Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Yana Shanti Manipuspika

14 The Relationship between Anxiety and Willingness to Communicate: The Indonesian EFL Context

Authors: Yana Shanti Manipuspika

Abstract:

Anxiety has potential to negatively affect foreign language learning process. This feeling leads the learners hesitate to communicate. This present study aimed at investigating the relationship between students’ anxiety and willingness to communicate of Indonesian EFL learners. There were 67 participants in this study who were the English Department students of Vocational Program of University of Brawijaya, Malang. This study employed Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) and the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) scale. The results of this study showed that the respondents had communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation. This study also revealed that English Department students of Vocational Program University of Brawijaya had high level of anxiety and low level of willingness to communicate. The relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety and willingness to communicate was found to be sufficiently negative. It is suggested for the language teachers to identify the causes of students’ language anxiety and try to create cheerful and less stressful atmosphere in the classroom. It is also important to find a way to develop their teaching strategies to stimulate students’ willingness to communicate.

Keywords: English as a foreign language (EFL), foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), vocational program, willingness to communicate (WTC)

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13 Influence of Culturing Conditions on Biomass Yield, Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Filamentous Fungi

Authors: Alla V. Goncharova, Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Yana S. Tsurkan, Rosa U. Beisembaeva, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

Abstract:

In this work the effect of culturing conditions of filamentous fungi Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium anatolicum, Fusarium sp. on biomass yield, the content of total lipids and fatty acids was studied. It has been established that in time the process of lipids accumulation correlated with biomass growth of cultures, reaching maximum values in stationary growth phase. Biomass yield and accumulation of general lipids was increased by adding zinc to the culture medium. The more intensive accumulation of biomass and general lipids was observed at temperature 18°C. Lowering the temperature of culturing has changed the ratio of saturated: Unsaturated fatty acids in the direction of increasing the latter.

Keywords: biomass, culturing conditions, fungi, fatty acids (FA), growth dynamics, lipids

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12 Cytochrome B Marker Reveals Three Distinct Genetic Lineages of the Oriental Latrine Fly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia

Authors: Rajagopal Kavitha, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Chee Dhang Chen, Mohd Yusof Farida Zuraina, Mohd Salleh Ahmad Firdaus, Navaratnam Shanti, Abdul Haiyee Zaibunnisa

Abstract:

This study investigated the hidden genetic lineages in the oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) across four states (i.e., Johore, Pahang, Perak and Selangor) and a federal territory (i.e., Kuala Lumpur) in Malaysia using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) genetic marker. The Cyt b phylogenetic tree and haplotype network revealed three distinct genetic lineages of Ch. megacephala. Lineage A, the basal clade was restricted to flies that originated from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, while Lineages B and C, comprised of flies from all studied populations. An overlap of the three genetically divergent groups of Ch. megacephala was observed. However, the flies from both Kuala Lumpur and Selangor populations consisted of three different lineages, indicating that they are genetically diverse compared to those from Pahang, Perak and Johore.

Keywords: forensic entomology, calliphoridae, mitochondrial DNA, cryptic lineage

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11 Structural Alteration of MoS₂ by Incorporating Fe, Co Composite for an Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Krishnamoorthy Sathiyan, Shanti Gopal Patra, Ronen Bar-Ziv, Tomer Zidki

Abstract:

Developing efficient non-noble metal catalysts that are cheap and durable for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a great challenge. Moreover, altering the electronic structure of the catalyst and structural engineering of the materials provide a new direction for enhancing the OER. Herein, we have successfully synthesized Fe and Co incorporated MoS₂ catalysts, which show improved catalytic activity for OER when compared with MoS₂, Fe-MoS₂, and Co-MoS₂. It was found that at an optimal ratio of Fe and Co, the electronic and structural modification of MoS₂ occurs, which leads to change in orientation and thereby enhances the active catalytic sites on the edges, which are more exposed for OER. The nanocomposites have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Elemental Mapping, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) analysis. Among all, a particular ratio of FeCo-MoS₂ exhibits a much smaller onset with better catalytic current density. The remarkable catalytic activity is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect from the Fe and Co. Most importantly, our work provides an essential insight in altering the electronic structure of MoS₂ based materials by incorporating promoters such as Co and Fe in an optimal amount, which enhances OER activity.

