Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3350

Search results for: second language classroom

3350 English Language Acquisition and Flipped Classroom

Authors: Yuqing Sun

Abstract:

Nowadays, English has been taught in many countries as a second language. One of the major ways to learn this language is through the class teaching. As in the field of second language acquisition, there are many factors to affect its acquisition processes, such as the target language itself, a learner’s personality, cognitive factor, language transfer, and the outward factors (teaching method, classroom, environmental factor, teaching policy, social environment and so on). Flipped Classroom as a newly developed classroom model has been widely used in language teaching classroom, which was, to some extent, accepted by teachers and students for its effect. It distinguishes itself from the traditional classroom for its focus on the learner and its great importance attaching to the personal learning process and the application of technology. The class becomes discussion-targeted, and the class order is somewhat inverted since the teaching process is carried out outside the class, while the class is only for knowledge-internalization. This paper will concentrate on the influences of the flipped classroom, as a classroom affecting factor, on the the process of English acquisition by the way of case studies (English teaching class in China), and the analysis of the mechanism of the flipped classroom itself to propose some feasible advice of promoting the the effectiveness of English acquisition.

Keywords: second language acquisition, English, flipped classroom, case

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3349 Efficacy of Task Based Language Teaching in a Second Language Classroom Context

Authors: Wajiha Fatima

Abstract:

Various approaches and methods for second language classroom teaching have been proposed since the nineteenth century. Task Based Language Teaching has been prevailing approach in a second language classroom context. It is an approach which immerses students in a naturalistic setting. Tasks are the core unit of planning and instruction. This paper aims at expounding the concept of Task Based Language Teaching and how it has been evolved. In this study, researcher will highlight the usefulness of TBLT and the role it played as a powerful tool for learning and teaching in a second language setting. The article will reflect the implementation of various tasks based activities as well as the roles played by learners and teachers and the problems faced by them. In the end, researcher will discuss how TBLT can be implemented in second language classroom pedagogy.

Keywords: implementation, second language classroom, tasks, task based language teaching

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3348 Classroom Discourse and English Language Teaching: Issues, Importance, and Implications

Authors: Rabi Abdullahi Danjuma, Fatima Binta Attahir

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Classroom discourse is important, and it is worth examining what the phenomena is and how it helps both the teacher and students in a classroom situation. This paper looks at the classroom as a traditional social setting which has its own norms and values. The paper also explains what discourse is, as extended communication in speech or writing often interactively dealing with some particular topics. It also discusses classroom discourse as the language which teachers and students use to communicate with each other in a classroom situation. The paper also looks at some strategies for effective classroom discourse. Finally, implications and recommendations were drawn.

Keywords: classroom, discourse, learning, student, strategies, communication

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3347 The Effect of Classroom Atmospherics on Second Language Learning

Authors: Sresha Yadav, Ishwar Kumar

Abstract:

Second language learning is an important area of research in the language and linguistic domains. Literature suggests that several factors impact second language learning, including age, motivation, objectives, teacher, instructional material, classroom interaction, intelligence and previous background, previous linguistic experience, other student characteristics. Previous researchers have also highlighted that classroom atmospherics has a significant impact on learning as well as on the performance of students. However, the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning is still not known in the existing literature. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to explore whether classroom atmospherics has an impact on second language learning or not? And if it does, it would be worthwhile to explore the nature of such relationship. The present study aims to explore the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning by dwelling into the existing literature to explore factors which impact second language learning, classroom atmospherics which impact language learning and the metrics through which such learning impacts could be measured. Based on the findings of literature review, the researchers have adopted a clustering approach for categorization and positioning of various measures of second language learning. Based on the clustering approach, the researchers have approach for measuring the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning by drawing a student sample consisting of 80 respondents. The results of the study uncover various basic premises of second language learning, especially with regard to classroom atmospherics. The present study is important not only from the point of view of language learning but implications could be drawn with regard to the design of classroom atmospherics, environmental psychology, anthropometrics, etc as well.

Keywords: classroom atmospherics, cluster analysis, linguistics, second language learning

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3346 English Classroom for SLA of Students and SME Entrepreneurs in Thailand

Authors: S. Yordchim, G. Anugkakul, T. Gibbs

Abstract:

The English competence of Thai people was examined in the context of knowledge of English in everyday life for SME entrepreneurs, and also integrated with SLA students’ classroom. Second language acquisition was applied to the results of the questionnaires and interview forms. Levels of the need on English used for SME entrepreneurs in Thailand, satisfaction on joining the street classroom project were shown to be significantly high for some certain language functions and satisfaction. Finding suggests that the language functions on etiquette for professional use is essential and useful because lesson learned can be used in the real situation for their career. Implications for the climate of the street classroom are discussed.

