Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 711

Search results for: willingness to communicate (WTC)

711 The Relationship between Anxiety and Willingness to Communicate: The Indonesian EFL Context

Authors: Yana Shanti Manipuspika

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Anxiety has potential to negatively affect foreign language learning process. This feeling leads the learners hesitate to communicate. This present study aimed at investigating the relationship between students’ anxiety and willingness to communicate of Indonesian EFL learners. There were 67 participants in this study who were the English Department students of Vocational Program of University of Brawijaya, Malang. This study employed Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) and the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) scale. The results of this study showed that the respondents had communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation. This study also revealed that English Department students of Vocational Program University of Brawijaya had high level of anxiety and low level of willingness to communicate. The relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety and willingness to communicate was found to be sufficiently negative. It is suggested for the language teachers to identify the causes of students’ language anxiety and try to create cheerful and less stressful atmosphere in the classroom. It is also important to find a way to develop their teaching strategies to stimulate students’ willingness to communicate.

Keywords: English as a foreign language (EFL), foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), vocational program, willingness to communicate (WTC)

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710 Comparing the Willingness to Communicate in a Foreign Language of Bilinguals and Monolinguals

Authors: S. Tarighat, F. Shateri

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This study explored the relationship between L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC) of bilinguals and monolinguals in a foreign language using a snowball sampling method to collect questionnaire data from 200 bilinguals and monolinguals studying a foreign language (FL). The results indicated a higher willingness to communicate in a foreign language (WTC-FL) performed by bilinguals compared to that of the monolinguals with a weak significance. Yet a stronger significance was found in the relationship between the age of onset of bilingualism and WTC-FL. The researcher proposed that L2 WTC is indirectly influenced by knowledge of other languages, which can boost L2 confidence and reduce L2 anxiety and consequently lead to higher L2 WTC when learning a different L2. The study also found the age of onset of bilingualism to be a predictor of L2 WTC when learning a FL. The results emphasize the importance of bilingualism and early bilingualism in particular.

Keywords: bilingualism, foreign language learning, l2 acquisition, willingness to communicate

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709 Uncovering the Relationship between EFL Students' Self-Concept and Their Willingness to Communicate in Language Classes

Authors: Seyedeh Khadijeh Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian, Narges Hekmati

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The current study aims at examining the relationship between English as a foreign language (EFL) students' self-concept and their willingness to communicate (WTC) in EFL classes. To this effect, two questionnaires, namely 'Willingness to Communicate' (MacIntyre et al., 2001) and 'Self-Concept Scale' (Liu and Wang, 2005), were distributed among 174 (45 males and 129 females) Iranian EFL university students. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the two variables. The results indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation between EFL students' self-concept and their WTC in EFL classes (p < .0.05). Moreover, regression analyses indicated that self-concept has a significantly positive influence on students’ WTC in language classes (B= .302, p < .0.05) and explains .302 percent of the variance in the dependent variable (WTC). The results are discussed with regards to the individual differences in educational contexts, and implications are offered.

Keywords: EFL students, language classes, willingness to communicate, self-concept

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708 Digital Portfolio as Mediation to Enhance Willingness to Communicate in English

Authors: Saeko Toyoshima

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This research will discuss if performance tasks with technology would enhance students' willingness to communicate. The present study investigated how Japanese learners of English would change their attitude to communication in their target language by experiencing a performance task, called 'digital portfolio', in the classroom, applying the concepts of action research. The study adapted questionnaires including four-Likert and open-end questions as mixed-methods research. There were 28 students in the class. Many of Japanese university students with low proficiency (A1 in Common European Framework of References in Language Learning and Teaching) have difficulty in communicating in English due to the low proficiency and the lack of practice in and outside of the classroom at secondary education. They should need to mediate between themselves in the world of L1 and L2 with completing a performance task for communication. This paper will introduce the practice of CALL class where A1 level students have made their 'digital portfolio' related to the topics of TED® (Technology, Entertainment, Design) Talk materials. The students had 'Portfolio Session' twice in one term, once in the middle, and once at the end of the course, where they introduced their portfolio to their classmates and international students in English. The present study asked the students to answer a questionnaire about willingness to communicate twice, once at the end of the first term and once at the end of the second term. The four-Likert questions were statistically analyzed with a t-test, and the answers to open-end questions were analyzed to clarify the difference between them. They showed that the students had a more positive attitude to communication in English and enhanced their willingness to communicate through the experiences of the task. It will be the implication of this paper that making and presenting portfolio as a performance task would lead them to construct themselves in English and enable them to communicate with the others enjoyably and autonomously.