Keywords: electrocatalysts, molybdenum disulfide, oxygen evolution reaction, transition metals

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10 Influence of Culture Conditions on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Green Microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa

Authors: Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Saltanat B. Orazova, Yana S. Tzurkan, Alla V. Goncharova, Bakytzhan K. Kairat, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

Abstract:

Microalgae due to the ability to accumulate high levels of practically valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids attract attention as a promising raw material for commercial products. It were defined the features of the growth processes of cells green protococcal microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa at cultivation in different nutritional mediums. For the rapid accumulation of biomass, combined with high productivity of total lipids fraction yield recommended to use the Fitzgerald medium (Scenodesmus obliquus, Oocystis rhomboideus) and/or Bold medium (Dictyochlorella globosa). Productivity of lipids decreased in sequence Dictyochlorella globosa > Scenodesmus obliquus > Oocystis rhomboideus. The bulk of fatty acids fraction of the total lipids is unsaturated fatty acids, which accounts for 70 to 83% of the total number of fatty acids. The share of monoenic acids varies from 16 to 36 %, the share of unsaturated fatty acids - from 44 to 65% of total fatty acids fraction. Among the unsaturated acids dominate α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), hexadecatetraenic acid (C16:4) and linoleic acid (C18:2).

Keywords: microalgae, lipids, fatty acids, culture conditions

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9 Measurement and Monitoring of Graduate Attributes via iCGPA Implementation and ACADEMIA Programming: UNIMAS Case Study

Authors: Shanti Faridah Salleh, Azzahrah Anuar, Hamimah Ujir, Rohana Sapawi, Wan Hashim Wan Ibrahim, Noraziah Abdul Wahab, Majina Sulaiman, Raudhah Ahmadi, Al-Khalid Othman, Johari Abdullah

Abstract:

Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average or iCGPA is an evaluation and reporting system that represents a comprehensive development of students’ achievement in their academic programs. Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, UNIMAS has started its implementation of iCGPA in 2016. iCGPA is driven by the Outcome-Based Education (OBE) system that has been long integrated into the higher education in Malaysia. iCGPA is not only a tool to enhance the OBE concept through constructive alignment but it is also an integrated mechanism to assist various stakeholders in making decisions or planning for program improvement. The outcome of this integrated system is the reporting of students’ academic performance in terms of cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills), and affective (attitude) of which the students acquire throughout the duration of their study. The iCGPA reporting illustrates the attainment of student’s attribute in the eight domains of learning outcomes listed in the Malaysian Qualifications Framework (MQF). This paper discusses on the implementation of iCGPA in UNIMAS on the policy and strategy to direct the whole university to implement the iCGPA. The steps and challenges in integrating the exsting Outcome-Based Education and utilising iCGPA as a tool to quantify the students’ achievement are also highlighted in this paper. Finally, the ACADEMIA system, which is a dedicated centralised program ensure the implementation of iCGPA is a success has been developed. This paper discusses the structure and the analysis of ACADEMIA program and concludes the analysis made on the improvement made on the implementation of constructive alignment in all 40 programs involves in iCGPA implementation.

Keywords: constructive alignment, holistic graduates, mapping of assessment, programme outcome

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8 Unraveling the Mysteries of the Anahata Nada to Achieve Supreme Consciousness

Authors: Shanti Swaroop Mokkapati

Abstract:

The unstruck sound, or the Anahata Nada, holds the key in elevating the consciousness levels of the practitioner. This has been well established by the great saints of the eastern tradition over the past few centuries. This paper intends to explore in-depth the common thread of the practice of Anahata Nada by the musical saints, examining the subtle mention in their compositions as well as demystifying their musical experiences that throw insights into elevated levels of consciousness. Mian Tansen, one of the greatest musicians in the North Indian Hindustani Classical Music tradition and who lived in the 15th century, is said to have brought rain through his singing of Raga Megh Malhar. The South Indian (Carnatic) Musical Saint Tyagaraja, who lived in the 18th Century, composed hundreds of musical pieces full of love for the Supreme Being. Many of these compositions unravel the secrets of Anahata Nada, the chakras in the human body that hold key to these practices, and the visions of elevated levels of consciousness that Saint Tyagaraja himself experienced through these practices. The spiritual practitioners of the Radhasoami Faith (Religion of Saints) in Dayalbagh, India, have adopted a practice called Surat Shabda Yoga (Meditational practices that unite the all-pervasive sound current with the spirit current and elevate levels of consciousness). The practitioners of this Yogic method submit that they have been able to hear mystic words including Om, Racing, Soham, Sat, and Radhasoami, along with instrumental sounds that accompany these mystic words in the form of a crescendo. These prolific experiences of elevated consciousness of musical saints are numerous, and this paper intends to explore more significant ones from many centuries in the past till the present day, where elevated consciousness levels of practitioners are being scientifically measured and analyzed using quantum computing.

