Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1112

Search results for: tasks

1112 An Overview of Evaluations Using Augmented Reality for Assembly Training Tasks

Authors: S. Werrlich, E. Eichstetter, K. Nitsche, G. Notni

Abstract:

Augmented Reality (AR) is a strong growing research topic in different training domains such as medicine, sports, military, education and industrial use cases like assembly and maintenance tasks. AR claims to improve the efficiency and skill-transfer of training tasks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of evaluations using AR for assembly and maintenance training tasks published between 1992 and 2017. We search in a structured way in four different online databases and get 862 results. We select 17 relevant articles focusing on evaluating AR-based training applications for assembly and maintenance tasks. This paper also indicates design guidelines which are necessary for creating a successful application for an AR-based training. We also present five scientific limitations in the field of AR-based training for assembly tasks. Finally, we show our approach to solve current research problems using Design Science Research (DSR).

Keywords: assembly, augmented reality, survey, training

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1111 Use and Effects of Kanban Board from the Aspects of Brothers Furniture Limited

Authors: Kazi Rizvan, Yamin Rekhu

Abstract:

Due to high competitiveness in industries throughout the world, every industry is trying hard to utilize all their resources to keep their productivity as high as possible. Many tools have been being used to ensure smoother flow of an operation, to balance tasks, to maintain proper schedules for tasks, to maintain proper sequence for tasks, to reduce unproductive time. All of these tools are used to augment productivity within an industry. Kanban board is one of them and of the many important tools of lean production system. Kanban Board is a visual depiction of the status of tasks. Kanban board shows the actual status of the tasks. It conveys the progress and issues of tasks as well. Using Kanban Board, tasks can be distributed among workers and operation targets can be visually represented to them. In this paper, an example of Kanban board from the aspects of Brothers Furniture Limited was taken and how the Kanban board system was implemented, how the board was designed and how it was made easily perceivable for the less literate or illiterate workers. The Kanban board was designed for the packing section of Brothers Furniture Limited. It was implemented for the purpose of representing the tasks flow to the workers and to mitigate the time that was wasted while the workers remained wondering about what task they should start after they finish one. Kanban board subsumed seven columns and there was a column for comments where if any problem occurred during working on the tasks. Kanban board was helpful for the workers as the board showed the urgency of the tasks. It was also helpful for the store section as they could understand which products and how much of them could be delivered to store at any certain time. Kanban board had all the information centralized which is why the work-flow got paced up and idle time was minimized. Regardless of many workers being illiterate or less literate, Kanban board was still explicable for the workers as the Kanban cards were colored. Since the significance of colors can be conveniently interpretable to them, colored cards helped a great deal in that matter. Hence, the illiterate or less literate workers didn’t have to spend time wondering about the significance of the cards. Even when the workers weren’t told the significance of the colored cards, they could grow a feeling about their meaning as colors can trigger anyone’s mind to perceive the situation. As a result, the board elucidated the workers about what board required them to do, when to do and what to do next. Kanban board alleviated excessive time between tasks by setting day-plan for targeted tasks and it also reduced time during tasks as the workers were acknowledged of forthcoming tasks for a day. Being very specific to the tasks, Kanban board helped the workers become more focused on their tasks helped them do their job with more perfection. As a result, The Kanban board helped achieve a 8.75% increase in productivity than the productivity before the Kanban board was implemented.

Keywords: color, Kanban Board, Lean Tool, literacy, packing, productivity

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1110 Metaheuristics to Solve Tasks Scheduling

Authors: Rachid Ziteuni, Selt Omar

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new polynomial metaheuristic elaboration (tabu search) for solving scheduling problems. This method allows us to solve the scheduling problem of n tasks on m identical parallel machines with unavailability periods. This problem is NP-complete in the strong sens and finding an optimal solution appears unlikely. Note that all data in this problem are integer and deterministic. The performance criterion to optimize in this problem which we denote Pm/N-c/summs of (wjCj) is the weighted sum of the end dates of tasks.

Keywords: scheduling, parallel identical machines, unavailability periods, metaheuristic, tabu search

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1109 Pre-Service Teachers’ Reasoning and Sense Making of Variables

Authors: Olteanu Constanta, Olteanu Lucian

Abstract:

Researchers note that algebraic reasoning and sense making is essential for building conceptual knowledge in school mathematics. Consequently, pre-service teachers’ own reasoning and sense making are useful in fostering and developing students’ algebraic reasoning and sense making. This article explores the forms of reasoning and sense making that pre-service mathematics teachers exhibit and use in the process of analysing problem-posing tasks with a focus on first-degree equations. Our research question concerns the characteristics of the problem-posing tasks used for reasoning and sense making of first-degree equations as well as the characteristics of pre-service teachers’ reasoning and sense making in problem-posing tasks. The analyses are grounded in a post-structuralist philosophical perspective and variation theory. Sixty-six pre-service primary teachers participated in the study. The results show that the characteristics of reasoning in problem-posing tasks and of pre-service teachers are selecting, exploring, reconfiguring, encoding, abstracting and connecting. The characteristics of sense making in problem-posing tasks and of pre-service teachers are recognition, relationships, profiling, comparing, laddering and verifying. Beside this, the connection between reasoning and sense making is rich in line of flight in problem-posing tasks, while the connection is rich in line of rupture for pre-service teachers.

