Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3232

Search results for: vocational program

3232 Industry Practitioners Involvement in Taiwan Vocational Education

Authors: Hsiao Tseng Lin, Szu Mei Hsiao, Mei Chun Yuan

Abstract:

Today's rapid development of industrial pulsation, how to reduce the gap between the academics and industry need become an important issue in vocational education. Beginning in 2015, a two-year program for teaching excellence, funded by the Ministry of Education Taiwan, is implemented by Meiho University, with a total project funding of $ 1.5 million USD. One of the innovated highlights of this program is to invite 188 industry practitioners to participate in collaborative teaching for 175 classes and 28 industry practitioners to be as mentors too. 56 industry practitioners are also invited to participate in curriculum planning and design. Students' overall satisfaction with the program was more than 4.5 (out of 5.0). This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness and discusses the limit of the practitioners program. This study has revealed and provided some valuable perspectives how to best ensure the ongoing involvement of industry practitioners in vocational education. The findings of this study are valuable to those involved in designing collaborative teaching curriculum and delivering a course for vocational education.

Keywords: collaborative teaching, industry practitioners, mentor, vocational education

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3231 The Effects of Vocational Training on Offender Rehabilitation in Nigerian Correctional Institutions

Authors: Hadi Mohammed

Abstract:

The introduction of vocational education and training (VET) in correctional institutions as part of prisoner rehabilitation program is to help offenders develop marketable job skills and reduce re-offending thereby increasing the likely hood of successful reintegration back to their community. Offenders who participate in vocational education and training are significantly less likely to return to prison after released and are more likely to find employment after released than offenders who do not received such training. Those who participated in vocational training were 28% more likely to be employed after released from prison than those who did not received such training. This paper examined the effects of vocational training on offender rehabilitation as well as the effects of vocational training on the relationship between reformation and reintegration in Nigerian correctional institution. To address this two research question were formulated to guide the research. A survey research was employed. The participants were 200 offenders in Nigerian correctional institutions. Questionnaire items were administered. Mean, standard deviation and Partial Correlation were used for the data analysis. The findings revealed that vocational training has helped in offender rehabilitation in Nigerian correctional institutions. Similarly there was a moderate significant positive partial correlation between reformation and reintegration, controlling for vocational training, r=0.461, n=221, p<0.005 with moderate level of reformation and being associated with moderate level of reintegration. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Nigerian Correctional Institutions should strengthen their vocational training program for offenders to be properly rehabilitated.

Keywords: correctional institutions, vocational education and training, offender rehabilitation

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3230 Practitioner System in Vocational Education: Perspectives of Academics and Industry Practitioners

Authors: Hsiao-Tseng Lin, Nguyen Ngoc Dat, Szu-Mei Hsiao, R. J. Hernández-Díaz

Abstract:

The practitioner system has become an important tool for universities working to shrink the gap between industry and vocational education. Beginning in 2015, Meiho University conducted a consecutive three-year program for teaching excellence, funded in part by Taiwan’s Ministry of Education, with a total project funding of over $2.5 million USD. One of the highlights of this program is the recruitment of 300 industry practitioners to participate in collaborative teaching, a dual-mentor system, and curriculum planning. More than 60% of the practitioners boast more than 10 years of practical industry experience, and 52% of them have earned master's degree or higher. Students rated their overall program satisfaction over 4.5(out of 5.0) on average. This study explores the perspectives of academics and industry practitioners using in-depth interviews and surveys, along with an examination of the challenges of the practitioner system. The paper enables the framing of practitioner system policies by vocational education institutions and industry to facilitate more effective and efficient transfer of knowledge between academics and practitioners, leading to enhanced university competitive advantage, which would ultimately benefit society.

Keywords: collaborative teaching, industry practitioners, practitioner system, vocational education

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3229 Vocational Rehabilitation for People with Disabilities: Employment Rates, Job Persistence and Wages

Authors: Hester Fass, Ofir Pinto

Abstract:

Research indicates gaps in education, employment rates and wages between people with disabilities and those without disabilities. One of the main tools available to reduce these gaps is vocational rehabilitation. In order to examine the effects of vocational rehabilitation, a follow-up study, based on comprehensive administrative data, was conducted. The study included 88,286 people with disabilities who participated in vocational rehabilitation of the National Insurance Institute of Israel (NII), and completed the process between 1999 and 2012. Research variables included: employment rates, job persistence and wage levels. This research, the first of its kind in Israel, has several unique aspects: a)a long-range follow-up study on people who completed vocational rehabilitation; b) examination of a broad population spectrum, including also people that are not eligible to disability pensions ; c) a comparison among those with work-related injuries, those injured in hostile acts and those injured in other circumstances; and finally d) the identification of the characteristics of those who are entitled to vocational rehabilitation but who do not participate in any vocational rehabilitation plan. The most notable results include: 1. Vocational rehabilitation contributed to employment, job persistence and wage levels. Participation in vocational rehabilitation resulted in an employment rate of 65% within two years after completing the program, and 73% eventually. Participation in a vocational rehabilitation plan also contributed to job persistence and wage levels. 2. Vocational rehabilitation plans aimed at integration in universal frameworks increased the chances of being employed, persisting at the job and receiving a higher wage than did the vocational rehabilitation aimed at selective frameworks (such as sheltered workshops). 3. The type of disability affected the chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan and in the labor market. People with a disability from birth had greater chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan, while the type of disability and its severity affected the chances of the person with disabilities to find employment.

Keywords: vocational rehabilitation, employment, job persistence, wages

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3228 Changes in Vocational Teacher Training in Hungary: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: Anetta Bacsa-Bán

Abstract:

The training of vocational education teachers in Hungary was a special training system before the Bologna system, but under the influence of the Bologna system, the structure and content of the training changed significantly. The training of vocational teachers, including engineering teachers and vocational trainers, is considerably different when compared to the training of public education teachers. This study aims to present these differences and peculiarities, problems and issues of the training as well as to outline the possibilities of further development. During the study, the following methods were implemented: empirical research among students and graduates of vocational teacher training, as well as analysis of the relevant literature. The study summarizes the research and theoretical results related to vocational education and training (VET) teacher training over the past 15 years, with the aim of developing the training and mapping new directions in the field.

Keywords: vocational teacher, technical instructors, technical vocational instructors, theoretical aspects

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3227 Employment Problems of Graduands Graduated Form Vocational High Schools

Authors: Refik Uyanöz, Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to show the employing ability of vocational students. And also, the employment problems of these students are emphasized in this study.The rapid development in technology and information and increased qualified labor is widely affects labor market. On the other hand, labor market will look for educated, qualified, talented and young people. Because of this reason, qualified staff should be educated at vocational high schools. Vocational high schools are one of the best institutions to educate qualified staff. In this research, the conditions of vocational high schools are studied. The difference between the employment policies and current employment problems are researched.

Keywords: vocational high school, employment, employment problems, vocational students

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3226 The Impact of Scaffolding on Motivation of Vocational Special Education Students in Kakamega Program for Persons with Hearing Impaired in Kenya

Authors: J. W. Mbogani, B. A. Bunyasi

Abstract:

The special skills for five students in the vocational class in Kakamega program for Hearing impaired were identified within one term period of the Kenyan education system. Three students were identified as having a liking for tailoring. The remaining two students did not show any interest in any vocational subject. The three students were attached to two professionals in practicing general tailors within the school vicinity for scaffolding purposes. The students were allowed to attend general classes under the normal curriculum and were withdrawn after eleven in the morning for tailoring classes. The students were then monitored with the guideline of a checklist. The purpose of monitoring was to establish whether the behavior of the students reflected a motivated student. It was established that two of them improved in their school attendance in terms of regularity, punctuality and responsibility accomplishment. The third student ended up attending only tailoring classes. The socialization aspect of the two students improved a lot. They also tended to identify more with the teachers than their fellow students. We recommend that learners with special needs in education should be subjected to the normal curriculum. They may benefit more and attain a skill that could help them economically. Further study should also be done to in several institutions involving learners in other classes.

Keywords: general tailoring, scaffolding, term, vocational class

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3225 Digital Learning Repositories for Vocational Teaching and Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Prachyanun Nilsook, Panita Wannapiroon

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study a Digital Learning Repository System (DLRS) on vocational teachers and teaching in Thailand. The innobpcd.net is a DLRS being utilized by the Office of Vocational Education Commission and operationalized by the Bureau of Personnel Competency Development for vocational education teachers. The aim of the system is to support and enhance the process of vocational teaching and to improve staff development by providing teachers with a variety of network connections and information. The system provides centralized hosting and access to content, and the ability to share digital objects or files, to set permissions and controls for access to content that can be used vocational education teachers for their teaching and for their own development. The elements of DLRS include; Digital learning system, Media Library, Knowledge-based system and Mobile Application. The system aims to link vocational teachers to the most effective emerging technologies available for learning, so they are better resourced to support their vocational students. The initial results from this evaluation indicate that there is a range of services provided by the system being used by vocational teachers and this paper indicates which facilities have the greatest usage and impact on vocational teaching in Thailand.