Keywords: action research, digital portfoliio, computer-assisted language learning, ELT with CALL system, mixed methods research, Japanese English learners, willingness to communicate

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707 The Relationship between EFL Learners' Self-Regulation and Willingness to Communicate

Authors: Mania Nosratinia, Zahra Deris

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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between EFL learners' self-regulation (SR) and willingness to communicate (WTC). To this end, 520 male and female EFL learners, ranging between 19 and 34 years old (Mage = 26), majoring in English Translation, English Language Teaching and English Literature at Islamic Azad University, Fars Province, were randomly selected. They were given two questionnaires: Self-Regulation Questionnaire devised by Brown, Miller, and Lawendowski (1999) and Willingness to Communicate Scale devised by McCroskey and Baer (1985). Preliminarily, pertinent analyses were performed on the data to check the assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity. Since the assumption of normality was violated, Spearman's rank-order correlation was employed to probe the relationships between SR and WTC. The results indicated a significant and positive correlation between the two variables, ρ = .56, n = 520, p < .05, which signified a large effect size supplemented by a very small confidence interval (0.503 – 0.619). The results of the Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated that there is a statistically significant difference in WTC score between the different levels of SR, χ2(2) = 157.843, p = 0.000 with a mean rank SR score of 128.13 for low-SR level, 286.64 for mid-SR level, and 341.12 for high-SR level. Also, a post-hoc comparison through running a Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner indicated significant differences among the SR level groups on WTC scores. Given the findings of the study, the obtained results may help EFL teachers, teacher trainers, and material developers to possess a broader perspective towards the TEFL practice and to take practical steps towards the attainments of the desired objectives and effective instruction.

Keywords: EFL learner, self-regulation, willingness to communicate, relationship

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706 Examining the Role of Willingness to Communicate in Cross-Cultural Adaptation in East-Asia

Authors: Baohua Yu

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Despite widely reported 'Mainland-Hong Kong conflicts', recent years have witnessed progressive growth in the numbers of Mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong’s universities. This research investigated Mainland Chinese students’ intercultural communication in relation to cross-cultural adaptation in a major university in Hong Kong. The features of intercultural communication examined in this study were competence in the second language (L2) communication and L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC), while the features of cross-cultural adaptation examined were socio-cultural, psychological and academic adaptation. Based on a questionnaire, structural equation modelling was conducted among a sample of 196 Mainland Chinese students. Results showed that the competence in L2 communication played a significant role in L2 WTC, which had an influential effect on academic adaptation, which was itself identified as a mediator between the psychological adaptation and socio-cultural adaptation. Implications for curriculum design for courses and instructional practice on international students are discussed.

Keywords: L2 willingness to communicate, competence in L2 communication, psychological adaptation, socio-cultural adaptation, academic adaptation, structural equation modelling

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705 Factors Affecting Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Chicken Meat from Biosecure Farms

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Asmuddin Natsir, Hasmida Karim, Ian Patrick

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The research aimed at investigating the factors affecting consumers’ willingness to pay for chicken meat from biosecure farms. The research was conducted in Makassar City, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Samples were taken using random sampling technique in two supermarkets namely Lotte Mart and Gelael. Total samples were 50 respondents which comprised the chicken meat consumers. To find out the consumers’ willingness to pay for chicken meat from the biosecure farms, the contingent valuation method was utilized. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. Probit Logistic was estimated to examine the factors affecting the consumers’ willingness to pay for at the premium price for chicken meat from the biosecure farms. The research indicates that the education and income affect significantly the consumers’ willingness to pay for chicken meat from the biosecure farms (P < 0.05). The results of the study will be beneficial for the policy makers, producers, consumers and those conducting research.

Keywords: biosecure, chicken, farms, consumer, willingness-to-pay

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704 Mainstreaming Willingness among Black Owned Informal Small Micro Micro Enterprises in South Africa

Authors: Harris Maduku, Irrshad Kaseeram

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The objective of this paper is to understand the factors behind the formalisation willingness of South African black owned SMMEs. Cross-sectional data were collected using a questionnaire from 390 informal businesses in Johannesburg and Pretoria using stratified random sampling and clustered sampling. This study employed a multinomial logistic regression to quantitatively understand what encourages informal SMMEs to be willing to mainstreaming their operations. We find government support, corruption, employment compensation, family labour, success perception, education status, age and financing as key drivers on willingness of SMMEs to formalize their operations. The findings of our study points to government departments to invest more on both financial and non-financial strategies like capacity building and business education on informal SMMEs to cultivate their willingness to mainstream.