Keywords: first-degree equations, problem posing, reasoning, rhizomatic assemblage, sense-making, variation theory

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1108 Algorithms for Run-Time Task Mapping in NoC-Based Heterogeneous MPSoCs

Authors: M. K. Benhaoua, A. K. Singh, A. E. Benyamina, P. Boulet

Abstract:

Mapping parallelized tasks of applications onto these MPSoCs can be done either at design time (static) or at run-time (dynamic). Static mapping strategies find the best placement of tasks at design-time, and hence, these are not suitable for dynamic workload and seem incapable of runtime resource management. The number of tasks or applications executing in MPSoC platform can exceed the available resources, requiring efficient run-time mapping strategies to meet these constraints. This paper describes a new Spiral Dynamic Task Mapping heuristic for mapping applications onto NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoC. This heuristic is based on packing strategy and routing Algorithm proposed also in this paper. Heuristic try to map the tasks of an application in a clustering region to reduce the communication overhead between the communicating tasks. The heuristic proposed in this paper attempts to map the tasks of an application that are most related to each other in a spiral manner and to find the best possible path load that minimizes the communication overhead. In this context, we have realized a simulation environment for experimental evaluations to map applications with varying number of tasks onto an 8x8 NoC-based Heterogeneous MPSoCs platform, we demonstrate that the new mapping heuristics with the new modified dijkstra routing algorithm proposed are capable of reducing the total execution time and energy consumption of applications when compared to state-of-the-art run-time mapping heuristics reported in the literature.

Keywords: multiprocessor system on chip, MPSoC, network on chip, NoC, heterogeneous architectures, run-time mapping heuristics, routing algorithm

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1107 Dual-Task–Immersion in the Interactions of Simultaneously Performed Tasks

Authors: M. Liebherr, P. Schubert, S. Kersten, C. Dietz, L. Franz, C. T. Haas

Abstract:

With a long history, dual-task has become one of the most intriguing research fields regarding human brain functioning and cognition. However, findings considering effects of task-interrelations are limited (especially, in combined motor and cognitive tasks). Therefore, we aimed at developing a measurement system in order to analyse interrelation effects of cognitive and motor tasks. On the one hand, the present study demonstrates the applicability of the measurement system and on the other hand first results regarding a systematization of different task combinations are shown. Future investigations should combine imagine technologies and this developed measurement system.

Keywords: dual-task, interference, cognition, measurement

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1106 Design of a Virtual Reality System for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

Authors: Ya-Ju Ju, Li-Chen Yang, Yi-Chun Du, Rong-Ju Cherng

Abstract:

Introduction: It is estimated that 5-6% of school-aged children may be diagnosed to have developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Children with DCD are characterized with motor skill difficulty which cannot be explained by any medical or intellectual reasons. Such motor difficulties limit children’s participation to sports activity, further affect their physical fitness, cardiopulmonary function and balance, and may lead to obesity. The purpose of the project was to develop an exergaming system for children with DCD aiming to improve their physical fitness, cardiopulmonary function and balance ability. Methods: This study took five steps to build up the system: system planning, tasks selection, tasks programming, system integration and usability test. The system basically adopted virtual reality technique to integrate self-developed training programs. The training programs were developed to brainstorm among team members and after literature review. The selected tasks for training in the system were a combination of fundamental movement tor skill. Results and Discussion: Based on the theory of motor development, we design the training task from easy ones to hard ones, from single tasks to dual tasks. The tasks included walking, sit to stand, jumping, kicking, weight shifting, side jumping and their combination. Preliminary study showed that the tasks presented an order of development. Further study is needed to examine its effect on motor skill and cardiovascular fitness in children with DCD.

Keywords: virtual reality, virtual reality system, developmental coordination disorder, children

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1105 Workforce Optimization: Fair Workload Balance and Near-Optimal Task Execution Order

Authors: Alvaro Javier Ortega

Abstract:

A large number of companies face the challenge of matching highly-skilled professionals to high-end positions by human resource deployment professionals. However, when the professional list and tasks to be matched are larger than a few dozens, this process result is far from optimal and takes a long time to be made. Therefore, an automated assignment algorithm for this workforce management problem is needed. The majority of companies are divided into several sectors or departments, where trained employees with different experience levels deal with a large number of tasks daily. Also, the execution order of all tasks is of mater consequence, due to some of these tasks just can be run it if the result of another task is provided. Thus, a wrong execution order leads to large waiting times between consecutive tasks. The desired goal is, therefore, creating accurate matches and a near-optimal execution order that maximizes the number of tasks performed and minimizes the idle time of the expensive skilled employees. The problem described before can be model as a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) as it will be shown in detail through this paper. A large number of MINLP algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Here, genetic algorithm solutions are considered and a comparison between two different mutation approaches is presented. The simulated results considering different complexity levels of assignment decisions show the appropriateness of the proposed model.