Keywords: digital learning repositories, vocational education, knowledge sharing, learning objects

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3224 The Relationship between Anxiety and Willingness to Communicate: The Indonesian EFL Context

Authors: Yana Shanti Manipuspika

Abstract:

Anxiety has potential to negatively affect foreign language learning process. This feeling leads the learners hesitate to communicate. This present study aimed at investigating the relationship between students’ anxiety and willingness to communicate of Indonesian EFL learners. There were 67 participants in this study who were the English Department students of Vocational Program of University of Brawijaya, Malang. This study employed Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) and the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) scale. The results of this study showed that the respondents had communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation. This study also revealed that English Department students of Vocational Program University of Brawijaya had high level of anxiety and low level of willingness to communicate. The relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety and willingness to communicate was found to be sufficiently negative. It is suggested for the language teachers to identify the causes of students’ language anxiety and try to create cheerful and less stressful atmosphere in the classroom. It is also important to find a way to develop their teaching strategies to stimulate students’ willingness to communicate.

Keywords: English as a foreign language (EFL), foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), vocational program, willingness to communicate (WTC)

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3223 Design of Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System for Vocational Education

Authors: Seree Chadcham, Niphon Sukvilai

Abstract:

This study is the research and development which is intended to: 1) design of the Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System (ISLMS) for vocational education, 2) assess the suitability of the Design of Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System for Vocational Education. Its methods are divided into 2 phases. Phase 1 is the design of the ISLMS for Vocational Education and phase 2 is the assessment of the suitability of the design. The samples used in this study are work done by 15 professionals in the field of Intelligent Scaffolding, Learning Management System, Vocational Education, and Information and Communication Technology in education selected using the purposive sampling method. Data analyzed by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results showed that the ISLMS for vocational education consists of 2 main components which are: 1) the Intelligent Learning Management System for Vocational Education, 2) the Intelligent Scaffolding Management System. The result of the system suitability assessment from the professionals is in the highest range.

Keywords: intelligent, scaffolding, learning management system, vocational education

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3222 Examines the Proportionality between the Needs of Industry and Technical and Vocational Training of Male and Female Vocational Schools

Authors: Khalil Aryanfar, Pariya Gholipor, Elmira Hafez

Abstract:

This study examines the proportionality between the needs of industry and technical and vocational training of male and female vocational schools. The research method was descriptive that was conducted in two parts: documentary analysis and needs assessment and Delphi method was used in the need assessment. The statistical population of the study included 312 individuals from the industry sector employers and 52 of them were selected through stratified random sampling. Methods of data collection in this study, upstream documents include: document of the development of technical and vocational training, Statistical Yearbook 1393 in Tehran, the available documents in Isfahan Planning Department, the findings indicate that there is an almost proportionality between the needs of industry and Vocational training of male and female vocational schools in fields of welding, industrial electronics, electro technique, industrial drawing, auto mechanics, design, packaging, machine tool, metalworking, construction, accounting, computer graphics and the Administrative Affairs. The findings indicate that there is no proportionality between the needs of industry and Vocational training of male and female vocational schools in fields of Thermal - cooling systems, building electricity, building drawing, interior architecture, car electricity and motor repair.

Keywords: needs assessment, technical and vocational training, industry

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3221 The Influence of the Vocational Teachers Empowerment toward the Vocational High Schools’ Performance Based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia

Authors: Abdul Haris Setiawan

Abstract:

Teachers empowerment is one of the important factors considered to contribute significantly to the achievement of the national education goals. This study was conducted to determine the influence on the vocational teachers empowerment toward the performance of the vocational high schools based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia. The population of the study was all vocational teachers at the State Vocational High schools in Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The sampling technique used proportional random sampling technique. This study used a quantitative descriptive statistical analysis techniques. The data was collected using questionnaires. The data has been collected and then tested using analysis requirements test. Having tested using the requirements analysis and then the data processed using regression analysis between the independent and dependent variables to determine the effect and the regression equation. The results of the study found that the level of vocational high schools’ performance based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia was 74.29%, including in the high category; the level of vocational teachers empowerment was 76.20%, including in the high category; there was a positive influence of vocational teachers empowerment toward the vocational high schools’ performance based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia with a correlation coefficient of 0,886, and a contribution of 78.50% with the regression equation Y = 79.431 +0.534 X.