Keywords: Anahata Nada, Nada Yoga, Tyagaraja, Radhasoami

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7 Transition from Linear to Circular Economy in Gypsum in India

Authors: Shanti Swaroop Gupta, Bibekananda Mohapatra, S. K. Chaturvedi, Anand Bohra

Abstract:

For sustainable development in India, there is an urgent need to follow the principles of industrial symbiosis in the industrial processes, under which the scraps, wastes, or by‐products of one industry can become the raw materials for another. This will not only help in reducing the dependence on natural resources but also help in gaining economic advantage to the industry. Gypsum is one such area in India, where the linear economy model of by-product gypsum utilization has resulted in unutilized legacy phosphogypsum stock of 64.65 million tonnes (mt) at phosphoric acid plants in 2020-21. In the future, this unutilized gypsum stock will increase further due to the expected generation of Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) gypsum in huge quantities from thermal power plants. Therefore, it is essential to transit from the linear to circular economy in Gypsum in India, which will result in huge environmental as well as ecological benefits. Gypsum is required in many sectors like Construction (Cement industry, gypsum boards, glass fiber reinforced gypsum panels, gypsum plaster, fly ash lime bricks, floor screeds, road construction), agriculture, in the manufacture of Plaster of Paris, pottery, ceramic industry, water treatment processes, manufacture of ammonium sulphate, paints, textiles, etc. The challenges faced in areas of quality, policy, logistics, lack of infrastructure, promotion, etc., for complete utilization of by-product gypsum have been discussed. The untapped potential of by-product gypsum utilization in various sectors like the use of gypsum in agriculture for sodic soil reclamation, utilization of legacy stock in cement industry on mission mode, improvement in quality of by-product gypsum by standardization and usage in building materials industry has been identified. Based on the measures required to tackle the various challenges and utilization of the untapped potential of gypsum, a comprehensive action plan for the transition from linear to the circular economy in gypsum in India has been formulated. The strategies and policy measures required to implement the action plan to achieve a circular economy in Gypsum have been recommended for various government departments. It is estimated that the focused implementation of the proposed action plan would result in a significant decrease in unutilized gypsum legacy stock in the next five years and it would cease to exist by 2027-28 if the proposed action plan is effectively implemented.

Keywords: circular economy, FGD gypsum, India, phosphogypsum

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6 The Gut Microbiome in Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Characterization of Disease-Related Microbial Signature and the Possible Impact of Life Style and Nutrition

Authors: Lena Lapidot, Amir Amnon, Rita Nosenko, Veitsman Ella, Cohen-Ezra Oranit, Davidov Yana, Segev Shlomo, Koren Omry, Safran Michal, Ben-Ari Ziv

Abstract:

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Liver Cirrhosis is the main predisposing risk factor for the development of HCC. The factor(s) influencing disease progression from Cirrhosis to HCC remain unknown. Gut microbiota has recently emerged as a major player in different liver diseases, however its association with HCC is still a mystery. Moreover, there might be an important association between the gut microbiota, nutrition, life style and the progression of Cirrhosis and HCC. The aim of our study was to characterize the gut microbial signature in association with life style and nutrition of patients with Cirrhosis, HCC-Cirrhosis and healthy controls. Design: Stool samples were collected from 95 individuals (30 patients with HCC, 38 patients with Cirrhosis and 27 age, gender and BMI-matched healthy volunteers). All participants answered lifestyle and Food Frequency Questionnaires. 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal DNA was performed (MiSeq Illumina). Results: There was a significant decrease in alpha diversity in patients with Cirrhosis (qvalue=0.033) and in patients with HCC-Cirrhosis (qvalue=0.032) compared to healthy controls. The microbiota of patients with HCC-cirrhosis compared to patients with Cirrhosis, was characterized by a significant overrepresentation of Clostridium (pvalue=0.024) and CF231 (pvalue=0.010) and lower expression of Alphaproteobacteria (pvalue=0.039) and Verrucomicrobia (pvalue=0.036) in several taxonomic levels: Verrucomicrobiae, Verrucomicrobiales, Verrucomicrobiaceae and the genus Akkermansia (pvalue=0.039). Furthermore, we performed an analysis of predicted metabolic pathways (Kegg level 2) that resulted in a significant decrease in the diversity of metabolic pathways in patients with HCC-Cirrhosis (qvalue=0.015) compared to controls, one of which was amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, investigating the life style and nutrition habits of patients with HCC-Cirrhosis, we found significant correlations between intake of artificial sweeteners and Verrucomicrobia (qvalue=0.12), High sugar intake and Synergistetes (qvalue=0.021) and High BMI and the pathogen Campylobacter (qvalue=0.066). Furthermore, overweight in patients with HCC-Cirrhosis modified bacterial diversity (qvalue=0.023) and composition (qvalue=0.033). Conclusions: To the best of the our knowledge, we present the first report of the gut microbial composition in patients with HCC-Cirrhosis, compared with Cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. We have demonstrated in our study that there are significant differences in the gut microbiome of patients with HCC-cirrhosis compared to Cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. Our findings are even more pronounced because the significantly increased bacteria Clostridium and CF231 in HCC-Cirrhosis weren't influenced by diet and lifestyle, implying this change is due to the development of HCC. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess causality.

Keywords: Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, life style, liver disease, microbiome, nutrition

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5 Effect of Vitrification on Embryos Euploidy Obtained from Thawed Oocytes

Authors: Natalia Buderatskaya, Igor Ilyin, Julia Gontar, Sergey Lavrynenko, Olga Parnitskaya, Ekaterina Ilyina, Eduard Kapustin, Yana Lakhno

Abstract:

Introduction: It is known that cryopreservation of oocytes has peculiar features due to the complex structure of the oocyte. One of the most important features is that mature oocytes contain meiotic division spindle which is very sensitive even to the slightest variation in temperature. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyse the resulting euploid embryos obtained from thawed oocytes in comparison with the data of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in fresh embryo cycles. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at 'Medical Centre IGR' from January to July 2016. Data were analysed for 908 donor oocytes obtained in 67 cycles of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), of which 693 oocytes were used in the 51 'fresh' cycles (group A), and 215 oocytes - 16 ART programs with vitrification female gametes (group B). The average age of donors in the groups match 27.3±2.9 and 27.8±6.6 years. Stimulation of superovulation was conducted the standard way. Vitrification was performed in 1-2 hours after transvaginal puncture and thawing of oocytes were carried out in accordance with the standard protocol of Cryotech (Japan). Manipulation ICSI was performed 4-5 hours after transvaginal follicle puncture for fresh oocytes, or after defrosting - for vitrified female gametes. For the PGS, an embryonic biopsy was done on the third or on the fifth day after fertilization. Diagnostic procedures were performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with the study of such chromosomes as 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, Y. Only morphologically quality blastocysts were used for the transfer, the estimation of which corresponded to the Gardner criteria. The statistical hypotheses were done using the criteria t, x^2 at a significance levels p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. Results: The mean number of mature oocytes per cycle in group A was 13.58±6.65 and in group B - 13.44±6.68 oocytes for patient. The survival of oocytes after thawing totaled 95.3% (n=205), which indicates a highly effective quality of performed vitrification. The proportion of zygotes in the group A corresponded to 91.1%(n=631), in the group B – 80.5%(n=165), which shows statistically significant difference between the groups (p<0.001) and explained by non-viable oocytes elimination after vitrification. This is confirmed by the fact that on the fifth day of embryos development a statistically significant difference in the number of blastocysts was absent (p>0.05), and constituted respectively 61.6%(n=389) and 63.0%(n=104) in the groups. For the PGS performing 250 embryos analyzed in the group A and 72 embryos - in the group B. The results showed that euploidy in the studied chromosomes were 40.0%(n=100) embryos in the group A and 41.7% (n=30) - in the group B, which shows no statistical significant difference (p>0.05). The indicators of clinical pregnancies in the groups amounted to 64.7% (22 pregnancies per 34 embryo transfers) and 61.5% (8 pregnancies per 13 embryo transfers) respectively, and also had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that the vitrification does not affect the resulting euploid embryos in assisted reproductive technologies and are not reflected in their morphological characteristics in ART programs.