Keywords: employees, genetic algorithm, industry management, workforce

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1104 Resource Allocation and Task Scheduling with Skill Level and Time Bound Constraints

Authors: Salam Saudagar, Ankit Kamboj, Niraj Mohan, Satgounda Patil, Nilesh Powar

Abstract:

Task Assignment and Scheduling is a challenging Operations Research problem when there is a limited number of resources and comparatively higher number of tasks. The Cost Management team at Cummins needs to assign tasks based on a deadline and must prioritize some of the tasks as per business requirements. Moreover, there is a constraint on the resources that assignment of tasks should be done based on an individual skill level, that may vary for different tasks. Another constraint is for scheduling the tasks that should be evenly distributed in terms of number of working hours, which adds further complexity to this problem. The proposed greedy approach to solve assignment and scheduling problem first assigns the task based on management priority and then by the closest deadline. This is followed by an iterative selection of an available resource with the least allocated total working hours for a task, i.e. finding the local optimal choice for each task with the goal of determining the global optimum. The greedy approach task allocation is compared with a variant of Hungarian Algorithm, and it is observed that the proposed approach gives an equal allocation of working hours among the resources. The comparative study of the proposed approach is also done with manual task allocation and it is noted that the visibility of the task timeline has increased from 2 months to 6 months. An interactive dashboard app is created for the greedy assignment and scheduling approach and the tasks with more than 2 months horizon that were waiting in a queue without a delivery date initially are now analyzed effectively by the business with expected timelines for completion.

Keywords: assignment, deadline, greedy approach, Hungarian algorithm, operations research, scheduling

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1103 Role of the Midwifery Trained Registered Nurse in Postnatal Units at Tertiary Care Hospitals in the Western Province of Sri Lanka: A Postal Survey

Authors: Sunethra Jayathilake, Vathsala Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Kerstin Samarasinghe, Himani Molligoda, Rasika Perera

Abstract:

In Sri Lanka, postnatal care in the state hospitals is provided by different professional categories: Midwifery trained registered nurses (MTRNs), Registered Nurses (RNs) who do not have midwifery training, doctors and midwives. Even though four professional categories provide postnatal care to mothers and newborn babies, they are not aware of their own tasks and responsibilities in postnatal care. Particularly MTRN’s role in the postnatal unit is unclear. The current study aimed to identify nurses’ (both MTRN and RNs) perception on MTRN’s tasks and responsibilities in postnatal care. This is a descriptive cross sectional study using postal survey. All nurses who were currently working in postnatal units at five selected tertiary care hospitals in the Western Province at that time were invited to participate in the study. Accordingly, the pre evaluated self-administered questionnaire was sent to 201 nurses (53 MTRNs and 148 RNs) in the study setting. The number of valid return questionnaire was 166; response rate was 83%. Respondents rated the responsibility of four professional categories: MTRN, RN, doctor and midwife whether they are 'primarily responsible', 'responsible in absence' and 'not responsible', for each of 15 postnatal (PN) tasks which were previously identified from focus group discussions with care providers during the first phase of the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20; descriptive statistics were calculated. Out of the 15 PN tasks, 13 were identified as MTRNs’ primary responsibilities by 71%-93% of respondents. The respondents also considered six (6) tasks out of 15 as primary responsibility of both MTRN and RN, seven (7) tasks as primary responsibility of MTRN, RN and doctor and the remaining two (2) tasks were identified as the primary responsibility of MTRN, RN and midwife. All 15 PN tasks overlapped with other professional categories. Overlapping tasks may create role confusion leading to conflicts among professional categories which affect the quality of care they provide, eventually, threaten the safety of the client. It is recommended that an official job description for each care provider is needed to recognize their own professional boundaries for ensuring safe, quality care delivery in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: overlapping, postnatal, responsibilities, tasks

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1102 The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Equestrian Jumping Tasks

Authors: Nurwina Anuar, Aswad Anuar

Abstract:

Imagery is a popular mental technique used by athletes and coaches to improve learning and performance. It has been widely investigated and beneficial in the sports context. However, the imagery application in equestrian sport has been understudied. Thus, the effectiveness of imagery should encompass the application in the equestrian sport to ensure its application covert all sports. Unlike most sports (e.g., football, badminton, tennis, ski) which are both mental and physical are dependent solely upon human decision and response, equestrian sports involves the interaction of human-horse collaboration to success in the equestrian tasks. This study aims to investigate the effect of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks, motivation and imagery ability. It was hypothesized that the use of PETTLEP imagery intervention will significantly increase in the skill equestrian jumping tasks. It was also hypothesized that riders’ imagery ability and motivation will increase across phases. The participants were skilled riders with less to no imagery experience. A single-subject ABA design was employed. The study was occurred over five week’s period at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Equestrian Park. Imagery ability was measured using the Sport Imagery Assessment Questionnaires (SIAQ), the motivational measured based on the Motivational imagery ability measure for Sport (MIAMS). The effectiveness of the PETTLEP imagery intervention on show jumping tasks were evaluated by the professional equine rider on the observational scale. Results demonstrated the improvement on all equestrian jumping tasks for the most participants from baseline to intervention. Result shows the improvement on imagery ability and participants’ motivations after the PETTLEP imagery intervention. Implication of the present study include underlining the impact of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks. The result extends the previous research on the effectiveness of PETTLEP imagery in the sports context that involves interaction and collaboration between human and horse.

Keywords: PETTLEP imagery, imagery ability, equestrian, equestrian jumping tasks

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1101 What Constitutes Pre-School Mathematics and How It Look Like in the Classroom?