Keywords: English classroom, SME entrepreneurs, second language acquisition, Thai students

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3345 Language Ideology and Classroom Discursive Practices in ESL Classrooms

Authors: Hema Vanita Kesevan

Abstract:

This study investigated the impact of teacher’s language ideology on their classroom discursive practice in ESL / EFL classrooms. It examines teachers’ perceptions of the use of local variety of Malaysian English in the classroom. The investigation shows that although teachers and students are against its use in the classroom, it is widely employed. The participants of this study consist of two Malaysian non-native English teachers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This study employs a comparative case study approach which focuses on the teachers and their classroom discourse practice. There are two modes of inquiry used in this study: classroom observation and semi-guided interviews. The findings are of interest to ESL / EFL teachers, policy makers and language researchers in the Malaysian and other similar ESL / EFL contexts.

Keywords: language ideology, Malaysian English, native teachers, non-native teachers

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3344 The Importance of Outside Classroom Activities in Developing Oral Fluency in an EFL Context

Authors: Maaly Jarrah

Abstract:

In a study abroad context, students have the advantage of immersing themselves in the environment of the target language and being exposed to it. However, in and a stay home context, where English is not the mother tongue, students’ exposure to the second language is often times restricted to the classroom. Although language teachers are keen to develop inside class room activities and practices that increase the suitability of students to acquire a second language (Cook & Singleton, 2014), many would agree that class time is too limited to enhance students’ oral fluency skills. Consequently, creating opportunities outside the classroom for students to speak English is an effective strategy in compensating for students’ limited use of the L2. In an argument by Ortega (2012) external classroom activities have equal significance in enabling students learn English as a second language. The author further asserts that the activities provide a non-educational environment from which a student may feel free and comfortable to acquire new language skills. This study investigates the significance of outside classroom activities in promoting students’ oral proficiency. In addition, it reports on students’ perceptions of such activities. 15 participants from the American University of Kuwait took part in this study. Open-ended interviews were done to find out what the participants thought of these activities, and what they gained from them. Interview results show that students found outside classroom activities very effective in improving not only their oral fluency skills, but their confidence and critical thinking skills as well. The implications of this research study are for language practitioners and language programs in the EFL context to be aware of the benefits of incorporating outside classroom activities in language teaching.

Keywords: language teaching, oral fluency, outside classroom activities

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3343 Classroom Management Whereas Teaching ESL to Saudi Students

Authors: Mohammad Akram

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to improve classroom management while teaching especially ESL/EFL. At the same time, it has been discussed about the standard of the students through some surveys held in Jazan University in the month of February and March, 2013. The present research is a classroom action-oriented study. The subject of the study is mainly the students whose first language is not English at all. The study is prepared in one cycle that has planning, action, and reaction as well. Teachers of English as a second language/foreign language generally face numerous of unexpected problems while dealing with their students. To make the classes practical, meaningful, and easy like fun for the students is really a cumbersome task. It's a very practical move towards classroom ESL/EFL teaching if we want to apply anything new, I mean new policies, tactics, recent/smart teaching methodologies, we must peep into the hole of past because it will give us the best solution for the present strategies. We need to academically study the past of our students to make their present fruitful. Here, author wants to present a few important problematic issues like classroom management in the area of ESL/EFL while teaching ESL students. Impact these are suggestions to combat drawbacks of 'Classroom Teaching'. “Classroom management is to put into practice and a process through teaching and learning process”.

Keywords: global, teachers, perceptions, classroom, management, integrated, segregated, comprehension, productive

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3342 Strategies for the Development of Cultural Intelligence in the Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Azucena Yearby

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This study examined if cultural intelligence can be developed through the study of a foreign language. Specifically, the study sought to determine if strategies such as the Arts/History, Vocabulary and Real or Simulated Experiences have an effect on the development of cultural intelligence in the foreign language classroom. Students enrolled in Spanish 1114 or level 1 Spanish courses at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) completed Linn Van Dyne’s 20-item questionnaire that measures Cultural Intelligence (CQ). Results from the study indicated a slight cultural intelligence increase in those students who received an intervention. Therefore, the study recommended that foreign language educators implement the considered strategies in the classroom in order to increase their students’ cultural intelligence.