Keywords: vocational teachers, empowerment, vocational high school, the education national standards

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3220 Rubric in Vocational Education

Authors: Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Jamil Ahmad, Ruhizan Muhammad Yasin

Abstract:

Rubric is a very important tool for teachers and students for a variety of purposes. Teachers use the rubric for evaluating student work while students use rubrics for self-assessment. Therefore, this paper was emphasized scoring rubric as a scoring tool for teachers in an environment of Competency Based Education and Training (CBET) in Malaysia Vocational College. A total of three teachers in the fields of electrical and electronics engineering were interviewed to identify how the use of rubrics practiced since vocational transformation implemented in 2012. Overall holistic rubric used to determine the performance of students in the skills area.

Keywords: rubric, vocational education, teachers, CBET

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3219 Youths Economic Empowerment through Vocational Agricultural Enterprises (Entrepreneurship) for Sustainable Agriculture in Nigeria: Constraints and Initiatives for Improvement

Authors: Thomas Ogilegwu Orohu

Abstract:

This paper presents agricultural education as a vocational study, an impetus for youths, economic empowerment. The survival of Nigeria’s agriculture rests squarely on the youth who are the farmers and leaders of tomorrow. Hitherto, the teaching and learning of agriculture has proceeded in such a manner that graduates of such programs have failed to make the successful launch into the world of agricultural enterprises (entrepreneurship). Major constraints that predisposed this anomalous situation were identified to include poor policy framework, socio-economic pressures, undue parental and peer influences, improper value orientation and of course, the nature of curricula. In response to the situation, some programs and/or initiatives aimed at inculcating entrepreneurial skills were proposed by this paper with identified target beneficiaries. The initiatives bordered on curricular reorientation that integrate entrepreneurship/enterprise education, retraining of graduates, financial support system among others.

Keywords: Program initiatives. vocational agriculture, youths’ empowerment, introduction

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3218 Effect of Organizational Resources on Improving Independency of People with Severe Disabilities: Vocational Rehabilitation Facilities in South Korea

Authors: Soungwan Kim

Abstract:

This paper discusses an analysis of how the characteristics of resources at vocational rehabilitation facilities for the disabled affect the improvement of independency skills among people with severe disabilities. The analysis results indicate that more internal financial resources and more connections to local communities among network resources had greater effects on improving the independency of people with severe disabilities. Based on this result, this paper presents strategies for mobilizing resources to improve the independency of people with severe disabilities at vocational rehabilitation facilities.

Keywords: vocational rehabilitation facility for people with disabilities, types of resources, independency, network resources

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3217 Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Maikudi Umar

Abstract:

This paper conceived Vocational and Technical Education as those aspects of educational process, in addition to general education leading to acquisition of practical skills, attitudes as well as basic scientific knowledge as it relates to occupations in various sectors of the economic and social life. The paper therefore viewed Vocational and Technical education as those aspects of educational training designed to provide the recipient with the skills abilities and understanding needed for efficient performance in chosen occupational carrier for self reliance. The paper also examined some major inhibitions to the attainment of self reliance through VTE. The paper also recommended a change of attitudes by governments in Nigeria by providing adequate equipment so as to meet up with the challenges.

Keywords: vocational education, technical education, skills and self reliance, issues and challenges

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3216 Vocational and Technical Education: A Practical Approach to Reducing Insecurity in Nigeria

Authors: S. S. Amoor

Abstract:

Insecurity is becoming a major tool in the hand of Nigeria’s enemies to increase poverty and hatred among the citizens and split the county into several political segments. It is based on this background that this paper critically examines Vocational and Technical Education as a practical and realistic approach to reducing insecurity in Nigeria so as to save the country from total disintegration. The paper discusses the concept of insecurity, types, causes and effects of insecurity, and how vocational and technical education and its variables are fundamental and practical measures to reducing insecurity in Nigeria. The paper concludes that the large army of unemployed and unskilled youths in Nigeria requires immediate attention in the area of provision of marketable vocational and technical skills, creativity and competences that will prepare them for employment or self-reliance. It is hoped that government jobs or self-employment will keep the teeming youths busy and therefore take their minds away from odd jobs that threaten the security of the country. In line with these, the paper recommends, among others, that since the teeming unemployed and unskilled youths are mostly from the rural areas, the state governments in collaboration with the local governments should take appropriate steps to provide the youths with vocational skills in carpentry, fashion designing, hair-dressing, driving, welding, mechanical works, among others. Once the youths are involved in one skilled trade or the other, insecurity would be reduced.