Keywords: mainstreaming, transition, informal, willingness, multinomial logit

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703 Households’ Willingness to Pay for Watershed Management Practices in Lake Hawassa Watershed, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Fola, Mengistu Ketema, Kumilachew Alamerie

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Watershed provides vast economic benefits within and beyond the management area of interest. But most watersheds in Ethiopia are increasingly facing the threats of degradation due to both natural and man-made causes. To reverse these problems, communities’ participation in sustainable management programs is among the necessary measures. Hence, this study assessed the households’ willingness to pay for watershed management practices through a contingent valuation study approach. Double bounded dichotomous choice with open-ended follow-up format was used to elicit the households’ willingness to pay. Based on data collected from 275 randomly selected households, descriptive statistics results indicated that most households (79.64%) were willing to pay for watershed management practices. A bivariate Probit model was employed to identify determinants of households’ willingness to pay and estimate mean willingness to pay. Its result shows that age, gender, income, livestock size, perception of watershed degradation, social position, and offered bids were important variables affecting willingness to pay for watershed management practices. The study also revealed that the mean willingness to pay for watershed management practices was calculated to be 58.41 Birr and 47.27 Birr per year from the double bounded and open-ended format, respectively. The study revealed that the aggregate welfare gains from watershed management practices were calculated to be 931581.09 Birr and 753909.23 Birr per year from double bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended format, respectively. Therefore, the policymakers should make households to pay for the services of watershed management practices in the study area.

Keywords: bivariate probit model, contingent valuation, watershed management practices, willingness to pay

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702 Patient Engagement in Healthcare and Health Literacy in China: A Survey in China

Authors: Qing Wu, Xuchun Ye, Qiuchen Wang, Kirsten Corazzini

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Objective: It’s increasing acknowledged that patient engagement in healthcare and health literacy both have positive impact on patient outcome. Health literacy emphasizes the ability of individuals to understand and apply health information and manage health. Patients' health literacy affected their willingness to participate in decision-making, but its impact on the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare is not clear, especially in China. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the correlation between the behavior and willingness of patient engagement and health literacy. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed using the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare questionnaire, Chinese version All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale (AAHLS). A convenient sample of 443 patients was recruited from 8 general hospitals in Shanghai, Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province, from September 2016 to January 2017. Results: The mean score for the willingness was (4.41±0.45), and the mean score for the patient engagement behavior was (4.17±0.49); the mean score for the patient's health literacy was (2.36±0.29),the average score of its three dimensions- the functional literacy, the Communicative/interactive literacy and the Critical literacy, was (2.26±0.38), (2.28±0.42), and (2.61±0.43), respectively. Patients' health literacy was positively correlated with their willingness of engagement (r = 0.367, P < 0.01), and positively correlated with patient engagement behavior (r = 0.357, P < 0.01). All dimensions of health literacy were positively correlated with the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare; the dimension of Communicative/interactive literacy (r = 0.312, P < 0.01; r = 0.357, P < 0.01) and the Critical literacy (r = 0.357, P < 0.01; r = 0.357, P < 0.01) are more relevant to the behavior and willingness than the dimension of basic/functional literacy (r=0.150, P < 0.01; r = 0.150, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare are positively correlated with health literacy and its dimensions. In clinical work, medical staff should pay attention to patients’ health literacy, especially the situation that low literacy leads to low participation and provide health information to patients through health education or communication to improve their health literacy as well as guide them to actively and rationally participate in their own health care.

Keywords: patient engagement, health literacy, healthcare, correlation

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701 The Attitude and Willingness to Use Telecare for Arthritis Patients

Authors: Jui-Chen Huang

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Nowadays, the population is aging, the number of people who need to be taken care of is increased, but the manpower and funding are insufficient. Therefore, this study aims to explore the attitudes and willingness of arthritis patients to adopt telecare and to take a large medical institution in the central area of Taiwan as a sample hospital. A structured questionnaire (using the Likert five-point scale) was used to collect chronic patients over 20 years old as sample data, and a total of 500 valid questionnaires were effectively collected. The SPSS 18.0 statistical software was used for reliability analysis and independent sample t-test to explore the differences in attitudes and willingness to use telecare for arthritis patients and non-arthritic patients. The Cronbach's alpha value of this study questionnaire was above 0.94, showing good reliability. Arthritis patients and non-arthritic patients had statistically significant differences in attitudes toward telecare, while the willingness to use did not reach statistically significant differences. In addition, the average attitude and intention of arthritis patients for telecare are 3.38 and 3.41, respectively, indicating that arthritis patients have a certain degree of attitude and willingness to adopt telecare, which is worthy of follow-up research and practical industry push.