Keywords: cultural competency, cultural intelligence, foreign language, language

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3341 The Impact of Language Anxiety on EFL Learners' Proficiency: Case Study of University of Jeddah

Authors: Saleh Mohammad Alqahtani

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Foreign language Anxiety has been found to be a key issue in learning English as foreign language in the classroom. This study investigated the impact of foreign language anxiety on Saudi EFL learners' proficiency in the classroom. A total of 197 respondents had participated in the study, comprising of 96 male and 101 female, who enrolled in preparatory year, first year, second year, and fourth year of English language department at the University of Jeddah. Two instruments were used to answer the study questions. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) was used to identify the levels of foreign language (FL) anxiety for Saudi learners. Moreover, an International English Language Testing System (IELTS) test was used as an objective measure of the learners’ English language proficiency. The data were analyzed using descriptive analyses, t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation, and regression analysis. The findings revealed that Saudi EFL learners' experience a level of anxiety in the classroom, and there is a significant differences between the course levels in their level of language anxiety. Moreover, it is also found that female students are less anxious in learning English as a foreign language than male students. The results show that foreign language anxiety and English proficiency are negatively related to each other. Furthermore, the study revealed that there were significant differences between Saudi learners in language use anxiety, while there were no significant differences in language class anxiety. The study suggested that teachers should employ a diversity of designed techniques to encourage the environment of the classroom in order to control learners’ FLA, which in turns will improve their EFL proficiency.

Keywords: foreign language anxiety, FLA, language use anxiety, language class anxiety, gender, L2 proficiency

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3340 Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety: An International Student's Perspective on Indonesian Language Learning

Authors: Ukhtie Nantika Mena, Ahmad Juntika Nurihsan, Ilfiandra

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This study aims to explore perspective on Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) of an international student. Descriptive narrative is used to discover written and spoken responses from the student. An online survey was employed as a secondary data to identify the level of FLCA among six UPI international students. A student with the highest score volunteered to be interviewed. Several symptoms were found; lack of concentration, excessive worry, fear, unwanted thoughts, and sweating. The results showed that difficulties to understand lecturers' correction, presentation, and fear of getting left behind are three major causes of his anxiety.

Keywords: foreign language classroom anxiety, FLCA, international students, language anxiety

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3339 Teaching English Language through Religious English Literature

Authors: Smriti Mary Gupta

Abstract:

This article intends to show how literature may be used in language classes to develop student’s knowledge of English. First, we examine the evolution of literature in the language classroom, then we give account of some reasons that justify its use in language classes, of the role of reading in language development, and of the way poetry is treated in the ESL classroom. This paper aims to emphasize the use of literature as a popular tool to teach language skills (i.e. reading, writing, listening and speaking), language areas (i.e. vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation) as well as moral teachings, which is the necessity in present time. Reason for using religious literary texts in foreign language classroom and main criteria for selecting suitable religious literary texts in foreign language classes are stressed so as to make the reader familiar with the underlying reasons and criteria for language teachers, using and selecting religious literary texts. Moreover, religious literature and teaching of language skills, benefits the different genres of religious literature (i.e. poetry, fiction and drama), and also gaining knowledge of a particular religion through language teaching but some problems had been observed by language teachers within the area of English through religious literature (i.e. lack of preparation in the area of literature teaching in TESL/TEFL programs, absence of clarity in objectives defining the role of literature in ESL/EFL), language teachers not having the background, training and appropriate knowledge in religious literature, lack of pedagogically-designed teaching material that can be used by language teachers in a classroom.

Keywords: religious literature, teaching literature, teaching of language skills, foreign language teaching, literary competence

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3338 The Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Tolerance of Ambiguity on EFL Learners’ Listening Proficiency

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Mahmoodi, Azam Ghonchepoor, Sheilan Sohrabi

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of foreign language classroom anxiety and ambiguity tolerance on EFL Learners’ listening proficiency. In so doing, 442 EFL learners were randomly selected form Azad University and some accredited language institutions in Hamaden, and were given the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (1983), and Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (SLTAS) (1995). Participants’ listening proficiency level was determined through listening scores gained in standardized exams given by university professors or institutes in which they studied English. The results of two-way ANOVA revealed that listening proficiency was significantly affected by the interaction of anxiety and AT level of the participants. Each of the two variables were categorized in three levels of High, Mid, and Low. The highest mean score of listening belonged to the group with low degree of anxiety and high degree of ambiguity tolerance, and the lowest listening mean score was gained by the group with high level of anxiety and low level of tolerance of ambiguity. Also, the findings of multiple regressions confirmed that anxiety was the stronger predictor of listening comprehension in contrast with tolerance of ambiguity. Furthermore, the result of Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant negative relationship between the participants’ foreign language classroom anxiety and their ambiguity tolerance level.