Keywords: euploid embryos, preimplantation genetic screening, thawing oocytes, vitrification

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4 Analysis of the Blastocysts Chromosomal Set Obtained after the Use of Donor Oocyte Cytoplasmic Transfer Technology

Authors: Julia Gontar, Natalia Buderatskaya, Igor Ilyin, Olga Parnitskaya, Sergey Lavrynenko, Eduard Kapustin, Ekaterina Ilyina, Yana Lakhno

Abstract:

Introduction: It is well known that oocytes obtained from older reproductive women have accumulated mitochondrial DNA mutations, which negatively affects the morphology of a developing embryo and may lead to the birth of a child with mitochondrial disease. Special techniques have been developed to allow a donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer with the parents’ biological nuclear DNA retention. At the same time, it is important to understand whether the procedure affects the future embryonic chromosome sets as the nuclear DNA is the transfer subject in this new complex procedure. Material and Methods: From July 2015 to July 2016, the investigation was carried out in the Medical Centre IGR. 34 donor oocytes (group A) were used for the manipulation with the aim of donating cytoplasm: 21 oocytes were used for zygotes pronuclear transfer and oocytes 13 – for the spindle transfer. The mean age of the oocyte donors was 28.4±2.9 years. The procedure was performed using Nikon Ti Eclipse inverted microscope equipped with the micromanipulators Narishige system (Japan), Saturn 3 laser console (UK), Oosight imaging systems (USA). For the preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) blastocyst biopsy was performed, trophectoderm samples were diagnosed using fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomes 9, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, X, Y. For comparison of morphological characteristics and euploidy, was chosen a group of embryos (group B) with the amount of 121 blastocysts obtained from 213 oocytes, which were gotten from the donor programs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Group B was not subjected to donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer procedure and studied on the above mentioned chromosomes. Statistical analysis was carried out using the criteria t, x^2 at a significance levels p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. Results: After the donor cytoplasm transfer process the amount of the third day developing embryos was 27 (79.4%). In this stage, the group B consisted of 189 (88.7%) developing embryos, and there was no statistically significant difference (SSD) between the two groups (p>0.05). After a comparative analysis of the morphological characteristics of the embryos on the fifth day, we also found no SSD among the studied groups (p>0.05): from 34 oocytes exposed to manipulation, 14 (41.2%) blastocysts was obtained, while the group B blastocyst yield was 56.8% (n=121) from 213 oocytes. The following results were obtained after PGS performing: in group A euploidy in studied chromosomes were 28.6%(n=4) blastocysts, whereas in group B this rate was 40.5%(n=49), 28.6%(n=4) and 21.5%(n=26) of mosaic embryos and 42.8%(n=6) and 38.0%(n=46) aneuploid blastocysts respectively were identified. None of these specified parameters had an SSD (p>0.05). But attention was drawn by the blastocysts in group A with identified mosaicism, which was chaotic without any cell having euploid chromosomal set, in contrast to the mosaic embryos in group B where identified chaotic mosaicism was only 2.5%(n=3). Conclusions: According to the obtained results, there is no direct procedural effect on the chromosome in embryos obtained following donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer. Thus, the technology introduction will enhance the infertility treating effectiveness as well as avoiding having a child with mitochondrial disease.