Keywords: vocational and technical education, insecurity, practical approach to reducing insecurity, unemployment

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3215 Assessment of Master's Program in Technology

Authors: Niaz Latif, Joy L. Colwell

Abstract:

Following implementation of a master’s level graduate degree program in technology, a research-based assessment of the program was undertaken to determine how well the program met its goals and objectives, and the impact of the degree program on the objectives and the needs of its graduates. Upon review of the survey data, it was concluded that the program was meeting its goals and objectives and that the directed project option should be encouraged.

Keywords: master’s degree, graduate program, assessment, master's program in technology

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3214 Development of a Distance Training Package on Production of Handbook and Report Writing for Innovative Learning and Teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of the Vocational Education Commission

Authors: Petchpong Mayukhachot

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were (1) to develop a distance training package on topic of Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission; (2) to study the effects of using the distance training package on topic Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission. and (3) to study the samples’ opinion on the distance training package on topic Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission Research and Development was used in this research. The purposive sampling group of this research was 39 Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission. Instruments were; (1) the distance training package, (2) achievement tests on understanding of Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching and learning activities to develop practical skills, and (3) a questionnaire for sample’s opinion on the distance training package. Percent, Mean, Standard Deviation, the E1/E2 efficiency index and t-test were used for data analysis. The findings of the research were as follows: (1) The efficiency of the distance training package was established as 80.90 / 81.90. The distance training package composed of the distance training package document and a manual for the distance training package. The distance training package document consisted of the name of the distance training package, direction for studying the distance training package, content’s structure, concepts, objectives, and activities after studying the distance training package. The manual for the distance training package consisted of the explanation of the distance training package and objectives, direction for using the distance training package, training schedule, documents as a manual of speech, and evaluations. (2) The effects of using the distance training package on topic Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission were the posttest average scores of achievement on understanding of Technology and Occupations teaching for development of critical thinking of the sample group were higher than the pretest average scores. (3) The most appropriate of trainees’ opinion were contents of the distance training package is beneficial to performance. That can be utilized in Teaching or operations. Due to the content of the two units is consistent and activities assigned to the appropriate content.

Keywords: distance training package, handbook writing for innovative learning, teaching report writing for innovative learning, teaching

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3213 Vocational Education: A Synergy for Skills Acquisition and Global Learning in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Raimi, Kehinde Olawuyi, Omoare Ayodeji Motunrayo

Abstract:

In the last two decades, there has been rising youth unemployment, restiveness, and social vices in Nigeria. The relevance of Vocational Education for skills acquisition, global learning, and national development to address these problems cannot be underestimated. Thus, the need to economically empower Nigerian youths to be able to develop the nation and meet up in the ever-changing global learning and economy led to the assessment of Vocational Education as Synergy for the Skills Acquisition and Global Learning in Ogun State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty out of 1,500 students were randomly selected for this study. Data were obtained through a questionnaire and were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Chi-square. The results of the study showed that 59.2% of the respondents were between 20 – 24 years of age, 60.8% were male, and 65.8% had a keen interest in Vocational Education. Also, 90% of the respondents acquired skills in extension/advisory, 78.3% acquired skills in poultry production, and 69.1% acquired skills in fisheries/aquaculture. The major constraints to Vocational Education are inadequate resource personnel (χ² = 10.25, p = 0.02), inadequate training facilities (x̅ = 2.46) and unstable power supply (x̅ = 2.38). Results of Chi-square showed significance association between constraints and Skills Acquisition (χ² = 12.54, p = 0.00) at p < 0.05 level of significance. It was established that Vocational Education significantly contributed to students’ skills acquisition and global learning. This study, therefore, recommends that inadequate personnel should be looked into by the school authority in order not to over-stretch the available staff of the institution while the provision of alternative stable power supply (solar power) is also essential for effective teaching and learning process.