Keywords: telecare, arthritis patients, attitudes, intention

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700 Willingness and Attitude towards Organ Donation of Nurses in Taiwan

Authors: ShuYing Chung, Minchuan Huang, Iping Chen

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Taking the medical staff in an emergency ward of a medical center in Central Taiwan as the research object, the questionnaire data were collected by anonymous and voluntary reporting methods with structured questionnaire to explore the actual situation, willingness and attitude of organ donation. Only 80 valid questionnaires were collected. Among the 8 questions, the average correct rate was 5.9 + 1.2, and the correct rate was 73.13%. The willingness of organ donation that 7.5% of the people are not willing; 92.5% of the people are willing, of which 62.5% have considered but have not yet decided; 21.3% are willing but have not signed the consent of organ donation; They have signed the consent of organ donation 8.7%. The average total score (standard deviation) of attitude towards organ donation was 36.2. There is no significant difference between the demographic variables and the awareness and willingness of organ donation, but there is a significant correlation between the marital status and the attitude of organ donation.

Keywords: clinical psychology, organ donation, doctors affecting psychological disorders, commitment

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699 Estimating the Value of Statistical Life under the Subsidization and Cultural Effects

Authors: Mohammad A. Alolayan, John S. Evans, James K. Hammitt

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The value of statistical life has been estimated for a middle eastern country with high economical subsidization system. In this study, in-person interviews were conducted on a stratified random sample to estimate the value of mortality risk. Double-bounded dichotomous choice questions followed by open-ended question were used in the interview to investigate the willingness to pay of the respondent for mortality risk reduction. High willingness to pay was found to be associated with high income and education. Also, females were found to have lower willingness to pay than males. The estimated value of statistical life is larger than the ones estimated for western countries where taxation system exists. This estimate provides a baseline for monetizing the health benefits for proposed policy or program to the decision makers in an eastern country. Also, the value of statistical life for a country in the region can be extrapolated from this this estimate by using the benefit transfer method.

Keywords: mortality, risk, VSL, willingness-to-pay

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698 Basic Need Satisfaction and Students’ Willingness to Use Spreadsheet Software

Authors: Anne Sørebø

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The present study was designed to test how fulfilment of three basic psychological needs influence students development of perceived usefulness (PU) and ease of use (EOU) in connection with use of a spreadsheet. Both PU and EOU are assumed to be critical for development of students' willingness to utilize spreadsheet in future work within business administration. A questionnaire was completed by 196 business students in Norway. We found that satisfying the need for competence and autonomy is most critical for willingness to utilize the software package. The results also indicate that satisfying the need for relatedness, surprisingly, has no influence on students’ willingness to utilize the software package. A key implication of the present research is that teachers mainly should focus on fulfilling students need for competence and self-determination when the purpose is to motivate them to utilize new software. That students’ should develop their own competence when using a new technology is somewhat obvious, but that the feeling of being self-determined needs to be a complementary element in this connection is not necessary seen as obvious.

Keywords: spreadsheet, business students, technology acceptance, basic psychological needs

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697 A Meta Regression Analysis to Detect Price Premium Threshold for Eco-Labeled Seafood

Authors: Cristina Giosuè, Federica Biondo, Sergio Vitale

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In the last years, the consumers' awareness for environmental concerns has been increasing, and seafood eco-labels are considered as a possible instrument to improve both seafood markets and sustainable fishing management. In this direction, the aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for eco-labeled wild seafood, by a meta-regression. Therefore, only papers published on ISI journals were searched on “Web of Knowledge” and “SciVerse Scopus” platforms, using the combinations of the following key words: seafood, ecolabel, eco-label, willingness, WTP and premium. The dataset was built considering: paper’s and survey’s codes, year of publication, first author’s nationality, species’ taxa and family, sample size, survey’s continent and country, data collection (where and how), gender and age of consumers, brand and ΔWTP. From analysis the interest on eco labeled seafood emerged clearly, in particular in developed countries. In general, consumers declared greater willingness to pay than that actually applied for eco-label products, with difference related to taxa and brand.