Authors: Chako G. Chako

Abstract:

This study reports on an ongoing research that explores pre-school mathematics. Participants in the study includes three pre-school teachers and their pre-school learners from one school in Gaborone. The school was purposefully selected based on its performance in Botswana’s 2019 national examinations. Specifically, the study is interested on teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in pre-school mathematics tasks. The interest on explanations was informed by the view that suggests that, the mathematics learners get to learn, resides in teachers’ explanations. Recently, Botswana’s basic education has integrated pre-school education into the mainstream public primary school education. This move is part of the government’s drive to elevate Botswana to a knowledge-based-economy. It is believed that provision of pre-school education to all Batswana children will contribute immensely towards a knowledge-based-economy. Since pre-school is now a new phenomenon in our education, there is limited research at this level of education in Botswana. In particular, there is limited knowledge about what and how the teaching is conducted in Pre-Schools in Botswana. Hence, the study seeks to gain insight into what constitutes mathematics in tasks that learners are given, and how concepts are made accessible to Pre-school learners. The research question of interest for this study is stated as: What is the nature Pre-school teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in tasks given to learners. Casting some light into what and how pre-school mathematics tasks are enacted is critical for policy and Pre-school teacher professional development. The sociocultural perspective framed the research. Adler and Rhonda’s (2014) notion of exemplification and explanatory communication are used to analyze tasks given to learners and teachers’ explanations respectively.

Keywords: classroom, explanation, mathematics, pre-school, tasks

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1100 The Effect of Information vs. Reasoning Gap Tasks on the Frequency of Conversational Strategies and Accuracy in Speaking among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

Authors: Hooriya Sadr Dadras, Shiva Seyed Erfani

Abstract:

Speaking skills merit meticulous attention both on the side of the learners and the teachers. In particular, accuracy is a critical component to guarantee the messages to be conveyed through conversation because a wrongful change may adversely alter the content and purpose of the talk. Different types of tasks have served teachers to meet numerous educational objectives. Besides, negotiation of meaning and the use of different strategies have been areas of concern in socio-cultural theories of SLA. Negotiation of meaning is among the conversational processes which have a crucial role in facilitating the understanding and expression of meaning in a given second language. Conversational strategies are used during interaction when there is a breakdown in communication that leads to the interlocutor attempting to remedy the gap through talk. Therefore, this study was an attempt to investigate if there was any significant difference between the effect of reasoning gap tasks and information gap tasks on the frequency of conversational strategies used in negotiation of meaning in classrooms on one hand, and on the accuracy in speaking of Iranian intermediate EFL learners on the other. After a pilot study to check the practicality of the treatments, at the outset of the main study, the Preliminary English Test was administered to ensure the homogeneity of 87 out of 107 participants who attended the intact classes of a 15 session term in one control and two experimental groups. Also, speaking sections of PET were used as pretest and posttest to examine their speaking accuracy. The tests were recorded and transcribed to estimate the percentage of the number of the clauses with no grammatical errors in the total produced clauses to measure the speaking accuracy. In all groups, the grammatical points of accuracy were instructed and the use of conversational strategies was practiced. Then, different kinds of reasoning gap tasks (matchmaking, deciding on the course of action, and working out a time table) and information gap tasks (restoring an incomplete chart, spot the differences, arranging sentences into stories, and guessing game) were manipulated in experimental groups during treatment sessions, and the students were required to practice conversational strategies when doing speaking tasks. The conversations throughout the terms were recorded and transcribed to count the frequency of the conversational strategies used in all groups. The results of statistical analysis demonstrated that applying both the reasoning gap tasks and information gap tasks significantly affected the frequency of conversational strategies through negotiation. In the face of the improvements, the reasoning gap tasks had a more significant impact on encouraging the negotiation of meaning and increasing the number of conversational frequencies every session. The findings also indicated both task types could help learners significantly improve their speaking accuracy. Here, applying the reasoning gap tasks was more effective than the information gap tasks in improving the level of learners’ speaking accuracy.

Keywords: accuracy in speaking, conversational strategies, information gap tasks, reasoning gap tasks

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1099 On Developing a Core Guideline for English Language Training Programs in Business Settings

Authors: T. Ito, K. Kawaguchi, R. Ohta

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to provide a guideline to assist globally-minded companies in developing task-based English-language programs for their employees. After conducting an online self-assessment questionnaire comprised of 45 job-related tasks, we analyzed responses received from 3,000 Japanese company employees and developed a checklist that considered three areas: (i) the percentage of those who need to accomplish English-language tasks in their workplace (need for English), (ii) a five-point self-assessment score (task performance level), and (iii) the impact of previous task experience on perceived performance (experience factor). The 45 tasks were graded according to five proficiency levels. Our results helped us to create a core guideline that may assist companies in two ways: first, in helping determine which tasks employees with a certain English proficiency should be able to satisfactorily carry out, and secondly, to quickly prioritize which business-related English skills they would need in future English language programs.