Keywords: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety, Second language tolerance of ambiguity, Listening proficiency

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3337 Anxiety Caused by the Single Mode of Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms: The Case of African Language Learners

Authors: Stanle Madonsela

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For learning to take place effectively, learners have to use language. Language becomes a critical tool by which to communicate, to express feelings, desires and thoughts, and most of all to learn. However, each individual’s capacity to use language is unique. In multilingual countries, classrooms usually comprise learners from different language backgrounds, and therefore the language used for teaching and learning requires rethinking. Interaction in the classroom, if done in a language that is understood by the learners, could maximise the outcomes of learning. This paper explores the extent to which the use of a single code becomes a source of anxiety to learners in multilingual classrooms in South African schools. It contends that a multilingual approach in the learning process should be explored in order to promote learner autonomy in the learning process.

Keywords: anxiety, classroom, foreign language teaching, multilingual

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3336 A Study of Flipped Classroom’s Influence on Classroom Environment of College English Reading, Writing and Translating

Authors: Xian Xie, Qinghua Fang

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This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the characteristics of flipped classroom’s influence on classroom environment of college English reading, writing, and translating, and to summarize and reflect on the teaching characteristics of college English Reading, writing, and translating. The results of the study indicated that after the flipped classroom applied to reading, writing, and translating, students’ performance was improved to a certain extent, the classroom environment was improved to some extent, students of the flipped classroom are generally satisfied with the classroom environment; students showed a certain degree of individual differences to the degree of cooperation, participation, self-responsibility, task-orientation, and the teacher leadership and innovation. The study indicated that the implementation of flipped classroom teaching mode can optimize College English reading, writing, and translating classroom environment and realize target-learner as the center in foreign language teaching and learning, but bring a greater challenge to teachers.

Keywords: classroom environment, college English reading, writing and translating, individual differences, flipped classroom

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3335 Localising the Alien: Language, Literature and Theory in the Indian Classroom

Authors: Asima Ranjan Parhi

Abstract:

English language teaching-learning in higher education departments in Indian and Asian contexts needs to be one of innovation and experimentation rather than rigid prescription. The communicative language teaching has been proposing the context to be of primary importance in this process. Today, English print and electronic media have flooded the market with plenty of material suitable to the classroom context. The entries are poetic, catchy and contain a deliberate method in them which could be utilized to teach not only English language but literature, literary terms and the theory of literature. The Bollywood movies, especially through their songs have been propagating a package which may be useful to teach language and even theory in the sub-continent. While investigating, one may be fascinated to see how such material in the body of media (print and electronic), movies and popular songs generate a data for our classroom in our context, thereby developing a mass language with huge pedagogical implications. Harping on the four skills of teaching and learning of a language in general and English language in particular appears stale and mechanical in a decontextualised, matter of fact classroom. So this discussion visualizes a model beyond these skills as well as the conventional theory, literature, language classroom practices in order to build up a systematic pattern stressing the factors responsible in the particular context, that of specific language, society and culture in tune with language-literature teaching. This study intends to examine certain catchy use of the language entries in mass media which could be in the direction of inviting more such investigations in the Asian context in order to develop a common platform of decolonized pedagogy.

Keywords: pedagogy, electronic media, Bollywood, decolonized, mass media

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3334 The Output Fallacy: An Investigation into Input, Noticing, and Learners’ Mechanisms

Authors: Samantha Rix

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The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the cognitive processing of learners who receive input but produce very little or no output, and who, when they do produce output, exhibit a similar language proficiency as do those learners who produced output more regularly in the language classroom. Previous studies have investigated the benefits of output (with somewhat differing results); therefore, the presentation will begin with an investigation of what may underlie gains in proficiency without output. Consequently, a pilot study was designed and conducted to gain insight into the cognitive processing of low-output language learners looking, for example, at quantity and quality of noticing. This will be carried out within the paradigm of action classroom research, observing and interviewing low-output language learners in an intensive English program at a small Midwest university. The results of the pilot study indicated that autonomy in language learning, specifically utilizing strategies such self-monitoring, self-talk, and thinking 'out-loud', were crucial in the development of language proficiency for academic-level performance. The presentation concludes with an examination of pedagogical implication for classroom use in order to aide students in their language development.