Keywords: eco label, meta regression, seafood, willingness to pay

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696 The Impact of Sustainable Packaging on Customers’ Willingness to Buy: A Study Based in Rwanda

Authors: Nirere Martine

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Purpose –The purpose of this study aims to understand the intention of customers to adopt sustainable packaging and the impact of sustainable packaging on customers’ willingness to buy a product using sustainable packaging. Design/methodology/approach – A new research model based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) and structural equation modeling are used to examine causality and test relationship based on the data collected from 251 Rwanda samples. Findings – The findings indicated that perceived ease of use positively affects perceived usefulness. However, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use positively affect the intention to adopt sustainable packaging. However, perceived risk and perceived cost negatively affect the intention to adopt sustainable packaging. The intention to adopt sustainable packaging positively affects the willingness to buy a product using sustainable packaging. Originality/value – Many researchers have investigated the issue of a consumers’ behavior to purchase a product. In particular, they have examined whether customers are willing to pay extra for a packaging product. There has been no study that has examined the impact of sustainable packaging on customers’ willingness to buy. The results of this study can help manufacturers form a better understanding of customers’ willingness to purchase a product using sustainable packaging.

Keywords: consumers’ behavioral, sustainable packaging, TAM, Rwanda

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695 Investigating the Pedestrian Willingness to Pay to Choose Appropriate Policies for Improving the Safety of Pedestrian Facilities

Authors: Babak Mirbaha, Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Fatemeh Mohajeri

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Road traffic accidents lead to a higher rate of death and injury, especially in vulnerable road users such as pedestrians. Improving the safety of facilities for pedestrians is a major concern for policymakers because of the high number of pedestrian fatalities and direct and indirect costs which are imposed to the society. This study focuses on the idea of determining the willingness to pay of pedestrians for increasing their safety while crossing the street. In this study, three different scenarios including crossing the street with zebra crossing facilities, crossing the street with zebra crossing facilities and installing a pedestrian traffic light and constructing a pedestrian bridge with escalator are presented. The research was conducted based on stated preferences method. The required data were collected from a questionnaire that consisted of three parts: pedestrian’s demographic characteristics, travel characteristics and scenarios. Four different payment amounts are presented for each scenario and a logit model has been built for each proposed payment. The results show that sex, age, education, average household income and individual salary have significant effect on choosing a scenario. Among the policies that have been mentioned through the questionnaire scenarios, the scenario of crossing the street with zebra crossing facilities and installing a traffic lights is the most frequent, with willingness to pay 10,000 Rials and the scenario of crossing the street with a zebra crossing with a willingness to pay 100,000 Rials having the least frequency. For all scenarios, as the payment is increasing, the willingness to pay decreases.

Keywords: pedestrians, willingness to pay, safety, immunization

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694 Valuing Non-Market Environmental Benefits of the Biodiversity Conservation Project

Authors: Huynh Viet Khai, Mitsuyasu Yabe

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The study investigated the economic value of biodiversity attributes that could provide policy-makers reliable information to estimate welfare losses due to biodiversity reductions and analyse the trade-off between biodiversity and economics. In order to obtain the non-market benefits of biodiversity conservation, an indirect utility function and willingness to pay for biodiversity attributes were applied using the approach of choice modelling with the analysis of conditional logit model. The study found that Mekong Delta residents accepted their willingness to pay for VND 913 monthly for a one percent increase in healthy vegetation, VND 360 for an additional mammal species and VND 2,440 to avoid the welfare losses of 100 local farmers.

Keywords: choice modelling, genetic resources, wetland conservation, marginal willingness to pay

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693 Instructors Willingness, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge about Provisions of Instructional Accommodations for Students with Disabilities: The Case Selected Universities in Ethiopia

Authors: Abdreheman Seid Abdella

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This study examined instructors willingness, self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes and knowledge about provisions of instructional accommodations for students with disabilities in universities. Major concepts used in this study operationally defined and some models of disability were reviewed. Questionnaires were distributed to a total of 181 instructors from four universities and quantitative data was generated. Then to analyze the data, appropriate methods of data analysis were employed. The result indicated that on average instructors had positive willingness, strong self-efficacy beliefs and positive attitudes towards providing instructional accommodations. In addition, the result showed that the majority of participants had moderate level of knowledge about provision of instructional accommodations. Concerning the relationship between instructors background variables and dependent variables, the result revealed that location of university and awareness raising training about Inclusive Education showed statistically significant relationship with all dependent variables (willingness, self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes and knowledge). On the other hand, gender and college/faculty did not show a statistically significant relationship. In addition, it was found that among the inter-correlation of dependent variables, the correlation between attitudes and willingness to provide accommodations was the strongest. Furthermore, using multiple linear regression analysis, this study also indicated that predictor variables like self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes, knowledge and teaching methodology training made statistically significant contribution to predicting the criterion willingness. Predictor variables like willingness and attitudes made statistically significant contribution to predicting self-efficacy beliefs. Predictor variables like willingness, Special Needs Education course and self-efficacy beliefs made statistically significant contribution to predict attitudes. Predictor variables like Special Needs Education courses, the location of university and willingness made statistically significant contribution to predicting knowledge. Finally, using exploratory factor analysis, this study showed that there were four components or factors each that represent the underlying constructs of willingness and self-efficacy beliefs to provide instructional accommodations items, five components for attitudes towards providing accommodations items and three components represent the underlying constructs for knowledge about provisions of instructional accommodations items. Based on the findings, recommendations were made for improving the situation of instructional accommodations in Ethiopian universities.