Keywords: business settings, can-do statements, English language training programs, self-assessment, task experience

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1098 Temperature Prediction from Outdoor Images Using Multi-Task Learning

Authors: Seung-Heon Kim

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In this paper, we propose a method to predict the temperature of given landscape images by using multi-task learning. Based on an on hard parameter sharing approach, the multi-task learning consists of source and low frequency temperature estimation tasks. The two tasks share a convolutional neural network-based backbone for extracting features from images. The tasks of estimating the source temperature and the low frequency temperature are performed independently and simultaneously using different labels, and the final temperature is combined into a weighted sum. We show experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of multi-task learning for estimating ambient temperature from outdoor images

Keywords: AMOS dataset, low-frequency filtering, multi-task learning, temperature estimation

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1097 Dynamic Ad-hoc Topologies for Mobile Robot Navigation Based on Non-Uniform Grid Maps

Authors: Peter Sauer, Thomas Hinze, Petra Hofstedt

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To avoid obstacles in the surrounding environment and to navigate to a given target belong to the most important tasks for mobile robots. According to these tasks different data structures are suitable. To avoid near obstacles, occupancy grid maps are an ideal representation of the surroundings. For less fine grained tasks, such as navigating from one room to another in an apartment, pure grid maps are inappropriate. Grid maps are very detailed, calculating paths to navigate between rooms based on grid maps would take too long. Instead, graph-based data structures, so-called topologies, turn out to be a proper choice for such tasks. In this paper we present two methods to dynamically create topologies from grid maps. Both methods are based on non-uniform grid maps. The topologies are generated on-the-fly and can easily be modified to represent changes in the environment. This allows a hybrid approach to control mobile robots, where, depending on the situation and the current task, either the grid map or the generated topology may be used.

Keywords: robot navigation, occupancy grids, topological maps, dynamic map creation

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1096 Efficacy of Task Based Language Teaching in a Second Language Classroom Context

Authors: Wajiha Fatima

Abstract:

Various approaches and methods for second language classroom teaching have been proposed since the nineteenth century. Task Based Language Teaching has been prevailing approach in a second language classroom context. It is an approach which immerses students in a naturalistic setting. Tasks are the core unit of planning and instruction. This paper aims at expounding the concept of Task Based Language Teaching and how it has been evolved. In this study, researcher will highlight the usefulness of TBLT and the role it played as a powerful tool for learning and teaching in a second language setting. The article will reflect the implementation of various tasks based activities as well as the roles played by learners and teachers and the problems faced by them. In the end, researcher will discuss how TBLT can be implemented in second language classroom pedagogy.

Keywords: implementation, second language classroom, tasks, task based language teaching

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1095 Task Scheduling and Resource Allocation in Cloud-based on AHP Method

Authors: Zahra Ahmadi, Fazlollah Adibnia

Abstract:

Scheduling of tasks and the optimal allocation of resources in the cloud are based on the dynamic nature of tasks and the heterogeneity of resources. Applications that are based on the scientific workflow are among the most widely used applications in this field, which are characterized by high processing power and storage capacity. In order to increase their efficiency, it is necessary to plan the tasks properly and select the best virtual machine in the cloud. The goals of the system are effective factors in scheduling tasks and resource selection, which depend on various criteria such as time, cost, current workload and processing power. Multi-criteria decision-making methods are a good choice in this field. In this research, a new method of work planning and resource allocation in a heterogeneous environment based on the modified AHP algorithm is proposed. In this method, the scheduling of input tasks is based on two criteria of execution time and size. Resource allocation is also a combination of the AHP algorithm and the first-input method of the first client. Resource prioritization is done with the criteria of main memory size, processor speed and bandwidth. What is considered in this system to modify the AHP algorithm Linear Max-Min and Linear Max normalization methods are the best choice for the mentioned algorithm, which have a great impact on the ranking. The simulation results show a decrease in the average response time, return time and execution time of input tasks in the proposed method compared to similar methods (basic methods).

Keywords: hierarchical analytical process, work prioritization, normalization, heterogeneous resource allocation, scientific workflow

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1094 Using the Textbook to Promote Thinking Skills in Intermediate School EFL Classrooms in Saudi Arabia: An Analysis of the Tasks and an Exploration of Teachers' and Perceptions

Authors: Nurah Saleh Alfares

Abstract:

An aim of TS in EFL is to help learners to understand how they learn, which could help them in using the target language with other learners in language classrooms, and in their social life. The early researchers have criticised the system of teaching methods in EFL applied in Saudi schools, as they claim that it does not produce students who are highly proficient in English. Some of them suggested that enhancing learners’ TS would help to improve the learners’ proficiency of using the EFL. The textbook in Saudi schools is the central material for teachers to follow in the EFL classroom. Thus, this study is investigating the main issues that could promote TS in Saudi EFL: the textbook and the teachers. The purposes of the study are: to find out the extent to which the tasks in the textbook have the potential to support teachers in promoting TS; to discover insights into the nature of classroom activities that teachers use to encourage TS from the textbook and to explore the teachers’ views on the role of the textbook in promoting TS in the English language. These aims will improve understanding of the connection between the potential of the textbook content and the participants’ theoretical knowledge and their teaching practice. The investigation employed research techniques including the following: (1) analysis of the textbook; (2) questionnaire for EFL teachers; (3) observation for EFL classroom; (4) interviews with EFL teachers. Analysis of the third intermediate grade textbook has been undertaken, and six EFL teachers from five intermediate schools were involved in the study. Data analysis revealed that 36.71 % of the tasks in the textbook could have the potential to promote TS, and 63.29 % of the tasks in the textbook could not have the potential to promote TS. Therefore, the result of the textbook analysis showed that the majority of the tasks do not have the potential to help teachers to promote TS. Although not all teachers of the observed lessons displayed behaviour helpful to promote TS, teachers, who presented potential TS tasks in their lesson encouraged learners’ interaction and students’ engagement more than teachers who presented tasks that did not have the potential to promote TS. Therefore, the result of the teachers’ data showed that having a textbook that has the potential to promote TS is not enough to develop teaching TS in Saudi EFL since teachers’ behaviour could make the task more or less productive.

Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, metacognitive skills, textbook, thinking skills

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1093 The Effect of Head Posture on the Kinematics of the Spine During Lifting and Lowering Tasks

Authors: Mehdi Nematimoez

Abstract:

Head posture is paramount to retaining gaze and balance in many activities; its control is thus important in many activities. However, little information is available about the effects of head movement restriction on other spine segment kinematics and movement patterns during lifting and lowering tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of head movement restriction on relative angles and their derivatives using the stepwise segmentation approach during lifting and lowering tasks. Ten healthy men lifted and lowered a box using two styles (stoop and squat), with two loads (i.e., 10 and 20% of body weight); they performed these tasks with two instructed head postures (1. Flexing the neck to keep contact between chin and chest over the task cycle; 2. No instruction, free head posture). The spine was divided into five segments, tracked by six cluster markers (C7, T3, T6, T9, T12, and L5). Relative angles between spine segments and their derivatives (first and second) were analyzed by a stepwise segmentation approach to consider the effect of each segment on the whole spine. Accordingly, head posture significantly affected the derivatives of the relative angles and manifested latency in spine segments movement, i.e., cephalad-to-caudad or caudad-to-cephalad patterns. The relative angles for C7-T3 and T3-T6 increased over the cycle of all lifting and lowering tasks; nevertheless, in lower segments increased significantly when the spine moved into upright standing. However, these effects were clearer during lifting than lowering. Conclusively, the neck flexion can unevenly increase the flexion angles of spine segments from cervical to lumbar over lifting and lowering tasks; furthermore, stepwise segmentation reveals potential for assessing the segmental contribution in spine ROM and movement patterns.

Keywords: head movement restriction, spine kinematics, lifting, lowering, stepwise segmentation

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1092 The Involvement of Visual and Verbal Representations Within a Quantitative and Qualitative Visual Change Detection Paradigm

Authors: Laura Jenkins, Tim Eschle, Joanne Ciafone, Colin Hamilton

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An original working memory model suggested the separation of visual and verbal systems in working memory architecture, in which only visual working memory components were used during visual working memory tasks. It was later suggested that the visuo spatial sketch pad was the only memory component at use during visual working memory tasks, and components such as the phonological loop were not considered. In more recent years, a contrasting approach has been developed with the use of an executive resource to incorporate both visual and verbal representations in visual working memory paradigms. This was supported using research demonstrating the use of verbal representations and an executive resource in a visual matrix patterns task. The aim of the current research is to investigate the working memory architecture during both a quantitative and a qualitative visual working memory task. A dual task method will be used. Three secondary tasks will be used which are designed to hit specific components within the working memory architecture – Dynamic Visual Noise (visual components), Visual Attention (spatial components) and Verbal Attention (verbal components). A comparison of the visual working memory tasks will be made to discover if verbal representations are at use, as the previous literature suggested. This direct comparison has not been made so far in the literature. Considerations will be made as to whether a domain specific approach should be employed when discussing visual working memory tasks, or whether a more domain general approach could be used instead.

Keywords: semantic organisation, visual memory, change detection

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1091 The Size Effects of Keyboards (Keycaps) on Computer Typing Tasks

Authors: Chih-Chun Lai, Jun-Yu Wang

Abstract:

The keyboard is the most important equipment for computer tasks. However, improper design of keyboard would cause some symptoms like ulnar and/or radial deviations. The research goal of this study was to investigate the optimal size(s) of keycaps to increase efficiency. As shown in the questionnaire pre-study with 49 participants aged from 20 to 44, the most commonly used keyboards were 101-key standard keyboards. Most of the keycap sizes (W × L) were 1.3 × 1.5 cm and 1.5 × 1.5 cm. The fingertip breadths of most participants were 1.2 cm. Therefore, in the main study with 18 participants, a standard keyboard with each set of the 3-sized (1.2 × 1.4 cm, 1.3 × 1.5 cm, and 1.5 × 1.5 cm) keycaps was used to investigate their typing efficiency, respectively. The results revealed that the differences between the operating times for using 1.3 × 1.5 cm and 1.2 × 1.4 cm keycaps were insignificant while operating times for using 1.5 × 1.5 cm keycaps were significantly longer than for using 1.2 × 1.4 cm or 1.3 × 1.5 cm, respectively. As for the typing error rate, there was no significant difference.