Keywords: cognitive processing, language learners, language proficiency, learning strategies

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3333 Teaching Gender and Language in the EFL Classroom in the Arab World: Algerian Students’ Awareness of Their Gender Identities from New Perspectives

Authors: Amina Babou

Abstract:

Gender and language is a moot and miscellaneous arena in the sphere of sociolinguistics, which has been proliferated so widely and rapidly in recent years. The dawn of research on gender and foreign language education was against the feminist researchers who allowed space for the bustling concourse of voices and perspectives in the arena of gender and language differences, in the early to the mid-1970. The objective of this scrutiny is to explore to what extent teaching gender and language in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom plays a pivotal role in learning language information and skills. And the gist of this paper is to investigate how EFL students in Algeria conflate their gender identities with the linguistic practices and scholastic expertise. To grapple with the full range of issues about the EFL students’ awareness about the negotiation of meanings in the classroom, we opt for observing, interviewing, and questioning later to check using ‘how-do-you do’ procedure. The analysis of the EFL classroom discourse, from five Algerian universities, reveals that speaking strategies such as the manners students make an abrupt topic shifts, respond spontaneously to the teacher, ask more questions, interrupt others to seize control of conversations and monopolize the speaking floor through denying what others have said, do not sit very lightly on 80.4% of female students’ shoulders. The data indicate that female students display the assertive style as a strategy of learning to subvert the norms of femininity, especially in the speaking module.

Keywords: gender identities, EFL students, classroom discourse, linguistics

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3332 The Relationship between Anxiety and Willingness to Communicate: The Indonesian EFL Context

Authors: Yana Shanti Manipuspika

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Anxiety has potential to negatively affect foreign language learning process. This feeling leads the learners hesitate to communicate. This present study aimed at investigating the relationship between students’ anxiety and willingness to communicate of Indonesian EFL learners. There were 67 participants in this study who were the English Department students of Vocational Program of University of Brawijaya, Malang. This study employed Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) and the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) scale. The results of this study showed that the respondents had communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation. This study also revealed that English Department students of Vocational Program University of Brawijaya had high level of anxiety and low level of willingness to communicate. The relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety and willingness to communicate was found to be sufficiently negative. It is suggested for the language teachers to identify the causes of students’ language anxiety and try to create cheerful and less stressful atmosphere in the classroom. It is also important to find a way to develop their teaching strategies to stimulate students’ willingness to communicate.

Keywords: English as a foreign language (EFL), foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), vocational program, willingness to communicate (WTC)

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3331 ‘Daily Speaking’: Designing an App for Construction of Language Learning Model Supporting ‘Seamless Flipped’ Environment

Authors: Zhou Hong, Gu Xiao-Qing, Lıu Hong-Jiao, Leng Jing

Abstract:

Seamless learning is becoming a research hotspot in recent years, and the emerging of micro-lectures, flipped classroom has strengthened the development of seamless learning. Based on the characteristics of the seamless learning across time and space and the course structure of the flipped classroom, and the theories of language learning, we put forward the language learning model which can support ‘seamless flipped’ environment (abbreviated as ‘S-F’). Meanwhile, the characteristics of the ‘S-F’ learning environment, the corresponding framework construction and the activity design of diversified corpora were introduced. Moreover, a language learning app named ‘Daily Speaking’ was developed to facilitate the practice of the language learning model in ‘S-F’ environment. In virtue of the learning case of Shanghai language, the rationality and feasibility of this framework were examined, expecting to provide a reference for the design of ‘S-F’ learning in different situations.