Keywords: vocational education, skills acquisition, national development, global learning

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3212 Teaching Contemporary Power Distribution and Industrial Networks in Higher Education Vocational Studies

Authors: Rade M. Ciric

Abstract:

The paper shows the development and implementation of the syllabus of the subject 'Distribution and Industrial Networks', attended by the vocational specialist Year 4 students of the Electric Power Engineering study programme at the Higher Education Technical School of Vocational Studies in Novi Sad. The aim of the subject is to equip students with the knowledge necessary for planning, exploitation and management of distributive and industrial electric power networks in an open electricity market environment. The results of the evaluation of educational outcomes on the subject are presented and discussed.

Keywords: engineering education, power distribution network, syllabus implementation, outcome evaluation

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3211 Role of Speech Language Pathologists in Vocational Rehabilitation

Authors: Marlyn Mathew

Abstract:

Communication is the key factor in any vocational /job set-up. However many persons with disabilities suffer a deficit in this very area in terms of comprehension, expression and cognitive skills making it difficult for them to get employed appropriately or stay employed. Vocational Rehabilitation is a continuous and coordinated process which involves the provision of vocational related services designed to enable a person with disability to obtain and maintain employment. Therefore the role of the speech language pathologist is crucial in assessing the communication deficits and needs of the individual at the various phases of employment- right from the time of seeking a job and attending interview with suitable employers and also at regular intervals of the employment. This article discusses the various communication deficits and the obstacles faced by individuals with special needs including but not limited to cognitive- linguistic deficits, execution function deficits, speech and language processing difficulties and strategies that can be introduced in the workplace to overcome these obstacles including use of visual cues, checklists, flow charts. The paper also throws light on the importance of educating colleagues and work partners about the communication difficulties faced by the individual. This would help to reduce the communication barriers in the workplace, help colleagues develop an empathetic approach and also reduce misunderstandings that can arise as a result of the communication impairment.

Keywords: vocational rehabilitation, disability, speech language pathologist, cognitive, linguistics

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3210 A Social Cognitive Investigation in the Context of Vocational Training Performance of People with Disabilities

Authors: Majid A. AlSayari

Abstract:

The study reported here investigated social cognitive theory (SCT) in the context of Vocational Rehab (VR) for people with disabilities. The prime purpose was to increase knowledge of VR phenomena and make recommendations for improving VR services. The sample consisted of 242 persons with Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) who completed questionnaires. A further 32 participants were Trainers. Analysis of questionnaire data was carried out using factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, and thematic analysis. The analysis suggested that, in motivational terms, and consistent with research carried out in other academic contexts, self-efficacy was the best predictor of VR performance. The author concludes that that VR self-efficacy predicted VR training performance.

Keywords: people with physical disabilities, social cognitive theory, self-efficacy, vocational training

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3209 Vocational Teaching Method: A Conceptual Model in Teaching Automotive Practical Work

Authors: Adnan Ahmad, Yusri Kamin, Asnol Dahar Minghat, Mohd. Khir Nordin, Dayana Farzeha, Ahmad Nabil

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify the teaching method practices of the practical work subject in Vocational Secondary School. This study examined the practice of Vocational Teaching Method in Automotive Practical Work. The quantitative method used the sets of the questionnaire. 283 students and 63 teachers involved from ten VSS involved in this research. Research finding showed in conducting the introduction session teachers prefer used the demonstration method and questioning technique. While in deliver the content of practical task, teachers applied group monitoring and problem-solving approach. To conclude the task of automotive practical work, teachers choose re-explain and report writing to make sure students really understand all the process of teaching. VTM-APW also involved the competency-based concept to embed in the model. Derived from factors investigated, research produced the combination of elements in teaching skills and vocational skills which could be used as the best teaching method in automotive practical work for school level. As conclusion this study has concluded that the VTM-APW model is able to apply in teaching to make an improvement with current practices in Vocational Secondary School. Hence, teachers are suggested to use this method to enhance student's knowledge in Automotive and teachers will deliver skills to the current and future workforce relevant with the required competency skilled in workplace.

Keywords: vocational teaching method, practical task, teacher preferences, student preferences

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3208 Validation of the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese University and Vocational College Teachers

Authors: Wei Zhang, Lifen Zhao

Abstract:

The present study aims to translate and validate the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese university and vocational college teachers. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure that was consistent with the original structure of career motivation: career insight, career identity, and career resilience. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a second-order three-factor model with correlated measurement errors best fit the data. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance models were tested, demonstrating that the Chinese version of the Career Motivation Scale did not differ across groups of school type, educational level, and working years in current institutions. The concurrent validity of the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was confirmed by its significant correlations with work engagement, career adaptability, career satisfaction, job crafting, and intention to quit. The results of the study indicated that the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was a valid and reliable measure of career motivation among university and vocational college teachers in China.