Keywords: keyboard, keycap size, typing efficiency, computer tasks

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1090 An Investigation of the Integration of Synchronous Online Tools into Task-Based Language Teaching: The Example of SpeakApps

Authors: Nouf Aljohani

Abstract:

The research project described in this presentation focuses on designing and evaluating oral tasks related to students’ needs and levels to foster communication and negotiation of meaning for a group of female Saudi university students. The significance of the current research project lies in its contribution to determining the usefulness of synchronous technology-mediated interactive group discussion in improving different speaking strategies through using synchronous technology. Also, it discovers how to optimize learning outcomes, expand evaluation for online learning tasks and engaging students’ experience in evaluating synchronous interactive tools and tasks. The researcher used SpeakApps, a synchronous technology, that allows the students to practice oral interaction outside the classroom. Such a course of action was considered necessary due to low English proficiency among Saudi students. According to the author's knowledge, the main factor that causes poor speaking skills is that students do not have sufficient time to communicate outside English language classes. Further, speaking and listening course contents are not well designed to match the Saudi learning context. The methodology included designing speaking tasks to match the educational setting; a CALL framework for designing and evaluating tasks; participant involvement in evaluating these tasks in each online session; and an investigation of the factors that led to the successful implementation of Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) and using SpeakApps. The analysis and data were drawn from the technology acceptance model surveys, a group interview, teachers’ and students’ weekly reflections, and discourse analysis of students’ interactions.

Keywords: CALL evaluation, synchronous technology, speaking skill, task-based language teaching

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1089 Complex Learning Tasks and Their Impact on Cognitive Engagement for Undergraduate Engineering Students

Authors: Anastassis Kozanitis, Diane Leduc, Alain Stockless

Abstract:

This paper presents preliminary results from a two-year funded research program looking to analyze and understand the relationship between high cognitive engagement, higher order cognitive processes employed in situations of complex learning tasks, and the use of active learning pedagogies in engineering undergraduate programs. A mixed method approach was used to gauge student engagement and their cognitive processes when accomplishing complex tasks. Quantitative data collected from the self-report cognitive engagement scale shows that deep learning approach is positively correlated with high levels of complex learning tasks and the level of student engagement, in the context of classroom active learning pedagogies. Qualitative analyses of in depth face-to-face interviews reveal insights into the mechanisms influencing students’ cognitive processes when confronted with open-ended problem resolution. Findings also support evidence that students will adjust their level of cognitive engagement according to the specific didactic environment.

Keywords: cognitive engagement, deep and shallow strategies, engineering programs, higher order cognitive processes

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1088 Improving Students’ Participation in Group Tasks: Case Study of Adama Science and Technology University

Authors: Fiseha M. Guangul, Annissa Muhammed, Aja O. Chikere

Abstract:

Group task is one method to create the conducive environment for the active teaching-learning process. Performing group task with active involvement of students will benefit the students in many ways. However, in most cases all students do not participate actively in the group task, and hence the intended benefits are not acquired. This paper presents the improvements of students’ participation in the group task and learning from the group task by introducing different techniques to enhance students’ participation. For the purpose of this research Carpentry and Joinery II (WT-392) course from Wood Technology Department at Adama Science and Technology University was selected, and five groups were formed. Ten group tasks were prepared and the first five group tasks were distributed to the five groups in the first day without introducing the techniques that are used to enhance participation of students in the group task. On another day, the other five group tasks were distributed to the same groups and various techniques were introduced to enhance students’ participation in the group task. The improvements of students’ learning from the group task after the implementation of the techniques. After implementing the techniques the evaluation showed that significant improvements were obtained in the students’ participation and learning from the group task.

Keywords: group task, students participation, active learning, the evaluation method

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1087 Application of Industrial Ergonomics in Vehicle Service System Design

Authors: Zhao Yu, Zhi-Nan Zhang

Abstract:

More and more interactive devices are used in the transportation service system. Our mobile phones, on-board computers, and Head-Up Displays (HUDs) can all be used as the tools of the in-car service system. People can access smart systems with different terminals such as mobile phones, computers, pads and even their cars and watches. Different forms of terminals bring the different quality of interaction by the various human-computer Interaction modes. The new interactive devices require good ergonomics design at each stage of the whole design process. According to the theory of human factors and ergonomics, this paper compared three types of interactive devices by four driving tasks. Forty-eight drivers were chosen to experience these three interactive devices (mobile phones, on-board computers, and HUDs) by a simulate driving process. The subjects evaluated ergonomics performance and subjective workload after the process. And subjects were encouraged to support suggestions for improving the interactive device. The result shows that different interactive devices have different advantages in driving tasks, especially in non-driving tasks such as information and entertainment fields. Compared with mobile phones and onboard groups, the HUD groups had shorter response times in most tasks. The tasks of slow-up and the emergency braking are less accurate than the performance of a control group, which may because the haptic feedback of these two tasks is harder to distinguish than the visual information. Simulated driving is also helpful in improving the design of in-vehicle interactive devices. The paper summarizes the ergonomics characteristics of three in-vehicle interactive devices. And the research provides a reference for the future design of in-vehicle interactive devices through an ergonomic approach to ensure a good interaction relationship between the driver and the in-vehicle service system.