Keywords: seamless learning, flipped classroom, seamless-flipped environment, language learning model

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3330 The Quantity and Quality of Teacher Talking Time in EFL Classroom

Authors: Hanan Abufares Elkhimry

Abstract:

Looking for more effective teaching and learning approaches, teaching instructors have been telling trainee teachers to decrease their talking time, but the problem is how best to do this. Doing classroom research, specifically in the area of teacher talking time (TTT), is worthwhile, as it could improve the quality of teaching languages, as the learners are the ones who should be practicing and using the language. This work hopes to ascertain if teachers consider this need in a way that provides the students with the opportunities to increase their production of language. This is a question that is worthwhile answering. As many researchers have found, TTT should be decreased to 30% of classroom talking time and STT should be increased up to 70%. Other researchers agree with this, but add that it should be with awareness of the quality of teacher talking time. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the balance between quantity and quality of teacher talking time in the EFL classroom. For this piece of research and in order to capture the amount of talking in a four classrooms. The amount of talking time was measured. A Checklist was used to assess the quality of the talking time In conclusion, In order to improve the quality of TTT, the results showed that teachers may use more or less than 30% of the classroom talking time and still produce a successful classroom learning experience. As well as, the important factors that can affect TTT is the English level of the students. This was clear in the classroom observations, where the highest TTT recorded was with the lowest English level group.

Keywords: teacher talking time TTT, learning experience, classroom research, effective teaching

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3329 The Use of Authentic Materials in the Chinese Language Classroom

Authors: Yiwen Jin, Jing Xiao, Pinfang Su

Abstract:

The idea of adapting authentic materials in language teaching is from the communicative method in the 1970s. Different from the language in language textbooks, authentic materials is not deliberately written, it is from the native speaker’s real life and contains real information, which can meet social needs. It could improve learners ' interest, create authentic context and improve learners ' communicative competence. Authentic materials play an important role in CFL(Chinese as a foreign language) classroom. Different types of authentic materials can be used in different ways during learning and teaching. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic,a lot of Chinese learners are learning Chinese without the real language environment. Although there are some well-written textbooks, there is a certain distance between textbook language materials and daily life. Learners cannot automatically fill this gap. That is why it is necessary to apply authentic materials as a supplement to the language textbook to create the real context. Chinese teachers around the world are working together, trying to integrate the resources and apply authentic materials through different approach. They apply authentic materials in the form of new textbooks, manuals, apps and short videos they collect and create to help Chinese learning and teaching. A review of previous research on authentic materials and the Chinese teachers’ attempt to adapt it in the classroom are offered in this manuscript.

Keywords: authentic materials, Chinese as a second language, developmental use of digital resources, materials development for language teaching

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3328 Investigating the Use of English Arabic Codeswitching in EFL classroom Oral Discourse Case study: Middle school pupils of Ain Fekroun, Wilaya of Oum El Bouaghi Algeria

Authors: Fadila Hadjeris

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The study aims at investigating the functions of English-Arabic code switching in English as a foreign language classroom oral discourse and the extent to which they can contribute to the flow of classroom interaction. It also seeks to understand the views, beliefs, and perceptions of teachers and learners towards this practice. We hypothesized that code switching is a communicative strategy which facilitates classroom interaction. Due to this fact, both teachers and learners support its use. The study draws on a key body of literature in bilingualism, second language acquisition, and classroom discourse in an attempt to provide a framework for considering the research questions. It employs a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods which include classroom observations and questionnaires. The analysis of the recordings shows that teachers’ code switching to Arabic is not only used for academic and classroom management reasons. Rather, the data display instances in which code switching is used for social reasons. The analysis of the questionnaires indicates that teachers and pupils have different attitudes towards this phenomenon. Teachers reported their deliberate switching during EFL teaching, yet the majority was against this practice. According to them, the use of the mother has detrimental effects on the acquisition and the practice of the target language. In contrast, pupils showed their preference to their teachers’ code switching because it enhances and facilitates their understanding. These findings support the fact that the shift to pupils’ mother tongue is a strategy which aids and facilitates the teaching and the learning of the target language. This, in turn, necessitates recommendations which are suggested to teachers and course designers.

Keywords: bilingualism, codeswitching, classroom interaction, classroom discourse, EFL learning/ teaching, SLA

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3327 Adult Learners’ Code-Switching in the EFL Classroom: An Analysis of Frequency and Type of Code-Switching