Keywords: career motivation scale, Chinese University, vocational college teachers, measurement invariance, validation

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3207 Assessment of Vocational Rehabilitation of Visually Impaired Persons in Poultry Farming at Blind Center, Ogbomoso

Authors: Modupe C. Alasa

Abstract:

One of the major parameters for ensuring a country’s economic growth and development is the extent to which the citizens are involved in agriculture. The general objective of this study is to determine the assessment of vocational rehabilitation of visually impaired persons in poultry farming at blind center, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A total number of 70 students will be selected randomly through the use of structured questionnaire out of the total number of students which is 120. Data will be collected from the farmers’ personal characteristics and other specific objectives related to the work. The results will be analyzed with the use of simple statistical tools as frequency, percentage, means and standard deviations. Conclusion and recommendations will be suggested based on result findings of the study.

Keywords: assessment, impair, poultry, rehabilitation, vocational

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3206 Vocational Projects for the Autistic and Developmentally Delayed That Are Sustainable and Eco-Friendly

Authors: Saima Haq

Abstract:

This paper presents the contribution of the Sunflowers Vocational Center, Karachi, Pakistan, by providing a platform for the students of special needs to work with recycled materials and express themselves in a more extravagant form. The concept was to create products that would generate enough income to sustain the program while keeping the students cognitively engaged through arts and crafts and tactile instructions due to their severe intellectual disabilities. Papier-mâché is an art form that is hands-on, repetitive, economical as well as beneficial for the environment. The process of tearing paper into long strips then covering them with paste and laying the strips atop the mold provides constant sensory input for our autistic students as well as the rest of our student population. Given the marginalized stance the society has on special needs, we have marketed the paper-mâché products on social media platforms and have set up booths in carnivals, festivities, open markets that are aimed towards a cause to sell. Our students in the vocational center have also made bins, baskets, and trays that are used in all classrooms. This has cut our costs on classroom materials considerably and has added a sense of accomplishment and furthered the teamwork skills in our sunflowers. The other achievement is our long clientele; orders have been placed from several persons for birthdays, parties, events, and the like. This exposure has raised awareness of the capabilities of persons of special needs and has started a conversation on the topic. And additional achievement is that we have made our teachers, their families, our students, and their families conscientious of the environment and incorporated reusing newspapers into classrooms. Situations where plastic would be bought, for example, bin, dustbins, containers, basket, trays, the paper-mâché products made by our students have been used instead. Due to the low cost of materials, this project is easily replicable and very easy to start. Piñatas are a very popular item for children’s parties everywhere and are gaining popularity through social media. This is also easily replicable in any environment and can have a great impact on the use of plastic in any work or home environment.

Keywords: vocational training, special needs, cognitive skills, teamwork

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3205 Development and Optimization of German Diagnostical Tests in Mathematics for Vocational Training

Authors: J. Thiele

Abstract:

Teachers working at vocational Colleges are often confronted with the problem, that many students graduated from different schools and therefore each had a different education. Especially in mathematics many students lack fundamentals or had different priorities at their previous schools. Furthermore, these vocational Colleges have to provide Graduations for many different working-fields, with different core themes. The Colleges are interested in measuring the different Education levels of their students and providing assistance for those who need to catch up. The Project mathe-meistern was initiated to remedy this problem at vocational Colleges. For this purpose, online-tests were developed. The aim of these tests is to evaluate basic mathematical abilities of the students. The tests are online Multiple-Choice-Tests with a total of 65 Items. They are accessed online with a unique Transaction-Number (TAN) for each participant. The content is divided in several Categories (Arithmetic, Algebra, Fractions, Geometry, etc.). After each test, the student gets a personalized summary depicting their strengths and weaknesses in mathematical Basics. Teachers can visit a special website to examine the results of their classes or single students. In total 5830 students did participate so far. For standardization and optimization purposes the tests are being evaluated, using the classic and probabilistic Test-Theory regarding Objectivity, Reliability and Validity, annually since 2015. This Paper is about the Optimization process considering the Rasch-scaling and Standardization of the tests. Additionally, current results using standardized tests will be discussed. To achieve this Competence levels and Types of errors of students attending vocational Colleges in Nordrheinwestfalen, Germany, were determined, using descriptive Data and Distractorevaluations.