Keywords: donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer, embryos’ chromosome set, oocyte spindle transfer, pronuclear transfer

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3 Analysis of Mutation Associated with Male Infertility in Patients and Healthy Males in the Russian Population

Authors: Svetlana Zhikrivetskaya, Nataliya Shirokova, Roman Bikanov, Elizaveta Musatova, Yana Kovaleva, Nataliya Vetrova, Ekaterina Pomerantseva

Abstract:

Nowadays there is a growing number of couples with conceiving problems due to male or female infertility. Genetic abnormalities are responsible for about 31% of all cases of male infertility. These abnormalities include both chromosomal aberrations or aneuploidies and mutations in certain genes. Chromosomal abnormalities can be easily identified, thus the development of screening panels able to reveal genetic reasons of male infertility on gene level is of current interest. There are approximately 2,000 genes involved in male fertility that is the reason why it is very important to determine the most clinically relevant in certain population and ethnic conditions. An infertility screening panel containing 48 mutations in genes AMHR2, CFTR, DNAI1, HFE, KAL1, TSSK2 and AZF locus which are the most clinically relevant for the European population according to databases NCBI and ClinVar was designed. The aim of this research was to confirm clinic relevance of these mutations in the Russian population. Genotyping was performed in 220 patients with different types of male infertility and in 57 healthy males with normozoospermia. Mutations were identified by end-point PCR with TaqMan probes in microfluidic plates. The frequency of 5 mutations in healthy males and 13 mutations in patients with infertility was revealed and estimated. The frequency of mutation c.187C>G in HFE gene was significantly lower for healthy males (8.8%) compared with patients (17.7%) and the values for the European population according to ExAc database (13.7%) and dbSNP (17.2%). Analysis of c.3454G>C, and c.1545_1546delTA mutations in the CFTR gene revealed increased frequency (0.9 and 0.2%, respectively) in patients with infertility compared with data for the European population (0.04%, respectively (ExAc, European (Non-Finnish) and for the Aggregated Populations (0.002% (ExAc), because there is no data for European population for c.1545_1546delTA mutation. The frequency of del508 mutation (CFTR) in patients (1.59%) were lower comparing with male infertility Europeans (3.34-6.25% depending on nationality) and at the same level with healthy Europeans (1.06%, ExAc, European (Non-Finnish). Analysis of c.845G>A (HFE) mutation resulted in decreased frequency in patients (1.8%) in contrast with the European population data (5.1%, respectively, ExAc, European (Non-Finnish). Moreover, obtained data revealed no statistically significant frequency difference for c.845G>A mutation (HFE) between healthy males in the Russian and the European populations. Allele frequencies of mutations c.350G>A (CFTR), c.193A>T (HFE), c.774C>T, and c.80A>G (gene TSSK2) showed no significantly difference among patients with infertility, healthy males and Europeans. Analysis of AZF locus revealed increased frequency for AZFc microdeletion in patients with male infertility. Thereby, the new data of the allele frequencies in infertility patients in the Russian population was obtained. As well as the frequency differences of mutations associated with male infertility among patients, healthy males in the Russian population and the European one were estimated. The revealed differences showed that for high effectiveness of screening panel detecting genetically caused male infertility it is very important to consider ethnic and population characteristics of patients which will be screened.

Keywords: allele frequency, azoospermia, male infertility, mutation, population

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2 Design, Development and Testing of Polymer-Glass Microfluidic Chips for Electrophoretic Analysis of Biological Sample

Authors: Yana Posmitnaya, Galina Rudnitskaya, Tatyana Lukashenko, Anton Bukatin, Anatoly Evstrapov

Abstract:

An important area of biological and medical research is the study of genetic mutations and polymorphisms that can alter gene function and cause inherited diseases and other diseases. The following methods to analyse DNA fragments are used: capillary electrophoresis and electrophoresis on microfluidic chip (MFC), mass spectrometry with electrophoresis on MFC, hybridization assay on microarray. Electrophoresis on MFC allows to analyse small volumes of samples with high speed and throughput. A soft lithography in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was chosen for operative fabrication of MFCs. A master-form from silicon and photoresist SU-8 2025 (MicroChem Corp.) was created for the formation of micro-sized structures in PDMS. A universal topology which combines T-injector and simple cross was selected for the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Glass K8 and PDMS Sylgard® 184 (Dow Corning Corp.) were used for fabrication of MFCs. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) plays an important role in the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Therefore, the estimate of the quantity of EOF and the ways of its regulation are of interest for the development of the new methods of the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The following methods of surface modification were chosen to change EOF: high-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma treatment in oxygen and argon at low pressure (1 mbar); 1% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol; 3% aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188 (Sigma-Aldrich Corp.). The electroosmotic mobility was evaluated by the method of Huang X. et al., wherein the borate buffer was used. The influence of physical and chemical methods of treatment on the wetting properties of the PDMS surface was controlled by the sessile drop method. The most effective way of surface modification of MFCs, from the standpoint of obtaining the smallest value of the contact angle and the smallest value of the EOF, was the processing with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. This method of modification has been selected for the treatment of channels of MFCs, which are used for the separation of mixture of oligonucleotides fluorescently labeled with the length of chain with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nucleotides. Electrophoresis was performed on the device MFAS-01 (IAI RAS, Russia) at the separation voltage of 1500 V. 6% solution of polydimethylacrylamide with the addition of 7M carbamide was used as the separation medium. The separation time of components of the mixture was determined from electropherograms. The time for untreated MFC was ~275 s, and for the ones treated with solution of Kolliphor® P 188 – ~ 220 s. Research of physical-chemical methods of surface modification of MFCs allowed to choose the most effective way for reducing EOF – the modification with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. In this case, the separation time of the mixture of oligonucleotides decreased about 20%. The further optimization of method of modification of channels of MFCs will allow decreasing the separation time of sample and increasing the throughput of analysis.