Authors: Elizabeth Patricia Beck

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Stepping into various English as foreign language classrooms, one will see some fundamental similarities. There will likely be groups of students working collaboratively, possibly sitting at tables together. They will be using a set coursebook or photocopies of materials developed by publishers or the teacher. The teacher will be carefully monitoring students’ behaviour and progress. The teacher will also likely be insisting that the students only speak English together, possibly having implemented a complex penalty and award systems to encourage this. This is communicative language teaching and it is commonly how foreign languages are taught around the world. Recently, there has been much interest in the codeswitching behaviour of learners in foreign or second language classrooms. It is a significant topic as it relates to second language acquisition theory, language teaching training and policy, and student expectations and classroom practice. Generally in an English as a foreign language context, an ‘English Only’ policy is the norm. This is based on historical factors, socio-political influence and theories surrounding language learning. The trend, however, is shifting and, based on these same factors, a re-examination of language use in the foreign language classroom is taking place. This paper reports the findings of an examination into the codeswitching behaviour of learners with a shared native language in an English classroom. Specifically, it addresses the question of classroom code-switching by adult learners in the EFL classroom during student-to-student, spoken interaction. Three generic categories of code switching are proposed based on published research and classroom practice. Italian adult learners at three levels were observed and patterns of language use were identified, recorded and analysed using the proposed categories. After observations were completed, a questionnaire was distributed to the students focussing on attitudes and opinions around language choice in the EFL classroom, specifically, the usefulness of L1 for specific functions in the classroom. The paper then investigates the relationship between learners’ foreign language proficiency and the frequency and type of code-switching that they engaged in, and the relationship between learners’ attitudes to classroom code-switching and their behaviour. Results show that code switching patterns underwent changes as the students’ level of English language proficiency improved, and that students’ attitudes towards code-switching generally correlated with their behaviour with some exceptions, however. Finally, the discussion focusses on the details of the language produced in observation, possible influencing factors that may affect the frequency and type of code switching that took place, and additional influencing factors that may affect students’ attitudes towards code switching in the foreign language classroom. An evaluation of the limitations of this study is offered and some suggestions are made for future research in this field of study.

Keywords: code-switching, EFL, second language aquisition, adult learners

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3326 Enabling Translanguaging in the EFL Classroom, Affordances of Learning and Reflections

Authors: Nada Alghali

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Translanguaging pedagogy suggests a new perspective in language education relating to multilingualism; multilingual learners have one linguistic repertoire and not two or more separate language systems (García and Wei, 2014). When learners translanguage, they are able to draw on all their language features in a flexible and integrated way (Otheguy, García, & Reid, 2015). In the Foreign Language Classroom, however, the tendency to use the target language only is still advocated as a pedagogy. This study attempts to enable learners in the English as a foreign language classroom to draw on their full linguistic repertoire through collaborative reading lessons. In observations prior to this study, in a classroom where English only policy prevails, learners still used their first language in group discussions yet were constrained at times by the teacher’s language policies. Through strategically enabling translanguaging in reading lessons (Celic and Seltzer, 2011), this study has revealed that learners showed creative ways of language use for learning and reflected positively on thisexperience. This case study enabled two groups in two different proficiency level classrooms who are learning English as a foreign language in their first year at University in Saudi Arabia. Learners in the two groups wereobserved over six weeks and wereasked to reflect their learning every week. The same learners were also interviewed at the end of translanguaging weeks after completing a modified model of the learning reflection (Ash and Clayton, 2009). This study positions translanguaging as collaborative and agentive within a sociocultural framework of learning, positioning translanguaging as a resource for learning as well as a process of learning. Translanguaging learning episodes are elicited from classroom observations, artefacts, interviews, reflections, and focus groups, where they are analysed qualitatively following the sociocultural discourse analysis (Fairclough &Wodak, 1997; Mercer, 2004). Initial outcomes suggest functions of translanguaging in collaborative reading tasks and recommendations for a collaborative translanguaging pedagogy approach in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: translanguaging, EFL, sociocultural theory, discourse analysis

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3325 Implementation of Computer-Based Technologies into Foreign Language Teaching Process

Authors: Golovchun Aleftina, Dabyltayeva Raikhan

Abstract:

Nowadays, in the world of widely developing cross-cultural interactions and rapidly changing demands of the global labor market, foreign language teaching and learning has taken a special role not only in school education but also in everyday life. Cognitive Lingua-Cultural Methodology of Foreign Language Teaching originated in Kazakhstan brings a communicative approach to the forefront in foreign language teaching that gives raise a variety of techniques to make the language learning a real communication. One of these techniques is Computer Assisted Language Learning. In our article, we aim to: demonstrate what learning benefits students are likely to get by teachers having implemented computer-based technologies into foreign language teaching process; prove that technology-based classroom serves as the best tool for interactive and efficient language learning; give examples of classroom sufficient organization with computer-based activities.

