalol used was 60 mg per day. Progression to severe PHG in the fundus over 6 months was 23.8% in group A versus 15.8 % in group B (p = 0.52). Severe PHG was noted in body in 14.3% in group A versus 21.1% in group B (p = 0.57). 23.8 % in group A had progression to severe PHG compared with 15.8 % in group B (p =0.52). There was no statistically significant difference in the progression of PHG between the two groups(p=0.43). Conclusion: In this short term study propranalol was found not to prevent the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy in cirrhotic patients who had undergone endotherapy for esophageal varices.

Keywords: propranalol, portal hypertensive gastropathy, cirrhotic patients, gastroenterology

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111 A Rare Case of Myometrial Ectopic

Authors: Madeleine Cox

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Objective: Discussion of diagnosis and management options for myometrial ectopic pregnancy Case: A 30 yo G1P0 presented to the emergency department with vaginal bleeding for the last 4 days. She had a positive home urine pregnancy test, confirmed with a serum HCG. When she presented for an ultrasound, there was no intrauterine pregnancy, no evidence of adnexal pregnancy, however, the anterior myometrium of the uterus was noted to be markedly abnormal. When she presented to the emergency department of a busy tertiary hospital in Queensland, she had a small amount of vaginal bleeding, was anxious but well, observations normal. Repeat blood testes demonstrated a serum HCG of 9246 IU/L, haemoglobin of 143g/L. The patient had an interesting history of a right oophorectomy and open myomectomy in another country. A repeat ultrasound again showed an abnormality within the myometrium of the uterus, which was initially reported as concerning for an AVM, or potentially invasive gestational trophoblastic disease. An MRI was organised 2 days later, which demonstrated a intramural/subserosal irregularity in the right lateral body measuring 35x38x42mm with peripheral enhancement and central cystic components, favouring a myometrial ectopic most likely at the site of previous myomectomy. Alternative diagnosis of AVM, GTD were considered less likely. After discussion with the patient, IV methotrexate was administered as an in patient 4 days after her initial presentation to emergency. After this, her HCG fell to 1236 IU/L on day 6 post treatment. Weekly reviews showed stable ultrasound appearances with a steadily dropping HCG level. A repeat MRI was performed 3 weeks after methotrexate administration which confirmed involution of the myometrial ectopic, however, showed ongoing progression of vascularity surrounding the site. Despite resolution of HCG, the patient persisted to have ongoing bleeding associated with this and went to have uterine artery embolisation. Follow up ultrasound showed resolution of abnormal vascularity and negative HCG levels. Conclusion: Myometrial ectopic pregnancies are a rare occurrence and require a multidisciplinary approach to achieve timely management for these patients. This patient was in a very well resourced setting with excellent access to Interventional Radiology and specialist Radiologists who could work together with the Obstetrics, Gynaecology, and Maternal Fetal Medicine team to provide multiple options of management which preserved her fertility. This case has a very good outcome, with the patient being referred back to our service 12 months later with an early intrauterine pregnancy.

Keywords: ectopic, pregnancy, miscarriage, gynaecology

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