Keywords: willingness, self-efficacy belief, attitude, knowledge

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692 Willingness to Use Mobile Telephone Technology to Improve Pregnancy Outcomes among Women in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: O. Onigbogi, M. Onigbogi Jr., O. Ojo

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Background: The advances in mobile telephone technology has led to a rise in its use globally which has improved service delivery, empowered businesses and changed the way people access information. The practice of many health professionals has also been affected by the information and communications technology (ICT) revolution because they have better access to information. This study was conducted to assess the willingness to participate in mobile technology interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 238 respondents completed self-administered questionnaires. SPSS version 18 data editor was used to analyze data. Univariate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95 % CI) were used to evaluate the correlates of Willingness to Use (WTU) mobile phones to receive health messages during pregnancy. Results: A total of 107 women (45% of the respondents) reported that they will be willing to receive health-related information on their phones during pregnancy. Greater willingness was associated with higher education (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.13–1.53), involvement with community volunteer organizations (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.05–1.52), monetary incentives (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.14–1.45) and nulliparity (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02–1.42). Decreased willingness was associated with concerns about wrong interpretation of information (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.54), poor mobile telephone service by providers (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.52–0.78), increase in number of messages (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53–0.76). Conclusion: The level of WTU recorded indicates that much work still needs to be done before this novel approach could be used adopted in delivering health-related information. Incentives for would-be subjects should also be a part of the planning to encourage greater participation.

Keywords: mobile, outcomes, pregnancy, technology, telephone

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691 Viral Advertising: Popularity and Willingness to Share among the Czech Internet Population

Authors: Martin Klepek

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This paper presents results of primary quantitative research on viral advertising with focus on popularity and willingness to share viral video among Czech Internet population. It starts with brief theoretical debate on viral advertising, which is used for the comparison of the results. For purpose of collecting data, online questionnaire survey was given to 384 respondents. Statistics utilized in this research included frequency, percentage, correlation and Pearson’s Chi-square test. Data was evaluated using SPSS software. The research analysis disclosed high popularity of viral advertising video among Czech Internet population but implies lower willingness to share it. Significant relationship between likability of viral video technique and age of the viewer was found.

Keywords: internet advertising, internet population, promotion, marketing communication, viral advertising, viral video

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690 The Impact of Financial Literacy, Perception of Debt, and Perception of Risk Toward Student Willingness to Use Online Student Loan

Authors: Irni Rahmayani Johan, Ira Kamelia

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One of the impacts of the rapid advancement of technology is the rise of digital finance, including peer-to-peer lending (P2P). P2P lending has been widely marketed, including an online student loan that used the P2P platform. This study aims to analyze the effect of financial literacy, perception of debt, and perception of risk toward student willingness to use the online student loan (P2P lending). Using a cross-sectional study design, in collecting the data this study employed an online survey method, with a total sample of 280 undergraduate students of IPB university, Indonesia. This study found that financial literacy, perception of debt, perception of risk, and interest in using online student loans are categorized as low level. While the level of knowledge is found to be the lowest, the first-year students showed a higher level in terms of willingness to use the online student loan. In addition, the second year students recorded a positive perception toward debt. This study showed that level of study, attendance in personal finance course, and student’ GPA is positively related to financial knowledge. While debt perception is negatively related to financial attitudes. Similarly, the negative relationship is found between risk perception and the willingness to use the online student loan. The determinant factor of the willingness to use online student loans is the level of study, debt perception, financial risk perception, and time risk perception. Students with a higher level of study are more likely to have a lower interest in using online student loans. Moreover, students who perceived debt as a financial stimulator, as well as those with higher level of financial risk perceptions and time risk perceptions, tend to show more interest to use the loan.