Keywords: human factors, industrial ergonomics, transportation system, usability, vehicle user interface

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1086 Real-Time Kinetic Analysis of Labor-Intensive Repetitive Tasks Using Depth-Sensing Camera

Authors: Sudip Subedi, Nipesh Pradhananga

Abstract:

The musculoskeletal disorders, also known as MSDs, are common in construction workers. MSDs include lower back injuries, knee injuries, spinal injuries, and joint injuries, among others. Since most construction tasks are still manual, construction workers often need to perform repetitive, labor-intensive tasks. And they need to stay in the same or an awkward posture for an extended time while performing such tasks. It induces significant stress to the joints and spines, increasing the risk of getting into MSDs. Manual monitoring of such tasks is virtually impossible with the handful of safety managers in a construction site. This paper proposes a methodology for performing kinetic analysis of the working postures while performing such tasks in real-time. Skeletal of different workers will be tracked using a depth-sensing camera while performing the task to create training data for identifying the best posture. For this, the kinetic analysis will be performed using a human musculoskeletal model in an open-source software system (OpenSim) to visualize the stress induced by essential joints. The “safe posture” inducing lowest stress on essential joints will be computed for different actions involved in the task. The identified “safe posture” will serve as a basis for real-time monitoring and identification of awkward and unsafe postural behaviors of construction workers. Besides, the temporal simulation will be carried out to find the associated long-term effect of repetitive exposure to such observed postures. This will help to create awareness in workers about potential future health hazards and encourage them to work safely. Furthermore, the collected individual data can then be used to provide need-based personalized training to the construction workers.

Keywords: construction workers’ safety, depth sensing camera, human body kinetics, musculoskeletal disorders, real time monitoring, repetitive labor-intensive tasks

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1085 Collective Movement between Two Lego EV3 Mobile Robots

Authors: Luis Fernando Pinedo-Lomeli, Rosa Martha Lopez-Gutierrez, Jose Antonio Michel-Macarty, Cesar Cruz-Hernandez, Liliana Cardoza-Avendaño, Humberto Cruz-Hernandez

Abstract:

Robots are working in industry and services performing repetitive or dangerous tasks, however, when flexible movement capabilities and complex tasks are required, the use of many robots is needed. Also, productivity can be improved by reducing times to perform tasks. In the last years, a lot of effort has been invested in research and development of collective control of mobile robots. This interest is justified as there are many advantages when two or more robots are collaborating in a particular task. Some examples are: cleaning toxic waste, transportation and manipulation of objects, exploration, and surveillance, search and rescue. In this work a study of collective movements of mobile robots is presented. A solution of collisions avoidance is developed. This solution is levered on a communication implementation that allows coordinate movements in different paths were avoiding obstacles.

Keywords: synchronization, communication, robots, legos

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1084 Task Validity in Neuroimaging Studies: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics

Authors: L. Freeborn

Abstract:

Recent years have seen an increasing number of neuroimaging studies related to language learning as imaging techniques such as fMRI and EEG have become more widely accessible to researchers. By using a variety of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques, these studies have already made considerable progress in terms of our understanding of neural networks and processing related to first and second language acquisition. However, the methodological designs employed in neuroimaging studies to test language learning have been questioned by applied linguists working within the field of second language acquisition (SLA). One of the major criticisms is that tasks designed to measure language learning gains rarely have a communicative function, and seldom assess learners’ ability to use the language in authentic situations. This brings the validity of many neuroimaging tasks into question. The fundamental reason why people learn a language is to communicate, and it is well-known that both first and second language proficiency are developed through meaningful social interaction. With this in mind, the SLA field is in agreement that second language acquisition and proficiency should be measured through learners’ ability to communicate in authentic real-life situations. Whilst authenticity is not always possible to achieve in a classroom environment, the importance of task authenticity should be reflected in the design of language assessments, teaching materials, and curricula. Tasks that bear little relation to how language is used in real-life situations can be considered to lack construct validity. This paper first describes the typical tasks used in neuroimaging studies to measure language gains and proficiency, then analyses to what extent these tasks can validly assess these constructs.

Keywords: neuroimaging studies, research design, second language acquisition, task validity

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1083 Teacher-Scaffolding vs. Peer-Scaffolding in Task-Based ILP Instruction: Effects on EFL Learners’ Metapragmatic Awareness

Authors: Amir Zand-Moghadam, Mahnaz Alizadeh

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of teacher-scaffolding versus peer-scaffolding on EFL learners’ metapragmatic awareness in the paradigm of task-based language teaching (TBLT). To this end, a number of dialogic information-gap tasks requiring two-way interactant relationship were designed for the five speech acts of request, refusal, apology, suggestion, and compliment following Ellis’s (2003) model. Then, 48 intermediate EFL learners were randomly selected, homogenized, and assigned to two groups: 26 participants in the teacher-scaffolding group (Group One) and 22 in the peer-scaffolding group (Group Two). While going through the three phases of pre-task, while-task, and post-task, the participants in the first group completed the designed tasks by the teacher’s interaction, scaffolding, and feedback. On the other hand, the participants in the second group were required to complete the tasks in expert-novice pairs through peer scaffolding in all the three phases of a task-based syllabus. The findings revealed that the participants in the teacher-scaffolding group developed their L2 metapragmatic awareness more than the peer-scaffolding group. Thus, it can be concluded that teacher-scaffolding is more effective than peer scaffolding in developing metapragmatic awareness among EFL learners. It can also be claimed that the use of tasks can be more influential when they are accompanied by teacher-scaffolding. The findings of the present study have implications for language teachers and researchers.

Keywords: ILP, metapragmatic awareness, scaffolding, task-based instruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 486