Keywords: electrophoresis, microfluidic chip, modification, nucleic acid, polydimethylsiloxane, soft lithography

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1 EEG and DC-Potential Level Сhanges in the Elderly

Authors: Irina Deputat, Anatoly Gribanov, Yuliya Dzhos, Alexandra Nekhoroshkova, Tatyana Yemelianova, Irina Bolshevidtseva, Irina Deryabina, Yana Kereush, Larisa Startseva, Tatyana Bagretsova, Irina Ikonnikova

Abstract:

In the modern world the number of elderly people increases. Preservation of functionality of an organism in the elderly becomes very important now. During aging the higher cortical functions such as feelings, perception, attention, memory, and ideation are gradual decrease. It is expressed in the rate of information processing reduction, volume of random access memory loss, ability to training and storing of new information decrease. Perspective directions in studying of aging neurophysiological parameters are brain imaging: computer electroencephalography, neuroenergy mapping of a brain, and also methods of studying of a neurodynamic brain processes. Research aim – to study features of a brain aging in elderly people by electroencephalogram (EEG) and the DC-potential level. We examined 130 people aged 55 - 74 years that did not have psychiatric disorders and chronic states in a decompensation stage. EEG was recorded with a 128-channel GES-300 system (USA). EEG recordings are collected while the participant sits at rest with their eyes closed for 3 minutes. For a quantitative assessment of EEG we used the spectral analysis. The range was analyzed on delta (0,5–3,5 Hz), a theta - (3,5–7,0 Hz), an alpha 1-(7,0–11,0 Hz) an alpha 2-(11–13,0 Hz), beta1-(13–16,5 Hz) and beta2-(16,5–20 Hz) ranges. In each frequency range spectral power was estimated. The 12-channel hardware-software diagnostic ‘Neuroenergometr-KM’ complex was applied for registration, processing and the analysis of a brain constant potentials level. The DC-potential level registered in monopolar leads. It is revealed that the EEG of elderly people differ in higher rates of spectral power in the range delta (р < 0,01) and a theta - (р < 0,05) rhythms, especially in frontal areas in aging. By results of the comparative analysis it is noted that elderly people 60-64 aged differ in higher values of spectral power alfa-2 range in the left frontal and central areas (р < 0,05) and also higher values beta-1 range in frontal and parieto-occipital areas (р < 0,05). Study of a brain constant potential level distribution revealed increase of total energy consumption on the main areas of a brain. In frontal leads we registered the lowest values of constant potential level. Perhaps it indicates decrease in an energy metabolism in this area and difficulties of executive functions. The comparative analysis of a potential difference on the main assignments testifies to unevenness of a lateralization of a brain functions at elderly people. The results of a potential difference between right and left hemispheres testify to prevalence of the left hemisphere activity. Thus, higher rates of functional activity of a cerebral cortex are peculiar to people of early advanced age (60-64 years) that points to higher reserve opportunities of central nervous system. By 70 years there are age changes of a cerebral power exchange and level of electrogenesis of a brain which reflect deterioration of a condition of homeostatic mechanisms of self-control and the program of processing of the perceptual data current flow.

Keywords: brain, DC-potential level, EEG, elderly people

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