Keywords: financial literacy, willingness to use, online student loan, perception of risk, perception of debt

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689 The Impact of Nurse-Physician Interprofessional Relationship on Nurses' Willingness to Engage in Leadership Roles: A Multilevel Modelling Approach

Authors: Sulaiman D. Al Sabei, Amy M. Ross, Christopher S. Lee

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Nurse leaders play a fundamental role in transforming healthcare system and improving quality of patient care. Several healthcare organizations have called to increase the number of nurse leaders across all levels and in every practice setting. Identification of factors influencing nurses’ willingness to lead can inform healthcare leaders and policy makers of potentially illuminating strategies for establishing favorable work environments that motivate nurses to engage in leadership roles. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of nurses’ willingness to engage in future leadership roles. The study was conducted at a public hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. A total of 171 registered nurses participated. A multilevel modeling was conducted. Findings revealed that 80% of nurses were likely to seek out opportunities to engage in leadership roles. The quality of the nurse-physician collegial relationships was a significant predictor of nurses’ willingness to lead. Establishing a work environment’s culture of positive nurse-physician relationships is critical to enhance nurses’ work attitude and engage them in leadership roles.

Keywords: interprofessional relationship, leadership, motivation, nurses

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688 Globalisation's Effect on Environmental Activism: A Multi-Level Analysis of Individuals in European Countries

Authors: Dafni Kalatzi Pantera

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How globalisation affects environmental activism? Existing research on this relationship focuses on the influence of the world polity on individuals’ willingness to participate in environmental movements. However, globalisation is a multidimensional process which promotes pro-environmental ideas through the world polity, but it also fosters economic growth which is considered antagonistic to the environment. This article models the way that globalisation as a whole affects individuals’ willingness to participate in environmental activism, and the main argument is that globalisation’s impact is conditional on political ideology. To test the above hypothesis, individual and country level data are used for European countries between 1981-2020. The results support the expectation of the article that although globalisation has a positive impact on individuals’ willingness to participate in environmental activism when it interacts with political ideology, its influence differs between ideological spectrums.

Keywords: environmental activism, globalisation, political ideology, world polity

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687 Students' Willingness to Accept Virtual Lecturing Systems: An Empirical Study by Extending the UTAUT Model

Authors: Ahmed Shuhaiber

Abstract:

The explosion of the World Wide Web and the electronic trend of university teaching have transformed the learning style to become more learner-centred, Which has popularized the digital delivery of mediated lectures as an alternative or an adjunct to traditional lectures. Despite its potential and popularity, virtual lectures have not been adopted yet in Jordanian universities. This research aimed to fill this gap by studying the factors that influence student’s willingness to accept virtual lectures in one Jordanian University. A quantitative approach was followed by obtaining 216 survey responses and statistically applying the UTAUT model with some modifications. Results revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences and self-efficacy could significantly influence student’s attitudes towards virtual lectures. Additionally, facilitating conditions and attitudes towards virtual lectures were found with significant influence on student’s intention to take virtual lectures. Research implications and future work were specified afterwards.

Keywords: E-learning, student willingness, UTAUT, virtual Lectures, web-based learning systems

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686 Oral Fluency: A Case Study of L2 Learners in Canada

Authors: Maaly Jarrah

Abstract:

Oral fluency in the target language is what many second language learners hope to achieve by living abroad. Research in the past has demonstrated the role informal environments play in improving L2 learners' oral fluency. However, living in the target country and being part of its community does not ensure the development of oral fluency skills. L2 learners' desire to communicate and access to speaking opportunities in the host community are key in achieving oral fluency in the target language. This study attempts to identify differences in oral fluency, specifically speech rate, between learners who communicate in the L2 outside the classroom and those who do not. In addition, as the desire to communicate is a crucial factor in developing oral fluency, this study investigates whether or not learners' desire to speak the L2 outside the classroom plays a role in their frequency of L2 use outside the classroom. Finally, given the importance of the availability of speaking opportunities for L2 learners in order to practice their speaking skills, this study reports on the participants' perceptions of the speaking opportunities accessible to them in the target community while probing whether or not their perceptions differed based on their oral fluency level and their desire to communicate. The results suggest that exposure to the target language and daily communication with the native speakers is strongly related to the development of learners' oral fluency. Moreover, the findings suggest that learners' desire to communicate affects their frequency of communication in their L2 outside the classroom. At the same time, all participants, regardless of their oral fluency level and their desire to communicate, asserted that speaking opportunities beyond the classroom are very limited. Finally, the study finds there are marked differences in the perceptions learners have regarding opportunities for learning offered by the same language program. After reporting these results, the study concludes with recommendations for ESL programs that serve international students.

Keywords: ESL programs, L2 Learners, oral fluency, second language

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685 The Study on Tourist’s Satisfaction in Xinshe Flowers Festival

Authors: Yashan Liu, Yu-Chen Chien

Abstract:

In the past few years, a global trend to hold sightseeing festivals has prevailed. For the purpose of attracting more tourists, the Taiwan government has not only organized a considerable number of international activities, but also provided guidance to counties and cities in organizing festivals which reflect a collaboration of culture and humanity. These festivals have also assisted in the development of local industry and the promotion of their unique characteristics. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influences and relationships between tourist satisfaction and the revisiting willingness of visitors at the Xin-she Flower Festival.