Keywords: computer assisted language learning, learning benefits, foreign language teaching process, implementation, communicative approach

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3324 Investigating the Effect of the Flipped Classroom Using E-Learning on Language Proficiency, Learner's Autonomy, and Class Participation of English Language Learners

Authors: Michelle Siao-Cing Guo

Abstract:

Technology is widely adopted to assist instruction and learning across disciplines. Traditional teaching method fails to capture the attention of the generation of digital native and does not accommodate diverse needs of today’s learners. The innovation in technology allows new pedagogical approaches. One approach that converts the traditional learning classroom to a more flexible learning time and space is known as the flipped classroom. This new pedagogy extends and enhances learning and accommodates different learning styles. The flipped classroom employs technology to offer course materials online 24 hours/day and to promote active class learning. However, will Taiwanese students who are used to more traditional instructional methods embrace the flipped classroom using E-learning? Will the flipped approach have an effect on Taiwanese students’ English mastery and learning autonomy? The researcher compares a flipped classroom model using E-learning and the traditional-lecture model. A pre- and post-test and a questionnaire were utilized to examine the effect of the flipped classroom on Taiwanese college students. The test results showed that the flipped approach had a positive effect on learners’ English proficiency level, topical knowledge, and willingness to participate in class. The questionnaire also demonstrates the acceptance of the new teaching model.

Keywords: flipped classroom , E-learning, innovative teaching, technology

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3323 Task Based Language Learning: A Paradigm Shift in ESL/EFL Teaching and Learning: A Case Study Based Approach

Authors: Zehra Sultan

Abstract:

The study is based on the task-based language teaching approach which is found to be very effective in the EFL/ESL classroom. This approach engages learners to acquire the usage of authentic language skills by interacting with the real world through sequence of pedagogical tasks. The use of technology enhances the effectiveness of this approach. This study throws light on the historical background of TBLT and its efficacy in the EFL/ESL classroom. In addition, this study precisely talks about the implementation of this approach in the General Foundation Programme of Muscat College, Oman. It furnishes the list of the pedagogical tasks embedded in the language curriculum of General Foundation Programme (GFP) which are skillfully allied to the College Graduate Attributes. Moreover, the study also discusses the challenges pertaining to this approach from the point of view of teachers, students, and its classroom application. Additionally, the operational success of this methodology is gauged through formative assessments of the GFP, which is apparent in the students’ progress.

Keywords: task-based language teaching, authentic language, communicative approach, real world activities, ESL/EFL activities

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3322 University of Bejaia, Algeria

Authors: Geoffrey Sinha

Abstract:

Today’s students are connected to the digital generation and technology is an integral part of their everyday lives. Clearly, this is one social revolution that is here to stay and the language classroom has been no exception. Furthermore, today’s teachers are also expected to connect with technology and online tools in their curriculum. However, it’s often difficult for teachers to know where to start, what resources and tools are available, what students should use, and most importantly, how to effectively use them in the classroom.

Keywords: language learning, new media, social media, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
3321 Teaching Tolerance in the Language Classroom through a Text

Authors: Natalia Kasatkina

Abstract:

In an ever-increasing globalization, one’s grasp of diversity and tolerance has never been more indispensable, and it is a vital duty for all those in the field of foreign language teaching to help children cultivate such values. The present study explores the role of DIVERSITY and TOLERANCE in the language classroom and elementary, middle, and high school students’ perceptions of these two concepts. It draws on several theoretical domains of language acquisition, cultural awareness, and school psychology. Relying on these frameworks, the major findings are synthesized, and a paradigm of teaching tolerance through language-teaching is formulated. Upon analysing how tolerant our children are with ‘others’ in and outside the classroom, we have concluded that intolerance and aggression towards the ‘other’ increase with age, and that a feeling of supremacy over migrants and a sense of fear towards them begin to manifest more apparently when the students are in high school. In addition, we have also found that children in elementary school do not exhibit such prejudiced thoughts and behavior, which leads us to the believe that tolerance as well as intolerance are learned. Therefore, it is within our reach to teach our children to be open-minded and accepting. We have used the novel ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin’ by Harriet Beecher Stowe as a springboard for lessons which are not only targeted at shedding light on the role of language in the modern world, but also aim to stimulate an awareness of cultural diversity. We equally strive to conduct further cross-cultural research in order to solidify the theory behind this study, and thus devise a language-based curriculum which would encourage tolerance through the examination of various literary texts.

Keywords: literary text, tolerance, EFL classroom, word-association test

Procedia PDF Downloads 217