Keywords: diagnostical tests in mathematics, distractor devaluation, test-optimization, test-theory

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3204 The Professionalization of Teachers in the Context of the Development of a Future-Oriented Technical and Vocational Education and Training System in Egypt

Authors: Sherin Ahmed El-Badry Sadek

Abstract:

In this research, it is scientifically examined what contribution the professionalization of teachers can make to the development of a future-oriented vocational education and training system in Egypt. For this purpose, a needs assessment of the Egyptian vocational training system with the central actors and prevailing structures forms the foundation of the study, which theoretically underpinned with the attempt to resolve to some extent the tension between Luhmann's systems theory approach and the actor-centered theory of professional teacher competence. The vocational education system, in particular, must be adaptable and flexible due to the rapidly changing qualification requirements. In view of the pace of technological progress and the associated market changes, vocational training is no longer to be understood only as an educational tool aimed at those who achieve poorer academic performance or are not motivated to take up a degree. Rather, it is to be understood as a cornerstone for the development of society, and international experience shows that it is the core of lifelong learning. But to what extent have the education systems been able to react to these changes in their political, social, and technological systems? And how effective and sustainable are these changes actually? The vocational training system, in particular, has a particular impact on other social systems, which is why the appropriate parameters with the greatest leverage must be identified and adapted. Even if systems and structures are highly relevant, teachers must not hide behind them and must instead strive to develop further and to constantly learn. Despite numerous initiatives and programs to reform vocational training in Egypt, including the EU-funded Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) reform phase I and phase II, the fit of the skilled workers to the needs of the labor market is still insufficient. Surveys show that the majority of employers are very dissatisfied with the graduates that the vocational training system produces. The data was collected through guideline-based interviews with experts from the education system and relevant neighboring systems, which allowed me to reconstruct central in-depth structures, as well as patterns of action and interpretation, in order to subsequently feed these into a matrix of recommendations for action. These recommendations are addressed to different decision-makers and stakeholders and are intended to serve as an impetus for the sustainable improvement of the Egyptian vocational training system. The research findings have shown that education, and in particular vocational training, is a political field that is characterized by a high degree of complexity and which is embedded in a barely manageable, highly branched landscape of structures and actors. At the same time, the vocational training system is not only determined by endogenous factors but also increasingly shaped by the dynamics of the environment and the neighboring social subsystems, with a mutual dependency relationship becoming apparent. These interactions must be taken into account in all decisions, even if prioritization of measures and thus a clear sequence and process orientation are of great urgency.

Keywords: competence orientation, educational policies, education systems, expert interviews, globalization, organizational development, professionalization, systems theory, teacher training, TVET system, vocational training

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3203 Role of Vocational Education and Training in Economic Excellence and Social Inclusion

Authors: Muhammad Ali Asadullah, Zafarullah Amir

Abstract:

In recent years, Vocational Education and Training (VET) has been under discussion by the academic researchers and remained in focus in the political grounds. Due to potential contribution of VET, the World Bank and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) support vocational education to reduce poverty, enhance economic growth and increase competitiveness. This paper examines the impact of Vocational Education and Training on the Economic Growth and Social Inclusion with direct and mediation effect of Social Inclusion. The basic purpose of this study is to assess economic pay-offs as a result of long term investments in VET. Based on the review of Anderson Nilsson, initially we explored the increasing or decreasing trend in investment on VET. Further, the study explores that the countries which invest more on VET, tend to get more economic growth and are socially more ‘inclusive’. It is a longitudinal / panel data study with 12 years of registered data which involves 24 OECD countries. The results of the study indicate the VET has positive association with Social Inclusion and Economic Growth. Further, there is also a positive association of VET and Economic Growth through mediation of Social Inclusion. The current study considers not only issue and challenges in developing VET systems but also contributes to develop the theoretical framework for considering how VET can directly and indirectly improve economic growth and social inclusion. A wider appreciation of how VET’s benefits operate may influence a country’s decisions to invest in it. If policy makers increase investment on VET, the result would be positive in Economic Growth and Social Inclusion. It is also recommended that the same OECD model may be implemented in developing countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: Vocational Education and Training (VET), Social Inclusion, Economic Growth, OECD countries

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