Keywords: Flowers Festival in Xin-she, Tourist Satisfaction, Festival, Revisiting Willingness

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684 Rural Households' Sources of Water and Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Services in South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Alaba M. Dare, Idris A. Ayinde, Adebayo M. Shittu, Sam O. Sam-Wobo

Abstract:

Households' source of water is one of the core development indicators recently gaining pre-eminence in Nigeria. This study examined rural households' sources of water, Willingness to Pay (WTP) and factors influencing mean WTP. A cross-sectional survey which involved the use of questionnaire was used. A dichotomous choice (DC) with follow up was used as elicitation method. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 437 rural households. Descriptive statistics and Tobit model were used for data estimation. The result revealed that about 70% fetched from unimproved water sources. Most (74.4%) respondents showed WTP for improved water sources. Age (p < 0.01), sex (p < 0.01), education (p < 0.01), occupation (p < 0.01), income (p < 0.01), price of water (P < 0.01), quantity of water (p < 0.01), household size (p < 0.01) and distance (p < 0.01) to existing water sources significantly influenced rural households' WTP for these services. The inference from this study showed that rural dweller sources of water is highly primitive and deplorable. Governments and stakeholders should prioritize the provision of rural water at an affordable price by rural dwellers.

Keywords: households, source of water, willingness to pay (WTP), tobit model

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683 Payment of Carbon Offsetting: A Case Study in Dharan, Nepal

Authors: Mana Shrestha, Dhruba Khatri, Pralhad Kunwor

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to explore the vehicle owners’ willingness to pay (WTP) for offsetting carbon that could eventually facilitate local governmental institutions to take further step in environmental conservation. Contingent valuation method was used to find out how much amount people were willing to pay for the carbon service they are getting from providers. Open ended questionnaire was carried out with 181 respondents randomly. The result shows different mean willingness to pay amount depending upon demographic variations like education, occupation, sex and residence but the occupation and the educational status significantly affected the WTP of respondent. Total WTP amount was calculated as 650 NRS.

Keywords: community forest, carbon offset, Kyoto, REDD WTP

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682 Influencing Factors and Mechanism of Patient Engagement in Healthcare: A Survey in China

Authors: Qing Wu, Xuchun Ye, Kirsten Corazzini

Abstract:

Objective: It is increasingly recognized that patients’ rational and meaningful engagement in healthcare could make important contributions to their health care and safety management. However, recent evidence indicated that patients' actual roles in healthcare didn’t match their desired roles, and many patients reported a less active role than desired, which suggested that patient engagement in healthcare may be influenced by various factors. This study aimed to analyze influencing factors on patient engagement and explore the influence mechanism, which will be expected to contribute to the strategy development of patient engagement in healthcare. Methods: On the basis of analyzing the literature and theory study, the research framework was developed. According to the research framework, a cross-sectional survey was employed using the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare questionnaire, Chinese version All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale, Facilitation of Patient Involvement Scale and Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale, and other influencing factor related scales. A convenience sample of 580 patients was recruited from 8 general hospitals in Shanghai, Jiangsu Province, and Zhejiang Province. Results: The results of the cross-sectional survey indicated that the mean score for the patient engagement behavior was (4.146 ± 0.496), and the mean score for the willingness was (4.387 ± 0.459). The level of patient engagement behavior was inferior to their willingness to be involved in healthcare (t = 14.928, P < 0.01). The influencing mechanism model of patient engagement in healthcare was constructed by the path analysis. The path analysis revealed that patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation of patient engagement and health literacy played direct prediction on the patients’ willingness of engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.341, 0.199, 0.291, respectively. Patients’ trust in physician and the willingness of engagement played direct prediction on the patient engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.211, 0.641, respectively. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation and health literacy played indirect prediction on patient engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.219, 0.128, 0.187, respectively. Conclusions: Patients engagement behavior did not match their willingness to be involved in healthcare. The influencing mechanism model of patient engagement in healthcare was constructed. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation of engagement and health literacy posed indirect positive influence on patient engagement through the patients’ willingness of engagement. Patients’ trust in physician and the willingness of engagement had direct positive influence on the patient engagement. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of physician facilitation of engagement and health literacy were the factors influencing the patients’ willingness of engagement. The results of this study provided valuable evidence on guiding the development of strategies for promoting patient rational and meaningful engagement in healthcare.

Keywords: healthcare, patient engagement, influencing factor, the mechanism

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